The Oregon statesman. (Salem, Or.) 1916-1980, November 12, 1925, Page 8, Image 8

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The Statesrpaft will publish and
award a prize each week for the
best essay submitted by a grade
school pupil on the industries
scheduled on this page.
Our Leading Varieties Planting and Cultivation Shal
- low Cultivation Best, Because the Roots Go Deep
Fertilizing Problems Are Difficult We Have Only a
. Few Pests Here, and We Can Without Great Difficulty
Control Them
Editor Statesman:
. The strawberrry industry has
teen improving the Jast few years,
and with this improvement comes
a .correspondingly heavy planting
of strawberries. ' With the heavy
planting comes' a group-of people
new to the trawberry industry
and strawberry problems.
' One of the first things a new
' planter thinks of is: What variety
' is the best one to plant ?? This
' question can only be answered in
, ) part by considering several differ-
ent points. The first point is.
t What market is in view for the
HUnting? No -bne berry grown
ln the Willamette-valley is suit
f able for all markets. Certain ones
are best adapted to the cannery
trade, and others to vthe fresh or
barrel trade.
The leading Varieties
For, canning the Etterburg No.
121 is the leading variety, as also
it is the most particular one as
to soil requirements. Unlike most
other berries, it requires a soil
-with considerable clay and rather
heavy subsoil, not the kind of soil
generally ., known as strawberry
soil. Where this berry is well
suited to conditions Jt bears heav
ily, but too often, it produces very
lightly. As the soil shades off
into the very heavy soilsor white
land,' the crop decreases, as is
true on the sandy or hill soils.
Especially on sandy soils does the
liarrv fail vhlla In th hills It has
eenerallv nroven unsuccessful, or I
successful only in a very limited 1
- Other canning berries are grown
somewhat. The Trebla bears well,
but, has the defect, of turning
black if not picked promptly on
ripening. The Wilson is a poor
quality berry and does well only
on the richer, newer lands. This
characteristic is so well known
that it is often called the pioneer
'For the local fresh trade and
the barreled trade the Oregon and
the Marshall are used. These
names and their synonyms are so
hopelessly, mixed up in their ap-
i plication to varieties that one sel
. lom knows what to expect. These
.wberrias tend to favor a light," silt
' loam , of the valley soils "and the
fm-mll soils. There is a common
meeting point With the Etterburg
No., 121 where all do fairly well,
Uut the Oregon and Marshall can
be said to move up tire scale to-
ward the lighter soils, while the
k Kttersburg No. 121 tends toward
the heavier soils.
Planting ami Cultivation
With the question of varieties
and their adaptability to soils and
the markets discussed comes the
planting and cultivation problems.
2 More and ' more on . the average
soils the planting distance is In-
1 creasing. The greater distance
' apart allows a greater moisture
supply, and the possibility of
' maintaining good size of berries
till the end of the season. Greater
distance apar is1 also allowing a
use of horse tools to a greater ex
teat, thus decreasing the cultiva
tion cost.
Planting early will be found of
advantagdu Unless the plants are
set in the spring they can not
.attain a size that will give a good
crop the second year. . Too many
persons are depriving themsilves
of a 'good "crop this second year
and waiting until the third year
. for- their first real heavy crop
l?arly planting alows the plant to
Jstabllsh its root system well and
"""to be able when the dry weather
" comes, to withstand the heavy de-
- rnands forx moisture. Fall plant
i Ing, however, too often entails ex
tra -work in clearing out th
weeds in the spring without much
additional advantage over early
spring planting. -
: Referring to cultivation.
would appear that to often we are
doing' a great . damage- to the
strawberry plants and reducing
crop." "' This-" damage Is done
through the practice ol deep cul
tivation. Now the - main aim of
cultivation lb to preserve moisture
JB the soli throughout the season;
For. this purpose a shallow mulch
is as effective as a deep mulch.
' Roots Go Ik'c-p
Many persons claim that the
roots of the strawberry plant only
extend a few inches from the
crown or the plant. To get exact
data on this point plants of the
Etterburg No. 121 that had borne
their fourth cro,p of fruit were
washed out of the ground on the
experiment station grounds. To
do this a spray outfit was used
with 250 pounds of pressure. This
pressure blew away the small
feeding roots, but the main fib
rous roots were found to extend
from IS to 30 inches from the
erown. How deep they went we
do not know, but some broke off
two feet below the surface of the
Notable in this work was the
fact that the larger number of fib
rous roots were near the surface.
