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About The Oregon statesman. (Salem, Or.) 1916-1980 | View Entire Issue (June 12, 1924)
THE OHEGON STATESMAN, SAIli; OltEcorl . -
' TT5'TTfC'n a v nrATvrrvr tttxrer ti 'mi
r r..v.--.vrv il V I- .v:.vrv,. ' : ; ' . : -:, ' . " : ' ;. : ', : .. .. - r -1. . . '. . .
Broom handles, mop ban
dies, paper plugs, tent tog
gles, all kinds of hardwood ,
handles, manufactured by
the' . v ' .,
HIGH ST. AT TRADE
dried at 145 to ISO degrees.
Peaches are haired and then sul
fured, either peeled or unpeeled,
15 to 45 minutes and dried at
145 to 150 degrees. s
Pears are halved, then sulfured.
peeled or unpeeled'15 to 25 min
utes and dried 135 to 145 degrees.
Prunes are dipped in lye, then
washed and dried at 150 to 160
degrees. ' : ' ... " ,
Strawberries are sulfured, then
trimmed and soaked in heavy sul
fa r solution, and. dried at 150 to
160 degrees. .
When thoroughly dried and
eocled, al dried products are care
fully sorted and stored either in
Class Jars o rsllp torf ' contain
ers. If the dried product is left
exposed for any length of time,' it
may become infested by wprms
from the Indian meal or other
:.:UST FIGIIT TI1E
- QAi LEAF BEETLE
Lead Arsenate Spray Will
Hold Hordes In Check,
But We-Must Hurry.
Control of the elm leaf beetle,
eqw almost ready to launch a
ieary attack on the elm trees of
twn and country, calls for quick
action, says Don C. Mote of the
O.A.C. experiment station. Spray
'3 with a solution of 3 to 5
nnnds lead arsenate-paste to 50
nllons of water is needed In tho
: t few days..., '. :
The light yellow eggs laid by
" 2 overwintering females are al
: ady on the underside or the
: ires. Many are t ill further
; ag and have hatched into tiny
: How or browning gruba with
' "ck heads, and the results of
' ' ?ir feeding are already apparent
"-e3 grubs mature in 15 to 20
c-y and if they are to be killed
'ore they pupate it must be done
-Ma that time.
Great care is necessary to get
spray on the under side of
1: a leaves, as it is here the grubs
' 3. v
County agents, civic ; hod ies or
f "er organizations that conducted
impaigns in former years are ad
1 ei to prepare at once for the
l ssent campaign.
illi !i It
' SUBJECT IS
"5, CABBAGE H 0TIIEH TIBS
Dates of Slogans
Un Twice-a-Week Statesman Following Day) !
loganberries, October 4,
Prunes, October 11.
Dairying, October 13.
Flax, October 25.
Filberts, November 1.
Walnuts. November 3.
Strawberries, November 15.
Apples, November 22.
Raspberries November, 29.
Hint, December 6.
Great cows, etc., December 13.
Blackberries, December 20.
Cherries, December 27.
Pears, January, 3; 1924.
Gooseberries, January 10.
Corn, January 17.
Celery, January 24.
Spinach,, etc., January 31.
Onions, etc. February 7.
Potatoes," etc., February 14.
Bees, February 21.
Poultry and pet stock Feb. 28.
Goats, March 6. r -Beans,
etc., March 13.
Paved highways, March 20. '
Broccoli, etc., March 27, "
Silos, etc., April 3.
Legumes, April 10.
Asparagus, etc., April 17.
Grapes, etc., April 24.
S BUI lillUS
T COiJTirJUE TO BE THE
DEIIYDBATIOfJ CEfJTER OF THE WORLD
We Must Have Potato Starch and Potato Flour and Dex
trine Factories, in Addition to Fruit and Vegetable
Dehydrating and Drying
One of the Biggest Things in the World in Fruit Con
servation and Preservation '
The Slogan editor! has been for
several years proclaiming Salem as
the dehydration center of the
world. This was because the larg
est -commercial dehydration plant
in the world, as applied to numer
ous patented! processes making a
superior article -foV the general
markets, is located here, the prop
erty of the King's Food Products
company. ,; -. "V
This company employed ' more
than a thousand people at pne time
in 1922, in its Salem plant, and
nearly that l many during the
whole season, running from early
spring till the Christmas holidays;
and Us1 plans contemplated the em
ployment here of at least 2500
people each year.
