The Oregon statesman. (Salem, Or.) 1916-1980, June 12, 1924, Page 6, Image 6

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Good Quality in Prunes Requires That the Operator Have
Control of "the Three Essentials in Dehydration; Tem
perature, Circulation and Humidity Quality Is Close-
iy Asscciaiea vnn Meat
rreparlng dried prunes of quality-involves
sanitation In handling,
growing and harvesting fruit of
the right type, preparing the fruit
by grading, dipping and" "drying
and by processing and packing.
These are ; the steps . outlined by
Ernest II. Wlegand, head of horti
cultural products investigation at
he Oregon Agricultural college
experiment station. One of thes
chief factors in drying and proces
sing, is the new mechanical draft
prune dried developed at the Ore
gon station.
Three Essentials of Dehydration
Good quality in prunes requires
that the operator have control of
the three essentials of dehydration
-temperature, circulation and hu
midity. The temperature that
fruit can stand is dependent to
some extent on circulation, and the
capacity of a tunnel per cubic foot
Is somewhat dependent on the vol
ume "of air per minute, which var
ies with circulation.
, Nothing definite concerning any
of these factors can be given until
all,, factors, including circulation
and humidity, are under control 'of
the operator, which is impossible
with the natural drift tunnel.
Heat 'Firs LJsontlal
Heat Is the first essential in dry
ing, as it Is first In the cost col
umn, both as an essentia! Invest
ment and as a running expense.
Quality is very closely associated
with heat and maybe lowered In
either of three ways. Too liigh
Initial temperature will cause
dripping. Too high finishing
temperature causes bloats, burns
and caramelizatlon. Too low tern
pea rtu re causes fermentation and
often moid.
Moisture, commonly considered
an enemy of drying, lessens evi
aporatfon.'but in the long run will
further evaporation by permitting
a steady uniform conduction and
diffusion. It Jnfuences. quality
ahd'eost by preventing case hard
ening and increasing conduction of
..the air.
Speed Influences Quality, Cost
Speed of air , circulation ; Influ
ences quality and cost by modify
ing the rate at which evaporation
takes placet It may lessen the
chance of scorching and it may
decrease the dryingtime. .',;
The relation of circulation mois
ture and temperature, while not
f4 iccj-sgslsi
" " 1 '
9 . . r.. f T e
' crcur::cs'. akd cu akahtes
AS a rectal specialist I have vet to treat
. the case of Files that will not give
way to my non-urcicI treatment.
Hence, my unejualiSed GUARANTEE
hCf as:Ltanta are the most skillful to be
foe cf new eSces in my own new
buikLcs, the largest and best equipped;
mj own new hotel, which adjoins, if coa
ver iest and comfortable for out of town
P--i'.fJ who come to me from many .
A states and "Canada for
rectal and colon treat'
.. raentk
Sm4 today formr FREE
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definitely known, has been shown
by experience to bo very definite.
Increase in temperature Increases
evaporation. Increasing humidity
under certain conditions decreases
evaporation. Increasing circulation
increases evaporation.
. .Temperature, humidity, and cir
culation work In combination to
remove moisture from the fruit;
but their power; is limited, de
pending on the product. . The aim
is to complete evaporation In the
shortest time consistent with qual
ity. Temperature has an Influence
on the drying time under all con
ditions low, medium or high hu
midity. With prunes an entrance
temperature of 120 degrees to 130
degrees gradually Increasing to
150 degrees to 165 degrees at the
close seems best.
Relative humidity 'of 15 to 30
per cent and an air movement of
600 to 750 feet per minute gives
good economic results.
The mechanical draft tunnel as
developed at the Oregon station Is
not exceptionally complicated. Sta
tion work was done. 'to get simplic
ity of construction and economy of
operation. The old Oregon tunnel
as constructed at the station .was
modified by adding a recirculating
system to obtain more constant
temperature, - increase relative hu
midity and give more uniform pro
duction, reduce production cost
and increase the capacity of the
dryer. ...