Also where a root was cut off it
did not renew itself. Where a
shovel of the cultivator happened
to cut deep next to the crown. J.he
space beyond in the center of the
row was not filled by new roots
coming from the- crown, but fin
part' from rootlets deeper in the
ground. That meant the remain-r
ing roots had to carry a double
Since, shallow cultivation will
maintain a mulch necessary to
hold moisture, why tear up the I
soil to root prune the plants? It
is actually root pruning that' is
done, for letting the shovels down
to full depth, even in the center
of the rbw, will cut off the main
fibrous roots. The feeding- roots
seem to renew readily, but not
the main roots. Root pruning has
never proved beneficial with any
other kind of frnlt, so why ex
pect it to be of benefit to the
strawberry plant?
The remark has often been
made that the most poorly cared
for patch of strawberries, espe
cially of the Etterburg No. 121.
give the best returns. On the
proper soil good returns have
been had with little or no care.
but greater yields have been se
cured where proper cultivation
was carried on. In the case of
little pr no cultivation the roots
were'hhdisturbed and allowed to
function normally, as contrasted
to those patches well but deeply
cultivated where the roots were
pruned 'off. In these latter
patches the root system simply
was lacking to properly carry on
the functions of the1 plant. Thus
while there are poorly cared for
patches doing unusually well, in
contrast with the deeply cultlvat
ed patches, they do, not do so well
in contrast to the ones where a
shallow mulch is maintained and
the main roots are not disturbed.
Fertilizing Problem Difficult
Another vexing; practice, has
been that of fertilizers. Up to the
present time no satisfactory fer
tilizer program has been worked
out: Only in a few cases are men
using fertilizers with benefit, and
those fertilizers are only suitable
to their own ; particular soil con
dltionsEach soil Is an. individ
ual problem, ., needing separate
study, mnd ?'until that is carried
out ' no satisfactory program can
be advised.
The most economical method of
fertilizing soils is to have the soil
in a high state of 'fertility before
the patch is planted. Put the soil
through a crop rotation, planned
to build up the soil, and you will
have done the best possible -thing
to the soil. In many cases this
will be sufficient though many
sous wm need additional fertiliz
ing according to individual needs.
The use ot a' 'general," all
around fertilizer for strawberries
for all soils is a waste of money,
We Have Few Pests i
Insects are making their in
roads . as the plantings are being
extended. Old patches are acting
as breeding spots for the crown
borer and mlrierfc , andor the
weevils where theytare present.
The borers and miners- are gen-
eralljr distributed, but can be con-
THE DAILY STATESMAN dedicates one full page
each week in the interests of one of the fifty-two basic
industries of the Salem district. Letters and articles
from boosters are solicited. This is your page Help
boost Salem.
trolled by destroying the plants
with the borers as soon as evi
dence of their work is noticed.
Unless that is done the insects
will spread rapidly. In the case
of the weevil, the patch should be
set on clean land and with clean
plants. When the patch has
reached the point where profit
able crops are no longer received
this land should be plowed up
and planted to a series of crops
in a rotation, that will eliminate
the weevil.
Diseases of strawberries are of
minor importance in this state,
so that if we could control the
few insects that we do have, and
cultivate property, with patches
placed on the proper soil, straw
berry production in Oregon will
maintain the same. High level that
it has in the past. 'wifn'this' high
level of production.:! or heavy
production per acre, "comes the
possibility of producing strawber
ries at a profit where other sec
tions are failing.
Corvalli. Ore., Nov. 9. 1925
(Mr. Schuster is associate pro
fessor of pomology of the Oregon
Agricultural college. He is our
highest college authority on the
strawberry industry. Ed.)
Six Acres Etterburgs at West
Woodburrt Bring $2400
With First Crop
The Slogan editor could, with
the proper search, find inairy cases
where strawberries have been a
bonanza crop in the Salem dis
trict, with almost unbelievable
yields. We have had yields of
small patches at the rate of 12
tons ;to the acre. Most growers
made good money this year, and
they should do better next year.
with the higher prices that are
being paid for contracts now.