The Salem plant of this com
pany was operated on a large scale
last year, though hot turning out
the volume of the year before.
This company has been in finan
cial difficulties of late, and their
Salem plant has not yet ; opened
for the 11924 season. The plant
is here, however, in splendid con
dition, and having a great capacity
and a great opportunity for useful
ness and profits. And efforts are
now being made to place the plant
on an operating basis, with sub
stantial - backing. Every one
with. a stake of any kind in Salem
and the Salem district wishes that
these efforts may result in a suc
cessful consummation. ;
Anyway, the plant is here a
property that has cost several hun
dred thousand dollars; at plant
that takes a most important place
in the commercial prosperity and
advancement of this city and the
surrounding country; and surely It
will remain intact . and become
what it was designed to be one
of the most important helps we
have In marketing our fruits and
vegetables. 1 t
There Are Many Others
But dehydration in the Salem
district is not confined to the
King's plant.j We have the larg-
A IJst of Tour Lumber
Our Trices are Right
840 So. 12th Near S.P. Depot
A. Il Kclsay, Mgr.
in Daily Statesman
Drug garden, May 1.
Sugar beets, sorghum, etc..
May 8. - '
Water powers May 15,
Irrigation, May 22.
Mining, May 29. .v
Land, irrigation, etc., June 5.
Dehydration, June 12. ....
Hops, cabbage, etc, June 19.
Wholesaling and jobbing,
Cucumbers, etc., July 3,
Hogs, July 10.
City beautiful, etc., July 17. i
Schools, etc., July 24.
Sheep July 31.
National advertising, Aug. 7.
Seeds, etc., August 14. .
Livestock, August 21.
Automotive industry, Aug. 28.
Grain and grain products, Sep
tember 4. . . i
Manufacturing, September 11.
Woodworking, etc., Sept. 18.
Paper mills, etc., Sept. 25.
' (Back copies of the Thursday
editions of the Daily Oregon
Statesman are on hand. They are
for sale at 10 cents each, mailed
to any address. Current copies,
; i U. S. Inspected
est prune dryer, on jthe coast' In
vset Salem. . We have, a number
of other commercial fruit dryers
And ;praetically every prune grow
er has a dehydration Tplant in his
prune dryer. There are hundreds
of them in this district. ; Some of
these are thoroughly up to date,
using fans propelled by power for
circulating the air; sometntng af
ter the style, of modem dehydra
tion as practiced by the Kings
people under their patented meth
ods. : ;'
; .There Is an article In this issue
from the expert in this line at the
Oregon Agricultural college, that
takes in the processes and meth
ods beginning with the small fam
ily . plant. There must be more
dehydration here. This is one of
the methods of food preservation
and conservation and marketing
that needs continual expansion;
that must have such expansion, in
order to develop our great fruit
and vegetable growing industries
as -they must be developed, for a
well rounded and solid prosperity.
I'otato Starch Factories, Too ,
And we must have potato starch
factories,, too; and factories mak
ing potato flour and dextrine. The
manufacturing of potato flour and
starch is a form of dehydration.
That the manufacturing of potato
starch and other articles would be
a practical and profitable line
here, and that ,l might be extend
ed almost indefinitely, is Veil il
lustrated by the plant at Gresham,
Multnomah county, near Portland,
concerning which the Slogan editor
recently wrote as'folows: f
A Potato Starch Factory
"Down at Gresham there is a
potato starch factory that is head
ed towards becoming a great In
stitution; a profitable thing for
its owners and a great help to our
potato growers. The factory Is
owned by a close corporation;
three men wao "oelieve In their
product and understand how i to
make I. and have no stock for
sale. '. They are building up their
factory from' the sales of their pro
ducts, selling1 mainly to the big
bakeries of Portland, for which
trade they hare not so far been
able to make enough starch. The
concern also makes a lot of by
products of starch, including even
the finest kind of face powder ;
"Taking the lowly spud and
turning it Into an element that is
fit for use In enhancing the beauty
of the finest lady in all our fair
land of fair ladles. 3 ; .
"The Statesman has referred to
this potato factory before, and ex
pects to refer to It with more par
ticulars as to its processes in the
near future.; - !
