The Oregon statesman. (Salem, Or.) 1916-1980, April 28, 1927, Page 8, Image 8

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    .q Slogan Pagoo . Arc Youro; Aid In Making Them Helpful to Your Wonderful City and Section
53 "- e eighth CQNSEcuTiyE year ;
THE DAILY STATESMAN dedicates two or more pages each week in the interests of one of the fifty-two to a hundred basic industries of the
Salem district. Letters and articles from people with vision are solicited. This is your page. Help make Salem grow. I
' '
- Thirteen weeks ago it was announced that The Statesman
? would pay $5 a weelc, till further notice, to the high school or
grade school boy or girl in Marion or Polk county who would
submit the best article on the current Slogan subject. The
articles are to be. in the office (or mailed) by noon of Tues
day of the week of the Slogan subject. All articles submitted
tp belong to The Statesman. The editor to judge as to the
best, in deciding who shall receive the $5. Thejdea is to fur
nish an opportunity to make the rising generation acquainted
with the many and great advantages of the district invhich
they are to take active part in the future. They are to be the
leaders as they grow into manhood and womanhood. There
was one contestant the first week, 7 the second, and 5, 7, 11,
3t 5, 3, 8, and 4 respectively the following weeks. There are
nine this week. The $5 goes to Helen Burk ; a surprise prize
to be announced next week goes to Olive Josephine Anderson,
and Valmer Klampe, Dorothy Porter and Naomi Hornschuch
are to each have a ticket to a moving picture show any
moving picture show selected, at the Oregon, Elsinore or
Capitol. There will likely be surprise prizes most weeks.
One other thing. The Statesman wants the photograph of
the first prize winner each weeki If the winner has no photo,
please- go to the Kennel-Ellis studio, 429 Oregon building,
Salem, and have one taken, at the expense of The Statesman.
,Vhen a. few photos are in hand, cuts will be made of the first
prize winners, to be printed in The Statesman; and perhaps
in other papers. The boys and girls will please write on only
one side of the paper. The following are the articles for this
'.week: -,
Editor Statesman :
Grapes are among the oldest of
fruits. We find them frequently
mentioned in the Bible, and most
ancient history makes some ref-
erence to the "vine" as it was
commonly called' then.
There are about 20 species of
wild grapes in America, but only
a few have ever been cultivated.
Xo Dart of the United States is
without some native species, and
many of these are ' valuable in
their wild state. In . the Pacific
coast states some European as
well as native varieties are grown.
The grape is . increased by
v planting the seed, cutting and
laying. '
Seed is used chiefly to obtain
new varieties. Seed saved from
ripe berries is sown in rich soil
and protected by a mulch through
.the winter. "The plants wUl blos
som about the fourth year, but
the seedlings seldom are worth
anything for fruit.
The' Grape Cuttings
, There are three kinds of grape
cuttings; long, and short, hard
. wood and soft wood.
Long hard wood cuttings
should be made in the' fall from
fcarcr, well ripened new wood.
They1 should be about eight inches
long. They send out 'roots best
if cut below a bud, but this is not
necessary. They should, be bur
led in some well drained place
and covered with six inches of soil
and a foot or two ot mulch. When
they" are removed they should be
placed at least seven Incfnes deep
' and two or three' feet apart.
' The wood for short hard wood
cuttings should be cut in the fall
and buried fn a mass' of sand or
paw dust or similar material.. In
: the spring they should be put Into
prepared "boxes. These boxes
should be kept warm and moist.
When they have - a good root
growth they may be transplanted.
, Soft wood cuttings are made
from green wood taken off while
the plant Is growing. This methf
od Is used only when wood is val
uable.. Plants grown in this way
are apt to be slow to start and
weak.- v
: Layering is the simplest, surest
and easiest " method.. About a
foot of. cane is buried in 'the
ground where it rots and forms
. a sev plant- . . -
.'. Needs San an Air
; Vineyards do best located on a
sunny .southern slope , because ot
' the,' warmth and free circulation
of air afforded. Before planting
the ground should' be thoroughly
drained and harrowed. .