Mr. Marks of West Woodburn
On land belonging to F. X. Beck,
the Weodburn, merchant, set out
six acres of the Etterburg 121
strawberries last year. This year
Mr. Marks sold the strawberries
from that six acres for $2400.
There were a number of yield?
the past season, in all directions
running up towards and beyond
five tons to the acre.
Starting With Half an Acre,
Arthur Girod and Sons -Have
Editor Statesman:
I have been raising strawberries
for several years, the first patch
I set out in 1916, consisting of a
half acre of Etterburgs. Being
pleased with the returns, I kept
increasing the acreage, and took
in my two sons in partnership, and
this year have 13 acres bearing.
We Intend to plant this fall and
next spring five acres more. We
have three varieties, the Etter
burg". Trebla and the Marshall.
We tried the Johnson two years
ago, but had very poor success.
Last year the Treblas did won
derfully well; a very large yield
of high grade berries. It is a very
fine berry to pick. There is no
trouble to get pickers with the
Trebla, but would not advise any
one to go heavy because of th
risk, when the weather is not fav
orable, as it is a soft berry that
must be picked at times every
other day. and must be handle?
with care. Next to the Treb'a wr
like the Etterburg the best. V
yields also very well on our soil
from two and a half to three and
a half tons per acre. The pric
of the Etterburg Is usually a cent
a pound, or $20 more per ton than
the soft berries.
; But on account of the smallness
of the berries, during the last two
pickings, it is sometimes hard to
dispose of them, and to get them
picked! This yearfor the last two
pickings we paid S cents a pound
stemmed, but even then Jost some.
CoatiaMd oa ? 9)
DID YOU KNOW That the strawberry industry of the
Salem district has become a great industry; that at
present prices there are large profits in strawberry
growing here; that the new acreage is now showing a
steady increase; that in Salem the great bulk of all the
canned strawberries of the northwest are packed; that it
is standard that it does not have to be introduced
that it brings a constant flow of money from long dis
tances; that this district makes Oregon far and away
the premier strawberry state of the Union; and did you
know that the use of irrigation and the employing of
head work are going to make and keep this the world
center of the strawberry industry?
Dates of Slogans in Daily Statesman
(In Twicc-a-Week Statesman Following Day)
(With a few possible changes)
loganberries, October 1
lrunes, Octoler 8
Dairying, October 13
Flax, October 22
Filberts, October 20
Walnuts, November 3
Strawberries, Noveniler 12
Apples, November 19
lliispberries, November H
Mint, December :t
Ciieat Cows, Kt, December 10
lllaekberries, Iecember 17
Cherries, Decemlier i24
I'eais, December !tl
(ooseberties, January 7, 1023
Corn, January 14
Celery, January 21
Spinach, Etc., January 28
(hi ions, Etc., February 4
Potatoes, Etc., February 11
liees, February 1H
Poultry and Pet Stock, "Feb. 23
City lieautiful. Etc., March 4
' lleans. Etc., March 1 1
Paved Highways, March 18
Head Lettuce, March 23
Silos, Etc., ApHI 1
Legumes, April 8 '
Asparagus Etc., April 13
Grapes, Etc., April 22
Drug Garden, April 29
They Are Nearly All Marshall
Growers of California They Are Grown in the Silver
Creek. Falls Section, Which Produces the Best anc
Most Vigorous Plants Produced on About Fifty Acrej
by a Half Dozen Growers
W. H. Weeks and I,. I. Tear
mine began growing stravlerry
plants on a commercial scale in
1910. They began their opera
tions on the "bottom lands at the
northern, edge o Salem, on the
river ioad. In the io years that
have gone by since .thea, thehave
Shipped a good many car loads of
strawberry pfcrntsrand also a good
many millions of asparagus plants,
mostly to ther growers of Cali-fornia-
These men are now the mana
gers here for the H. A. Hyde Co.,
with its home office in Wataon
ville, Cal., and with a eomnfodious
brick building and office and ship
ping facilities at 3090 Portland
road, on the Pacific highway. Ths
company is one of the largest
growers of, dealers in and ship-.
pers of nursery stock and seeds
and appliances on this coast.
: Just now they are taki::g in at
Salem about 20 cars of seed po
tatoes, mostly for the California
trade, and of the Burbank and
Garnet Chili varieties. They have
already moved eight cars of these
potatoes. They grade up to the
United States standard No. 1, uni
form and true to type.