Rapid Circulation of Air
Air is taken from the drier
through the floor at the filling end
of the tunnel and forced Into the
enclosed furnace chamber. It Is
forced by baffling between the hot
pipes and up through the throat
of the drying tunnel at a rate of
about 1000 feet a minute. By al
lowing air to reach only through
an opening 2x10 Inches and to es
cape through a 'similar opening In
the stack Increases, humidly, which
was beneficial in keeping the fruit
pliable and from case hardening.
Fuel-consumption is reduced to
a minimum by recirculation of the
air. which loses only 10 to 20 per
cent of heat in passing through the
tunnels. It costs $2.20 for electric
power and $2 for wood at $6 a
cord to dry 1 ton of prunes -dry
weight. A No. S Multivane fan
driven by a 7 k horsepower motor
was used to maintain a rate of 760
lineal feet a minute for the air
over the fruit.
A fan of wrong construction and
inadequate capacity will cause
much grief and fail to do the
work, says Professor Wiegand. He
suggests that before installing a
fan for handling the air the grow
er or commercial drier is invited
to refer the matter to the station.'
Temperature, humidity and cir
culation work in combination to
remove moisture from, the fruit,
but their power Is limited though
their capacity Is relatively unlimit
ed, depending upon the fruit be
ing evaporated. : Evaporation i Is
best when completed In the short
est time consistent with quality.
A Complicated Problem
"The problem j of combining 3
variants has , been , found ; quite
complicated," declares Professor
Wlegand. fThe range of tempera
ture is from 100 to 200 degrees
Fahrenheit, circulation from 200
lineal feet per minute to 1200,
and humidity all the way from na
tural to 40 per cent.
'Growing conditions in Oregon
are peculiarly adapted to many
varieties of prunes. There is a
large acreage' ofItallan pninesin
the Pacific "northwest." Orchard
Investment for volume, and large
sums of money are involved In "or
chard production. -All this coet
la economy in expenditure . for
drier and for drying the prunes.
"The superior method of drying
by mechanical draft has been the
only method possible In Oregon
but has not received.- until reecnt
ly, the proper scientific attention
necessary to economic production
of a superior production.
Sanitation Is Necessary
"Sanitation is also considered as
a necessary part of standardiza
tion. In the early days less atten
tion was given to this factor than
It deserved." There was, he
thinks, ample reason for hesitan
cy to use commercial driCd foods
prepared according to modern me
thods. These reasons no longer
Sanitation starts in the field
where all boxes are 'cleaned end
the packers warned against put
ting rotten or moldy fruit in with
the good. It is often required
that all - fruits and vegetables ( be
covered in transit to the drier to
prevent soiling with road dust.
Even with these precautions the
prune is washed before it is placed
in the drier. If lye solution is not
used, boiling water should be,
and in either case the product
should be rinsed in cold v ater.
Low Rp
You can now: obtain stopover privileges on
15 -day roundtrip tickets between stations in
Oregon which are served by Southern Pacific
Lines. .
This is a new service which means much to
you in added convenience.
In addition, special week-end roundtrip
tickets from all stations to Portland are on
"sale Fridays, Saturdays and Sundays, the final
return limit being the following Tuesday.
Sec the Rose Festival June il-13 -'
Of course, you know how much less it costs
to travel on Southern Pacific trains than it
does to go in any other way, comparable in
. convenience and comfort.
.. See any azsntforfuU information
v J L J US Jl tJ-.i
l or Information "see O. I. Darling, .Agnt, Kalem, or
A. A. Mitkcl, D. F. & V. A., 18 1 Liberty Street
FnOP.1 74 TO 355
This Was Consumption
Growth, in 20 Years; 60
Per Cent Even Yet
. (Following is a current .bulletin
of the department of industrial
journalism of the Oregon Agricul
tural college, giving In a very few
words some facts and figures that
are of intense interest and value
to the walnut growers of the Sal
em district:)
The Salem Nut Growers' asso
ciation has " been organized as a
branch of the Oregon Walnut ex
change cooperative, and will han
dle this year's 1 00 tons of nuts
grown in Marion, Linn and Polk
counties. The association con
nects up with the Dundee district
on the north and the Eugene dis
trict on the south.