. i After the . vines are planted
. they should be well ; cultivated.
Some hoed crop that' .will not
shade them may be put in be
tween the rows for the rirst two
years after that' the "grapes need
all the room. From now on cul
tivation should consist of a shal
low plowing early each spring and
summer. . .
. I Pruning and- Thinning
In pruning you should remem-
ber that old wood ; nerer bears
Trait again; that wood formed
one season bears fruit the nex
if all the new wood is kept on
there will be more fruit than can
be properly nourished and it will
be imperfect; that the yield will
be much increased if about nine
tenths of the new wood is cut
Grapes must also be trained.
There are several different meth
ods, any one of which is satisfac
tory. Uses of Grapes
One of the most important of
grape products is the dried fruit,
raisins. Certain varieties are
grown for this as well as for wine.
Also grapes in their raw state are'
a delicious and- wholesome food
and we have grape sugar, grape
vinegar, grape jelly, grape juice
and "grape gum." There is, too,
a grape cure for some diseases,
wjich consists of feeding the pa
tient on grapes. This is. more
common, however, in' foreign
countries than here.
- Helen Burk.
Salem, Or., April 26. 1927. 10A.
Editor Statesman:
The grape is a very old plant.
It is now one of the most impor
tant food fruits raised. They
have a different variety here than
in Europe. The variety which is
grown tfere seems to be heartier.
' The grape is a climbing plant,
with large three-lobed leaves, and
clings, by means of tendrils, to
every available support. The
moat common culture of the grape
is by taking cuttings or layers
from established vines. Cuttings
are usually taken from the winter
trimmings of the vine and are
planted in the early spring in well
watered and fertilized ground.
When the cuttings have reached
the -"age of two years they are
transplanted to the vineyard or
whereever they, are to remain
permanently. Layers are taken
by bending a shoot of a growing
vine down to the ground and cov
ering two or three joints or
"eyes" with earth. Roots then
sprout downward and ahoot up
ward from each eye. These can
be separated from the buried
branch and transplanted. Few, if
any plants require less care than
grape vine, but on the other
hand none respond more -readily
and bountifully to good treatment.
Care, must be taken to prevent
the young vine from overburden
ing itself for it It bears too heav
ily at first it is apt to be 1 per
manently weakened. The ' first
season 'after transplanting the
vine should not bear - any truit;
from three to six clusters the
second; the third year about ten
pounds; and the fourth double
that. Twenty pounds per vine is
considered the average. ;
The preces of grapes vary" ac
cording to ' quality, i variety, sea
son, etc. -." v
- To have good grapes the grow
er must be sura that the grapes
are .grown on shoots of that year.
At the; beginning of. every winter
all branches and shoots must be
cut back to form two to five 'bads.
. Enemies of Grape ' -i
The most dangerous enemy . of
Dates of Slogans in Daily Statesman
(In Weekly Statesman)
(With a few possible change)
Loganberries, October 7, 1920
Prunes, October 14
.Dairying, October 21
Flax, October 28
Filberts, November 4
Walnuts, November 11
Strawberries. November 18
Apples, November 25
Raspberries, December 9
Hint, December 9
Beans, Etc, December 10
Blackberries, December 23
Cherries, December SO
Pears, January 6, 1927
Gooseberries, January It
Corn, January 20
Celery, January 27
Spinach, Etc, FeDmary 8
Onions, Etc, February lO
Potatoes, Etc, February 17.