Ten Cars Strawberry Tlants ;
They have already shipped
shipped about 100,000 strawberry
plants, but the main season for
these shipments does not begin till
about Nov. 20th. It lasts up to
the first of May, and during thU
season they expect to ship to Cali
fornia three and a half million
strawberry plants, or about ten car
loads. They go In refrigerator
cars. They go largely to the same
Customers who have been getting
Salem district plants for years, c
which to grow berries for the Cal
ifornia market. ; '
i Marshall From the IIKls
! During the past season the grow
ing of plants for this firm has
been confined, entirely to the Sil
ver Creek Falls district. Five or
Sugar lieets. Sorghum, Etc.,
May O
Water Powers, May 13
Irrigation, May 20
Mining, May 27
I-anl, Irrigation, Etc., June 3
Floriculture, June 10
Hops, Cabbage, Etc., June 17
Wholesaling and Jobbing,
June 2
Cucumbers, Etc., July 1
ilogs, July 8
Gouts, July 13
Schools, Etc., July 22
Sheep, July 29
National Advertising, August 5
Seeds, Etc., August 12
Livestock, August 19
Grain and Grain Products, Aug
ust 20
Manufacturing, September 2
Automotive Industries, Septem
ber 9
Woodworking, Etc., September
Paper Mills, September 23
(Back copies of the Thurs
day edition of The Daily Ore
gon" Statesman are c: nand.
They are fr aie at 10 cents
eacb, mailed to any address.
,current copies 5 cents).
Plants, and They Go to the
six growers of that district arc
under contract to p:row to ."(
acres of strawberry plants, Th
managers of the II. A. Hyde Co
find after years of experimentinf
with, different elevations and sec
tion-and ..types of soil, that ,tht
hill latid' of that district jiroducef
the" most vigorous, most thriftj
and largest sized strawberry
plants; the most Satisfactory in
every way, to the ultimate custom
er. Also, the plants are of an even
grade; uniformly fine.
The plants grown are Marshalls.
almost exclusively. (It is under
stood that these berries are known
to the California trade as the
"Banner" berries.) Some New
Oregon plants are also grown and
some of the Nick Ohmer, Mageon.
Trebla. Etterburg 121. Gold Dol
lar and other plants, on special
The California market is almost
exclusively a fresh and shipping
berry market, for which the Mar
shall (or Banner) berry is well
T1k Largest Yet
The three and a half million
plants for the opening season will
be the most extensive shipments
yet made by this firm, or any firm,
out of Oregon.
The berries go in refrigerator
cars. The H. A. Hyde Co. employ
10 to 15 people constantly in pack
ing. They have a large berry" crate
business here. They also supply
loganberry plant's, and raspberry,
gooseberry, dewberry and other
plants, and 'some fruit trees, be
sides asparagus plants, the last
named for the California tirade
mostly. ; !
They will have their strawberry
plant patches carefully inspected,
and they will certify that they are
free absolutely free from pegts
fC tinned am ag 9)
Mr. Duncan, in an Extensive Trip Throughout the East and
Canada, Found Few Commercial Strawberry Plant
ings, Even in the Garden Districts Near the Big Cities
What of the Future? -
Editor Statesman:
he writer has recently returned
from, an extended trip though the
agricultural and horticultural dis
trict o the niiddlewest and as far
east as New York, and north into
Canada. New York for Concord
grapes. Canada for tobacco, Mich
igan for buckwheat. Iowa for
corn, Kansas for wheat, all stood
prominently. At no place did I
see, even in the garden sections
around the larpe cities, any con
siderable acreage devoted to
Hack in the seventies and eight
ies southern Illinois was probably
.he greatest strawberry center in
the country. The acreage was
ery extensive and production
Miorrmous. At the crest of harvest
ine season 25 carloads were taken
sut of a single station (Cobden)
in one day.
This ha3 all changed. We
Jound this section almost wholly
ievoted to peaches and apples,
jeaches predominating. Another
change that has struck me with
ien greater emphasis, for obvi-
us reasons was the alinost total
ibsence of wheat. When I left
that country in the spring of
188S. Some 22 counties in
'Egypt" (southern Illinois) were
jroducing millions of bushels of
:hoice winter wheat and every
illape had its floring mill, 'and
ome of the larger towns support
ed several, many of larjie capa
ity. This, too, has all changed.