"This is an opportune time tor
walnut growers to perfect an effi
cient marketing organization says
C. J. Hurd, marketing specialist
of the state college extension ser
vice, "when It Is not especially
difficult to market the nuts. Ore
gon producers have an excellent
opportunity to establish the Ore
gon walnut with the trade and
build up a reputation" for a super
ior product, standardized and
graded. We will then have an
outlet for an increasing amount of
the Oregon product as domestic
production more nearly balances
' Action in organizing to promote
the nut industry is in harmony
with the recommendation of the
state economic conference. The
recommended variety is Fran
quette grafted to the root stock of
northern California black wal
nuts. It was shown at the conference
that use of nuts in the United
StatesIncreased from 74.000,000
pounds in 1900 to 355,000,000 in
1920. Even at that home produc
tion was nly about one-fourth of
home consumption. At that' time
only about 60 per cent of the
plantings were in bearing.
(Foiowing are excerpts from a
current bulletin of the department
of industrial journalism of the
Oregon Agricultural college:)
Curing Good Hay Factor
Successful hay curing in Oregon
depends on getting the surplus
moisture dried out rapidly with
the least loss of leaves and fine
parts. Cutting hay while it has
plenty of green leaf surface and
nutrition In the plant is "recom
mended by the experiment station.
Over ripe hay with, the seed tally,
former, and. ripened, has a large
loss of leaves, which materially
lessens Its feeding value. The
palatabillty' Is "decreased and the
market price lowered. ? The ex
periment station Is .cooperating
with the United States department
of agriculture in the development
of new hay grades. .
Dry Time Hurts Thistles
Canada thistles and other per
ennial weed pests are more -easily
controlled during ' the dry weather
now present ' In Oregon.. J Cutting
off the-plants -and burning those
which f are about to bloom : will
greatly weaken them, finds the
experiment station. ; Plowing and
spring toothing ' the - ground will
kill many of the roots Continued
clean cultivation during the sum
mer and sowing a heavy smother
crop of grain and vetch early in
the fall will do much toward elim
inating the perennial weeds.v
Land plastered clover is stand
ing the. dry . season better- than
much of the clover that has had
no treatment, .
.3emQ e Imk Moire 1 1
" 1.'. . i i.Wi" J jiu mil WL,pi i.ui l l li I I Mill i IL . . I ll iiill.lllllLiJLllllJLl.llll Ml. Kjiun li I H In li in, 'lapwrf i ! i i j mm iiuiM. II iNHmi. iin M uiu ll u I J . .11 .1 . . T ii : I . I . il l ii I i Mill JJ I imiiL ,"1 "" ' . "uJ f.A!J , .' 1 IIHI''''.'P'IIV.7,B'',L. ' '. "' ,lJi; a u" m
Thousands of Dollars Worth of High Grade Seasonable Merchsmclise have just arrived. ICnbvin yq x:.
overstocked, still we could not resist buying this Big Stock, as it wis offered to us for a sons! To mh!:cak::
story short, it's here-and Must Be Turned Irito:Casli ! If Give-away Prices Will Move Merchandise, Tiiis I.4
Stock Will Take Legs and Walk Away !
TWs Big -Sslliinig Event Smicls :Fnda.9SiBWSlicj:
2000 Yards 18c
Quality Ging- rjl jTh C
ham, yard ...... usl)
Line Up Can't Last Long
S00 Yards Best 65c
Grade Voiles, $(mC
yard ..... ........ i3J
Call Patterns Buy, all you
Men's Blue Cham
bray Shirts, l(jiC
1 value, only y
Hurry! Hurry! Every
article goes!