"Prof. 1. S. Ellerman, the mov
ing spirit of the Gresham factory,
received ' his early education ; in
chemistry and the industries con
nected with starch manufacturing
in Europe, and part of his mach
inery used . here in Oregon - was
made In Germany, In which coun
try ; potatoes form a very large
part of their Industrial systems,
from the making -of alcohol for the
running of stationary ; engines to
the turning out of a largo' num
ber of the finer things of com
merce used -a.il over the world -
NOW FOR PQTATO STARCH
Salem ought to- hav6; a potato starch
Then many potato starch factories
Arid potato flour arid dextrine factories-:
. ' -
Or factories, large and small, making all
the commercial products that are founded
on the starch in the potato, v
Our potatoes are right ' Y ?
This is potentially the greatest potato
country on earth - 4 1
The potato starch and flour and dex
trine factories wilL use the culls V
Will turn a waste into a valuable pro
duct. ; 'V ; ':.
For these factories, potatoes must be
grown on land without irrigation.
We have the land ; great stretches of it.
. Let's have the factories.
CASCADE BRAND HAMS,
"But the particular thing, that
the writer wishes. to get oyer to
the reader is the fact that Salem
might be made a potato flour and
starch and dextrine center.
"Because we have here in the
Salem district a large acreage of
land on which good potato starch
potatoes . may be raised. This is
true of all the beaverdam land oji
which we produce the greatest
rpat of our potato tonnage; 350 to
400 car loads annually
"And most of the sandy land of
the Santiam bottoms. , . '.
"Potatoes grown on irrigated
land are not good for starch.
"Potato starch is protected by
duty of a cent and three quarters
a pound; other starches by only
a cent a pound. And dextrine,
made from potato starch or flou(r,
has a protective duty of two .and
a quarter cents a pound, and po
tato flour two and a . half cent a a
pound. - '
"Potato flour has a very large
sale in European countries, and
FACTS H H T I N
STANDPOINT, GT ONE WHO HUB
Food Preservation Discussed by a. Man Who Has Made
a Life Study of the Problems That are Involved De
hydration Saves in Transportation Charges; in Mak
ing for Minimum Storage Space; in Saying Products
That Would Otherwise Be Wasted
Fruits and vegetables of all
kinds are susceptible to decay, fo
mentation and moulding. This is,
caused by the fact that they con
tain sugars and moisture; ideal
material for all kinds bf bacteria
and fermentation. For this rea
son it wa3 long ago found neces
sary to adopt some means of pre
serving them when theywere to
be kept for food, for any Teat
length of time.
There are various ways of ac
complishing this, the main ones
being: Cold storage, which retards
the growth of - bacterial "action;
preserving chemicals of different
kinds, which either kill or retard
bacteria growth; canning, which
makes use of heat to kill all bae
teria present in the product and
then sealing to keep out others
present in the air; Dehydration,
which takes away one of the vital
constituents necessary to bacterial
Cold StorageBecause It 'sim
ply retards the growth of bacteria
does not fill the great need. Food
products when taken from cold
storage are more susceptible to
the action of bacteria than they,
Preserving Chemicals Without
exception, exert detrimental" and
physiological action on the person
eating the preserved foods. " ; i;.
Canning Produces chemical
changes within the food, as the
heat used cooks same and the pro
duct is no longer like the fresh
Dehydration Is Best ,
Dehydration .When properly
carried on is the only method of
food preservation that does not
chemically change the product and
will allow same to be left in the
open air without deterioration.-
Ferments, Moulds and Becterla
Must have water in order to
produce the chemical changes that
make food unfit for use. Once
the water is removed food can be
kept indefinitely with tho assur
ance that it will not spoil. '
Dehydration then, acts -trs'
: J, . .
BACON AND LARD
a great market for this. flour could
be built up, in this country, with
the demands of recent immigrants
for a foundatipn.
"Here is., a real field for the
building, up here in Salem of an
Immense industry; one interfering
in, no way-with any other indus
try, and helping them all. Why
not? Needed, a man with , vision.
The?. capital requirements would
not be i very, great. - The potato
starch and dextrine, and flour, in
dustry could be. made profitable
from .the first; and it could be
made to grow frbm its own prof
its; from the inside out'.