Bees, February 24
Poultry and Pet Stock, Mar. 8
City Beautiful, Etc, March 10
Great Cows, March 17
Paved Highways, March 24
Head. Lettuce, March 81
Silos, Etc., April 7
Legumes, April 14
-Asparagus, Etc, April 21
Grapes. Etc, April 28
DID YOU KNOW that in the Salem district grapes of
the Concord (American) grape family can be grown to
perfection in immense quantities; that we have tens of
thousands of acres of cheap lands suitable for grape
growing; that Salem ought to be the Westfield of Ore
gon, and the Salem district the Chautauqua grape belt
of the Pacific Coast; that Salem ought to have great
jelly and jam plants, using an immense annual tonnage
of grapes; that there is and will be money in grape
growing, and a very great industry in this line is within
the grasp of Salem and surrounding country, and that
there is now more interest here than ever before in the
the vine is the animal parasite
called phyloxera, whose attacks
cause great j destruction among
vineyards in Europe!. Most of the
American varieties seem able to
resist it. The two most common
diseases of grapes grown in the
United States are downy mildew
and black rot.
The downy mildew is caused
by a fungus growth and appears
on the leaves and fruit in the
form of purplish stains, the atain
ed parts quickly rotting and af
fecting the whole vine. Black rot
attacks the 'leaves, dark brown
stains appearing as the first sign.
From the leaves the disease
spreads to the fruit. It then
turns black, withers and dies. For
these and all similar diseases the
best prevention is thorough spray
ing or the vine with Bordeaux
Grapes in the Willamette val
ley are not raised to as great an
extent as the climate and soil
warrant. Grapes are one of the
most used foods because they can
be fixed in so many different ways
and contain many food properties
the body needs. -
-Olive Josephine Anderson.
865 Marion St., Salem. Or., April
26, 1927. sAge 14.
Editor Statesman: ,
The grape is a perennial, de
ciduous woody climbing plant of
the vine family. It clings to Its
support by strong, persistent ten
drils, while the fruit stalks are
borne on wood of the present sea
son's growth. The flowers are
small, greenish white, and fra
grant. The fruit is round or
oval berry, two celled and four
seeded, which varies in size from
about one fourth of an Inch to an
Inch in diameter. The color of
the grape is entirely in the outer
skin, which is astringent arid in
digestible, but the pulp, is wjioler
some, nutritious and gently Iaxk
tive. 1 Vi-iVt , :-.
Grapes are grown in the most
diverse localities, but those re-
Hunt's Quality Fruits
Hunt brothers Padtfns;
. : Company,
Canned Fruits n4
Vegetables) -.
. .- lfaln Offlcet' r' , :
a Pin Street, Baa Eranciaco
' CsUttantia . r
California nayward. Baa Josa,
Los Gatos, Exeter
Oregon Salem, llcHlnnvtlle,
: Albany - .
Washington PuyaUup. edmnsr
Drug Garden, May 8
Sugar, Beets, Sorghum, Etc,
May 13, 1927
Watr Powers, May 20
Mining, June 8
Land, Irrigation, Etc, June lO
Floriculture, Jose 17
Hops, Cabbage, Etc., June 24
Wholesaling and Jobbing,
July 1 ,
Cucumbers, Etc, July 8
Goats, July 22
Schools, Etc, July 29
Hnec-p, Aug. 5
Seeds, August 12
National Advertising, Aug. 10
Livestock, August 26
Grain and Grain Products,
September 2
Manufacturing, September 9
Automotive Industries, Sept. lO
Woodworking, Etc., Sept. 23
Paper Mills, September 30
(Back copies of the Thurs
day edition ot The Daily Ore
gon Statesman are on hand.
They are for sale at 10 cents
each, mailed to any address.
Current copies 5 cents.)
gions where water moderates the
climate and prevents, early frosts
are especially suited for commer
cial purposes. With proper care,
grapes grow in soil varying from
gravelly sand to a stiff heavy clay.
According to an early notion, de
rived probably from the vine-clad
slopes of the Rhine, the vine re
quired a precipitous ' hillside,
where the roots of one row of
plants were exposed to the sun's
rays over the top of the next low
er level; but here again experi
ence has shown that level land is
quite as advantageous for growth
if the rows be far enough apart.