'Never Before,
Never Again
Such r;
In this big suit stock you will find most' any style or
pattern wanted. - Cashmeres, worsteds,, tweeds, blue
serges, banker's greys, metcalf s, in most any color or
stripe to choose, from. All go on sale for this big
cleanup. Here goes -we will start the suits rolling
at prices like this -'.
30 SUITS Odd sizes Some have sold for ' $25: If this
price won't sell them, we'll give 'em away ..:....;. ...
83 'SUrrS--Mens and Young Men's Tweeds, Cashmeres, Worsteds,
Up-to the-Minute Styles, handsome, durable; all wool materials,'
You never saw such values to $30.00. MusH sell G5
246 SUITS The utmost for your money Nowhere will you find such
all wool fabrics Fine tailoring, assortment! of patterns, styles,
qualities, suits which seir every day: for $35, $40, $45. It may
be foolish to sell these suits for this 'price, but this ?1Q QC
price must sell ........ ......; ..l ; .D LUmOnJ
1 Nemo 2: Kabo C - -
Corsets V: Li
Ou Entire StocIc'Gccs. Il
Sizes and Styles Here.
Men's p2.cq;r c.
Dress Shirts.. f
All the latest thades svil!
or without' collars. I
Ldod Hero ! Ll cn'c
C "
r t
Knit ,
Gei here, early wonderful r
Values. . f
Ladies' Artifi- (C
cial Silk Hose iiy
You can't tell them from
slk unless you are an
If Prices Do Tell
THese Prices Must Sell !
51.00Boy' C$P C
Union Suits.... $V
. A saving of a lifetime.
.w .w mm m ' mvk iir
BathingSuits, 5 .98
regular 5..... :j D
They were from the Brad
ley Knitting Mills; All Wool
If Seeing is Believing
You -must . at least
In this beautiful stock of coats, suits, dresses, capes and skirts, all the
latest styles, fabrics and colors, at the lowest ; prices ever offered you.
C1C : Beautiful Tricolettc Dresses, in fancy weayes and stripes, all
k" ci7P3 ' fill rnlnrs vftn worn novor nfftrtA ciih vnlnnA i
y C Coats, Suits and 'Dresses, values are unheard of, as some have sold
to $40. You will never forgive yourself if you don't at (O ' AQ
least see these. They must sell for .:.. .:.:.....l.....:..$jJ0
$25 Sport Suits, and Coats, consisting of s Tweeds, Velours, Fancy
Checks, and mannish' stripes. They can't' be made for Cp" Qp
the prices we must sell at pOC)
You never saw these before because .Thcy Just Arrived." Beautiful
t new Dresses made in materials such as Russian Aires, Canton and
Etc. Superbly Tailored,-Creations not gowns, Inimit- (JJ m "i0
able for $40. They must sell for IfkUO
5GD Pairs cf Lien's -f
Ladies a n d C h i I'
dreri's t ?
Shoes ........
Values to $5.00 a pair.
240 Pairs of Lien's
Pants ii
Regular $2.50
' - ' Overalls
"Our ,eritiref
Boys BestV
Grajdes. A 1 1
sizes included.
Waist and Bib.
Valpes Today $2.00. Ccr;.
; Early.
Mean's Guaranteed
Solid Leather.'? .79
Outing Shoes' 0
Why have the old one half-
""-"soled? J----
, This is rio funeral or a wedding. No rice or flowers will greet you but
as you pass down the aisles you will gaze with astonishment at prices you
, will never equal again. . .
U ..'-- . . ; . .
Hurry ! Sale Starts Friday, 9:3fe. m.
iMeh's 0i:00 Atlilslls
iUnion .
IJust' the thing for the :
-hot (days buy two for tl.;
price of one. .
be con-
fused it's ihe greatest'
sale in town. ; - "
- . - The Corner. Entrance Only. . . . .
and Coixrt Stress
Entrance to Szlz