' Plans Being Made
Plans have already been made
looking to, the building of potato
starch ' factories here In Salem.
This matter jnust not be allowed
to drop or lag. ,
T It has Immense promise more
than most of us have dreamed of.
; "The "reader is referred , to the
article, of Prof. Ellerman in this
issue.' He is the man at the 'head
of. the factory at Gresham. . V,
1 FROM A SCIENTIFIC
I food preservative; that Is Its main
object, but incidentally it has sev
eral '.. other advantages. Among
these may be mentioned:
' Saving in transportation charg
es. Minimum storage space.
Utilization of under-sized pro
ducts which would otherwise be
It may appear to be a simple
matter' to remove water from a
product, but such is not the case.
The drying of any material has its
many complex difficulties, but es
pecially is this true in removing
water from fruits and vegetables.
In order to successfully accom
plish the desired results a knowl
edge of the. product is necessary.
Structure of Fruits and Vegetables
. All fruits and vegetables are
made up of tiny compartments
called cells. These differ merely
in detail 'and structure according
to their function, but they are al
ways compartments of some sort.
The.. wall of these compartments
are composed of a firm, elastic,
transparent . substance called cellulose,.-The
function -of the cell
wall is, to give mechanical support
to the .contents of the cell; It acts
then as a skeleton for the cell.
These cell .walls allow ready pas
sage .of ..water, but where that
would, b dangerous, as at the sur
face, the wall is made water proof I
by the formation all through its
texture of a water repelling sub
stance called cutin or subrin. Such
Is the case In the epidermis which
forms Ihe skin of all fruits and
The' cells themselves are filled
with ' water, sugars, starch, vege
tables and fruit acids, together
with'7 numerous other chemical
constituents which go to make up
the fruit or vegetables. Of these
constituents water Is by far the
greater; cells containing from 75
to 95 percent depending on the
fruit or vegetable.
What Dehydration Means
It is the aim of Dehydration to
removo'thls water from tho cells
260 North High Street.
DID YOU KNOW that Salem is the 3eTiydration center of
the world ; that dehydration isibe'biggesj and most im
portant thing in the world in food conservation and preser
vation; that this district has a. peculiar advantage in the
production of seed potatoes; that our soil and climate re
vitalize potatoes even from seed ; that has frun out" in
other sections; that, this will make 6urs a 'great potato
country, and that this must lead to tKe building here of.
many and great factories to manufacture potato starch,
potato flour and dextrine; that the knoweldge and exper
ience are now. here in. Oregon to do this; one factory, now
here; that these factories -will use the' cull potatoes; that
they will turn. to great profit a product otherwise largely
waste; that there is scarcely any limit to the possibilities
in this field?
without in any way 'disturbing the
chemical , compound.! This also
must be accomplished without dis
raptfpg'jhe cell walls, for if these
are i qrolen they no longer, have
the "power- to reabsorb- moisture
and tjMis come back to their orig
lnarsnaTe.r, There must; be some
free moisture however left within
the cells, or the .walls would
shrink so closely together that
they would sot separate again
when the product was refreshed.
Then, again,. If all moisture were
removed there would be chemical
changes -within the cell, which Is
to be avoided. With this knowl
edge we are In a position to deter
mine the amount of moisture to
leave in the product. This has
been worked out fairly definitely
and it is found that from 8 to 10
per cent should remain in vege
tables and from 10 to 22 per cent
in fruits. .
What It Does Not Mean v
' Dehydration,- then, it -is to be
emphasized, does not mean desic
cation r does not involve thef re
moval "of " every vestige of water
until the residue Is truly dry,4n
the chemical sense. The moisture
left is sufficient to- maintain, the
characteristic structure so that af
ter soaking and cooking the dried
fruit or vegetable looks and tastes
like the fresh product. However,
sufficient water is removed to pre
vent a base for bacterial growth.
IJoyr Is Is Done .