Level land is greatly to the ad
vantage of the grape grower. The
soil should be light and not too
rich in nitrogen, as its presence
tends to increase the woodlness
of the stem rather than the juci
ness of the fruit.
Starting the Vineyard
The cuttings, taken during the
dormant period from the ripe
wood of the past season's growth,
are heeled in until the following
spring, when they- are. set in
nursery rows. One year later the
young plants are ready for plant
ing. The first year the land is
given clear culture, and the sec
ond year the trellises or supports
are partially constructed and the
new growth tied up out Qf the
way of cultivation. The third
year the .trellises are completed,
some bearing wood left, and each
vine may be allowed to bear a few
clusters of fruit. Pruning - the
vine is based upon the principle
that the fruit is borne upon wood
of the present season's growth. A
vine should bear only a limited
number of clusters (from 30 to
60) and the bearing wood should
be kept near the original trunk.
The wood of the grape is ex
tremely hard and is sometimes
used In the manufacture of furni
ture. The delicious fruit of the
vine has become indispensable as
one o the leading gum flavors.
Besides the manufacture of rais
ins, and . the" use of grapes : for
desert purposes, unfermented
grape juice is a valuable and popi
O a fc I a n d
Sales and Service
Ulzh. Street at Trad,
ular product. Raisins are an es
sential item in the diet, supplying
needed iron and vitamines.
The downy and powdery mil
dew and the black and bitter rot
are probably the ' most serious
general grape diseases. The best
preventative measure for the rot
is spraying with the Bordeaux
mixture, while for the mildew,
sulphur is perhaps the best rem
edy. Much of the land around Salem
could be utilized to advantage in
the growing, of any of , the varie
ties best suited to this section,
such as the ' Niagara, Concord,
Worden, Tokay or Brighton. The
only disadvantage which I can see
is the probability of early frosts,
,but even then there are places to
which this disadvantage does not
extend. A grape arbor is not
only a nseful, but ab attractive
addition to any home;.
Valmejf Klampe.
Salem, Or.. Rt. 9, April 3i, 1927.
Parrish, 9A; j Age jI4. ,
Editor Statesman:
Our American grapes, that is
the one that-we raise here in the
west and most of the east are a
distinct species from the Euro
pean grape. 'They have a differ
ent growth habit and, therefore,
they must be pruned in a manner
quite different from the manner
in which the European grapes are
As for training, the fact that
there is a wide diversity of opin
ion among the very best grape
growers relative to j the advant
ages o different, systems of train
ing, is good proof that many sys
tems have merits; that no one
system ig better thaq another for
all purposes. The most important
factor In determining the merits
of a system in training, as well
as pruning is the nature of the
vine. That is. its vigor. Its hab
it of growth, the normal size, the
relative size and abundance of
leaves, the season and character
of fruit.-the climatej the purpose
for which the fruit j is grown,
whether it is for table grapes or
for making grape juice, and so
on. Hard and fast rules for the
training of. the vine cannot be
laid down. J
There is one thing that should
be emphasized. The; pruning and
the training of grapes are two
distinct operations. The pruning
simply refers to thei removal of
branches and canes j In order to
insure better and larger fruit on
the remaining canes. Training of
the vine has reference to the plac
ing of, the differentj parts of the
vine which are allowed to remain.
Of course, a different method of
training will require a somewhat
different style of pruning, but, as
a matter of fact, the pruning is
modified only to the, extent neces
sary to adapt it to, the external
shape and size of the vine, and
this modification of the pruning
does not in reality affect the prin-
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268 North Cottage
Telephone 400
Kmp Twv Vooay la
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ciple on which the pruning rests.
Pruning is necessary, and as a
matter of fact, it is the one pri
mary necessity with the American
grapes. Training Is a matter of
convenience, and there are Just
about as many methods as there
are ideas and opinions among the
different grape growers.