The mills are gone, and the wheat
.ields of yore are only a memory.
For some years before Reaving
outher.n Illinois I was engaged
n the flour mill business. I was
erving as secretary (and had for
tome years) of the Illinois Millers
ssociation, so this change strikes
ne with a touch of tragedy. An
ld miller friend of mine told me
he sad story of his last year with
inly two weeks run. followed by
;elling an expensive and modern
equipped plant for junk. The
ghosts of my early manhood
?eemed to rise out of the debris
ind desolation where. I used to
vork as a iourneyman miller, in
splendid plants of large capacity,
that ran day and night. All gone.
Can you explain the psychology
fOajl this change? Or Is there
and psychology to it.
10 What of the Puture?
We are now. through the lib
eral encouragement of the can
neries, considerable producers of
strawberries acknowledged queens
of the berry' kingdom. .
uhat change will the next de
cad, or so bring to ttis industry,
A Discussion of the Varieties Grown Here The Straw
berry Is of Commercial Importance Above Any Other
Small Fruit in the Salem District The Strawberry
Enemies That We Must Combat
Marion County Fruit Inspector
Van Trump is busy these days,
an done of his major activities is
the inspection of strawberry plan
tations. Mr. Van Trump is al
ways accomodating to the Slogan
editor, in giving what information
and suggestions he can, for the
good of the various fruit indus
tries of this district.' The follow
ing are the high points of his
strawberry interview of yesterday.
aa nearly as the slogan editor
could get from his notes: :
The strawberry is of more com
mercial importance to the Salem
district than any other small fruit.
It is needed to supply the local
and nearby markets with, fresh
berries, and the barreling and
canning demand for, distant mar
Strawberry Varieties
Up to the last season the Etter-
For instance: Salem district has
two counties growing the sacred
myrtle the only place it grows on
this continent. What unique fact
do you know about the district?
Address articles to Slogan Editor,
care Statesman.
in this, Garden of the Gods? Who
tan tell? - : -
Only a few years ago any one
so minded could plant strawber- j
ries in the Willamette valley with!
absolute assurance of production
but of doubtful market possibili
ties. " The plant seemed entirely
free from, pest or disease. Today
it is seriously threatened by an
enemy, .that, like Topsy, was
never born, but just.growed up
in the patch.
So serious has this weevil be
come in some sections that many
prominent growers have given up
and quit. ' Once ' intrenched, con
trol seems to be impossible. It
is claimed by autnorities tnat at
no stage of development" has this
insect any power of locomotion
except to crawl; Under this as
sumption, it would seem easy to
keep-isolated fields clean by rig
idly excluding all plants from in
fected fields or districts. So I
thought and aieted, and every
spring had the inspector go over
my patch leaving me a clean bill
of health, till, well something
went wrong just as we were tailing
up our last harvest and now Van
8ays,,'Tve got 'em."
How do I account for it? I
don t. All -the same it seems toi
employ unknown agencies for mi
gration to new fields. May be
its afinity for shoe leather or it
may delight in a little whirl with
Goodyear- or some of his numer
ous progeny., It may take flight
with the birds! But probably the
greatest source of infection is the
indispensible crates and boxes
given out by the canneries. Can
this enemy be held in check? The
answer bulks large against the
strawberry horizon of the future
in the Willamette valley. Its im
portance challenges the best ef
forts of the best minds, and a
very careful study by the experts
of our experiment station and
college at Corvallis . May not
some plan of bath or possibly
fumigation do ther work in the
setting of new fields? Is it pos
sible to discover infection (if it
exists) in crates or boxes? I am
really an enthusiast on strawberry
culture and have written the fore
going, in no spirit of pessimism.
We shall find a way out, let us
hope. I stick J to the Etterburg
121, and they have .ever been
ready to smile back, when I treat
them right. I have made no new
discoveries since last writing, but
have about come to the conclusion
mac umng tops is a waste of
time and effort, to say the least.
! Saiem. Ore.. Rt 7. Nov7lo7 1925.
uu,s ' '! ano, tne Wilson Were
oiir chief canning varieties. But
uurang tne canning season of
1925 some of "the canneries rele
gated the Wilson to third place,
putting the Trebla ahead of it.