There are several ways that wa
ter can be removed from food pro
ducts, but the most efficient, 'on a
commercial scale, is by making use
of warm air In motion. Warm
dry air has a great affinity for the
absorption of moisture as evidenc
ed by the rapid drying of the
sprinkled streets on a summer
day. This power is greatly In
creased if the air Is kept in mo
tion, for then the moisture laden
air in contact with the material Is
carried away. The air is heated
in orded to reduce the per cent of
humidity. To illustrate this: Air
100 per cent humidity and 70 de
grees F., may be heated to 170 de
grees and its humidity will be re
duced 'below 9 per cent. This air
will be' very much more dried than
is ever found in nature and will
absorb--moisture very rapidly in
deed. The warmer the air the more
moisture it can carry. Or, again,
if saturated air at .70 degrees, F.,
has its temperature increased only
10 degrees to 80 degreesF., it will
then be able to absorb twice the
weight cf water it held before. Its
humidity will be less than '50, per
cent and it will be as dry as air on
a sunshiny summer day.
However, If air at too high a
temperature is used for removing
the moisture from fruits and eg
tables the product would be ruin
ed; sugars within the cells will
carmelize; the essential oils and
flavor will volatilize and be lost,
also there will be other harmful
It is found that temperatures
P I P E
Road,, well, sewer, and
drain. pipe in stock at all
times. - Get your pipe
where ;you can see how
good it is made.
An Independent Organization
1J05 North Front, Salem
on the Slogan
above 11 degrees ! F,f. would be
harmful; In drying-fruits; .and veg
etables, but that a temperature of
; from 140 to 155 degrees F. should
be ' maintained. 'Approximately
1000 halt units are required for
the evaporation of each pound of
water contained in' the product;
a Second; unknown Quantity is re
quired to overcome the attraction
between the product and the wa
ter; this attraction is known as
In the' foperation of drying! ob
jects in the alp thetime required
increases rapidly as the' air is
more nearly "-saturated and the
products to be dried? are, of course,
never any drier than the air which
was last in contact with 'them and
which is therefore, approaching its
saturation point on account of the
added moisture from the product.
Moreover, the evaporation of the
moisture in the product produces
a lowering of the temperature and
this in turn lowers the carrying
power . of the air. a definite
amount.. : . , . ' "
As to determination of the heat
and volume of air required; fle
maximum air velocity permissible
.without. doing, injury, to the sttuc.
ture of the material; the.relative
humldiy; permissible to avoid fer
mentation, discoloration, ' case
hardening, etc., this knowledge
must be attained by continuous
experimenting . and experience.
Theoretical Ideal Drying Condi
tions . '.
'.' The " following- ideals may prob
ably never be reached in practice,
but by approaching them we -will
have made': a' big' step in the new
science of dehydration. . '
" The first object is to supply the
required heat to r evaporate the
moisture. Second: Supplying this
heat and producing evaporation
under such conditions as will leave
the product in the best possible
condition when dry. To do" this
Aj licensed Lady Embalmer
to care ' for women and
rjchlldren.jte. a necessity in
all funeral homes. We are
the only. ones furnishing
. Funeral Home
' '770 diemekbta St. ,
Phono- 724 Sa'm, Oregon .:
3alem:mu3t have many and great pstalo
jtarch, flour and dextrine factories.
Manuals, School Helps
and Supplies . ; C
Your order will be given 1
-; . :.- '
,; The J. J. Kraps ;
. .... .Kent S. Kraps, Mgr. ;
Ice Cream Co.
P.' GREGORY, i:r.
-240; South Commercial t.
-7 r SALE?.! .
Bonesteel Llotcr Co.
181 S. Oom'l St. rhone 423
several factors; namely, tempera
ture, relative humidity, circulati: i
and rate of drying must be con
trolled' and correlated. The vari-
CContlnued on pare 10)
Auto Electric Work
It. . D. BARTON
171 S. Commercial t't.
' " SALE5I, OHEG0:T ,
Complete Hostelry. i n
Oregon Out of Portia.:' J
' Dried Fruit Packers J
21 South Iii-h St.
Always in the market fcr
dried fruits of all ;kind3
- ; i
-Now-Is the Tims ! !
To look after your fceat
'.i ing plant and see that it is
In good orcer, or if you are
" going to need a new one.
. t This is the appropriate
' time to buy it L . ' ,
Theo M. Ban-
. -.1 164. S. Com'l St. ' !
farrully". Grown C -1 rf u !
Kclec t etl Ca re fully l a k
Will (Jive Satisfaction' t o tL
- ' ,ri.ii;ter f.'
Salem IT;:.. ..
, IMioNi: it
Additional fHlf""'! V'