Let us get it well fixed in our
minds, therefore, that the pruning
is the most important factor; that
training is secondary; that any
one of us can train vines in any
way we please, and with pretty
goodTesults. but that we have to
prune according to principles'
found out by long experience in
order to have any real success
with the viieyard.
The fruit of grapes is formed
In a few clusters near the base of
the growing shoots of the current
season, and these shoots spring
from the wood of -last year's
growth. Get that statement clear.
It will bear repetition, because
ail Intelligent pruning of the grape
rests on that fact. To make it
easy to understand without long
explanations we. might as well de
fine certain parts used hereafter.
A shoot, which Is a leafy branch
of the grape-vine which Is grow
ing. A ripened shoot is called a
cane. A division of the trunk
which is two or more years old
is called an arm.
In the growing season each bud
on an old cane which is left on
the grapevine produces a new
shoot which may bear fruit as
well as leaves. At the close of
the season this long ripened shoot
which has now become a cane, has
produced a bud every foot, more
or less, from which new fruit
bearing' shoots are to spring next
year.. Now if all these buds were
allowed to remain the vine would
simply be overwhelmed with fruit
the coming year, and the crop
would be a failure. The branches
would be small, the fruit would
be small. It'woirld be. hard to
pick the fruit, and you wouldn't,
get the quality which brings the
real prices. Therefore, the cane
Ts cut of r until it bears only as
many buds as experience has
taught us that the vine -should
carry. The cane may be cut back
to five or ten buds, and perhaps
some of these buds will be re
moved or rubbed off next spring,
if the young growth seems to be
a little too thick or if the plant is
weak. Each shoot that comes
from these buds will appear two
or more clusters, on an average,
according to the variety. Some
shoots will bear no clusters at all.
AH the way from two to six 'of
the canes, each bearing five to
ten buds, are left on the plant
each spring, the four cane Knif
fen system uses four canes. The
number of clusters the vine can
carry will depend on the variety,
the age of the vine. Its size, the
way it is trained, and of course,
the soil and the way the vineyard
Is cared for. Experience is the
only guide as far as this is con
cerned., A good strong vine of
the .Concord, .which, by the way,
is one of the most prolific varie
ties,' trained by the. ordinary sys4
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M. B. Sanderson .
1144 North Cottage
Manufacturer! of Warm Alp
Furnaces, Fruit Drying Stoves.
Smoke Stacks, Tanks, Steel and
Foundry Work, Welding
a Specialty
17th and Oak Sta Salem, Ore,
We plan and plant (free of
charge) for homes, large or
small, all kinds of ornamental
shrubs, perennials and rockery
plants. Landscape work.
1809 Market St. Phone lOOS-B
' , Say .
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tzfizl City Ccopcrs'jya ;
Grs2uCry . -
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tem, "and set eight to 10 feet from
the next vine, will usually carry
from 30 to 60 clusters. very sat
isfactorily, and the clusters will
weigh a half pound each and up.
For a good vigorous. Concord 12,
or 15 pounds of grapes is con
sired a fair or average cropland
25 pounds a heavy crop. '
Briefly, therefore, the pruning
of the grapevine Is a thinning
process. In the; winter pruning
all the canes of the lasTseason3(
growth are cut j away excepting
two to six, which are left to make
the fruit and wood next year, and
each of the remaining canes Is
headed back to from five 'to 10,
buds. The number of canes that
are left and the length of each
cane depends on the style of
training. . ''
To a beginner this looks like
pretty severe treatment. But the
experienced man bears in mind
that the grape does not bear like
the apple,, pear or peach. It does
not produce' the distinct fruit
buds in the autumn, but buds
which produce ! fruit bearing
shoots the following season.
The cane is cut off an inch or
two beyond the last bud which
it is desired to leave, in order to
avoid injury to the bud from the
drying out of the end of the cane.