In - a few favored districts, how
ever, the Wilson persists though
mere are practically no new
plantings of this variety.
The Wilson seems to reauire for
Its best production new bench or
hill land., and land of greater fer
tility than the average; It needs a
warm, soil .'. The bottom land Is
often too heavy; ; produces too
much foliage and not enough ber
ries. - Some growers In. the hills
have produced a high as two and
a half tons to the acre. It is a
favorite In. the red bills. It has
been n standard so long in .those
localities that the growers are
disposed to stay with it. The Wil
son makes a very sure crop
around Macleay and Shaw, espe
ciall on land fairly new and fer
tile. The Etterburg is good, but fin
icky about soil. It goes to foliage
on the sandy soils and does not
perform well on. the gravel land.
It does well on a mixture of sand
and loam, though it has not done
well in some parts of the Kaiser
bottom. It never, has been very
successful in the hill section is
not uniform; does not perform
the same any two years in suc
cession. It requires favorable
sunshiny weather when in bloom.
There have been some remark
able yields of Etterburgs. Glen
Bowen on the Silverton road, not
far from Silverton. In 1922 har
vested 300 crates to the acre;. 24
pounds to the cate, or 7200
pound to the crate, or 2700
Dr. Beechler. Sr.. got better
than three and a half tons to the ,
acre from his Treblas one year on
ta IStiil nut I . , . . .
auii uui ucuim luc siaie lair
grounds. Irrigation will often
help with the Etterburg because
it is a late variety the latest of
About the Trebla
The Trebla has been a heavy
bearer for some growers, and
some high cannery authorities are
advising in favor of the Trebla
now. It is the best average pro
ducer of any variety of canning
berries grown here; berries of fair
quality and especially in dry
seasons; not so Rood a quality in
wet seasons. Some growers say
they can make more money off of
Treblas than any other berries.
The New Oregon is the best
home market berry, and for bar
reling. It makes a vigorous plant; -has
plenty of runners and a
strong crown. Mr. Hunt of
Morningside, a Salem suburb, sold
$800 worth of Xew Oregon berries
one year, fom three acres of good
The Marshall berry is good;
very similar to the New Oregon;
a little firmer. It is not as ex
tensively grown here as the Ne
Oregon. It is a good barreling
Some new plantings of Clark's
Seedlings are being made. This Is
a , , j, j
a ngui jjrouueer, um a spienuiu
berry; the firmest of all.
There are some everbearing
berries grown; the Progressives
and others. They kept bearing till
Christmas time some years; are
not of commercial importance.
General Remarks
Strawberries should have good
drainage; good bench or hill land,
or mixed loam and sandy bottom
land. In the latter localities they
are in more -danger from late
Strawberries do not much ex
haust the soil; do not require ex
pensive fertilizers. They are easy
to plant. They can be kept up in
virgin soil for a long time, with
out much expense.
More than enough new acreage
was planted last year, and will be
again the coming year, to take the
place of the old patches plowed uj
in this district, and the straw
berry industry will persist and
grow steadily. The growth in
acreage of the coming year will be
marked probably the greatest ever
experienced here. With favorable
markets and careful keeping away,
of the strawberry enemies, there
will likely be a steady growth of
acreage here.
There is not much to say about
new varieties. The new Johnson
variety, discovered near Chema-
wa, gave much promise, but it
has not performed well the past
season. The same may be said
of the Lang, near Silverton, that
looked fine for a couple of years.
But the quest for new varieties
will not stop, nor should it.
The Strawberry Enemies
The crown borers need to be
watched from the beginning. This
pest may be easily gotten rid of
by cutting the infested hills out
and. burning up the vines.- - This
may be said also of the crown
miner, a very similar pest. nr.
Van Trump knows, no other way.
They both work above the ground.7
The effects of their work are eas
ily seem Go after them In the
beginning keep ahead of them.
Otherwise they will eat up your
vines.. The crown borer has been
active here. In some yards. In
one yard they killed 50 per cent
of the hills.
The strawberry root weevil Is
a. worse pest. He Is here, especial
ly In the Salem gardens. The way
to get rid of this pest is to not let
him" get started. He stays In the
ground like a fish worm;. he lives
(ConUan4 a ptft 9)