One of the simplest consists of
a trunk from the root system
running to tbe top of two wires
stretched on the line of posts. The
lower of these wires is usually
stretched 30 inches above the
ground, the upper one two feet
higher. "Two canes are arranged
on the lower wire, and tied in
place by means of soft wirer raf
fia, or strips of cloth, one cane
running in each direction from
the trunk. In a similar manner
two canes are tied to the upper
wire, if you have left about ten
buds on each cane, this give$ a
total of about 40 buds to the wire,
a number which, for most condi
tions has proved quite satisfac
tory. i .
Dorothy Porter,
Salem, Or., Rt. 9, Box 123. Hazel
Green school, Lake Labish.
Editor Statesman:
The grape is the fruit of a vine
which grows both wild and under
cultivation; It provides food for
the people of nearly all countries.
The grapei has a woody stem
which climbs by attaching itself
by means of tendrils. The bark
is dark . brown. ; The fruit grows
In clusters, is. spherical or oval
and varies in size from a fourth
A Superior Breakfast Pood
A Trial Will Convince Ton
Cereal Co.
M. A. BUTLER, Manager
Telephone 109O-W
4 """ .
What Is It?. .
Phone 192
x b. DtrsusooB
Bale Wicker
IXannlactarinx Go.
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sinUs Battaa fc A QaaUly
raranare .-v..
JUpalrtaa, fcWlnUkina, XTptoUtarta
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Oregon Pulp
i Uannf&ctureri of
Support Oregon Product
Bpecifj "Sato Made Paper for Totar
- Office Stationery,
of an inch to an Inch in diatneter
while in color it may be green'
yellow, red. purple or variegated!
The grape is extensively oultivat!
ed in western Asia, it is grown
r.urupe ana in certaia
portions of the United State.
Grapes are among the princi
pal small fruits of Oregon. They
are mostly grown in the Willam
ette valley though they are grown
in. a few other parts. The main
variety grown in the Tnited
States Is Concord so called he
cause first grown in Concord,
Massachusetts. The fruit is chief
ly used for raisins and for tha
manufacture of wine, though
much of the crop is also put on
the market for table use.
The grape is supposed to be
the oldest cultivated fruit, and it
has been known to civilized na
tions from time Immemorial, it
is supposed that Phoenicians in
troduced the fruit intft Europe,
whence it spread into England. In
California grape culture was be
gun by Spanish missionaries about
1771. '
The most injurious enemy of
the grape vine is an animal para
site called phylloxera.
Naomi Hornsojiuch.
Labish Center School, 7th grade.
12 years old. Rt 9, P.ox &7a
Salem, Or., April 23, 1927,
Editor Statesman:
The grapevine is accounted for
in the Bible. It Is known as far
back as the history of Noah.
It bears fruit for many years.
Some plants are found to be from
500 to 600 years old and stilt
bearing. ;. .
The grape is a perennial, decid
uous, woody, climbing vine. It
clings to fences, etc., by the ten
drils which are found opposite or
alternate with the large angular,
Inh&fV i i V...
leaves. yf
inere are zo different species
of grapes of various "colors, some
green, red; yellow, purple and
a mixture of tolors.
. Vine culture varies greatly in
different countries. Success seem!
to depend upon sunny exposure
congenial soil, control of disease,
(Continued on pace 10.)
- Manufacturers of
Fountain Supplies
Salem Phone 26 Ore.
C. J. PUGH & CO.
Manufacturers of
Canning Machinery; Grad
ers, Trucks, Etc.
550 S. 21st Sk, Salem, Oregon
MaSe your life worth liv
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your patience exhausted,
take a brace, keep smil
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Chiropractor. Remem
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locates nerve .1 pressure.
Chiropractic- Adjust
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Nearocalometer Readings
by Appointment Only
256 North High Street
Phone 87 or 1471-R
& Paper Co