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About The Oregon statesman. (Salem, Or.) 1916-1980 | View Entire Issue (April 28, 1921)
; T1IE OREGON STATESMAN.-SALEM. OREGON THURSDAY iSi'-AviiiMKL
L No Better Grapes Can Be Grown in the World, Nor More Grapes to the Acre,
in me ruira aii v ai icues, wan re ana an ce rown in tne oaiem district
flff. 1101 SAYS
We Should Produce Them for Our Own Home Consump
tion Instead of Importing Them from California, and
There is a Splendid Opportunity to Develop a Grape
I juice Trade of Considerable Magnitude.
(jrapes, chiefly - of American
varieties, can be found growing
lo almost sny pardon in the wes'
ern part of Oregon and along the
Columbia basin, but there are few
places in the state where grapes
re grown commercially. Around
Grants Pans. In the Garden Val
ley Bear Roseburg and in the vi
floity o( The Dalles, are found
the commercial planting) of Eur
opean grapes. There have ben
quite-a numbier of American
grapes planted in the vicinity ot
Forest Grove, where they are
grown very successfully.
' There Is no doubt that we have
not come up to our possibilities In
the growing of grapes in this
rountry. Tho writer has had the
opportunity o( Judging exhibits
at The Dalles, where many tine
Hpes were grown. Grapes fron
tbe ranch of Charles A. Brand
Bear Roseburg have taken first
rrtxeS at our state fair in this de
partment. Some very good
grapes have been grown In the
foothills about Grants Pass. Ail
t these are of the Kuropean varie
ties and seem to produce as good
fruit and as large yields as any
ef the California grapes. At
Wheatland, on 1 the Clyde LaFol-
lctt , ranch, is .located one of the
largest It not the largest vine m
thin state.' It is ot the American
variety, the Concord. Thin old
vise in 1 inches in diameter at
the fork and has climbed one ot
the tallest trees In that neighbor
hood, and in addition has 400 or
i 500 feet of vine, running aiong
different t fences. In 1918. Mr.
LaFollette harvested two and one
half tons from this vine and in
lit one and one-half tons. In
i the vicinity of Salem, where a
few grapes are grown, one grow
( r reports a yield of eight tons to
the acre, and near Wilbur, Ore
1 ton, in Douglas, count, eight
torn to the cre is reported from
i an eisht-acre vineyard. These
! yields compare t very favorably
I with any of tho eastern or Cali
i font yields,
f --v. , Varieties
! The subject, of - Tarietfes Is n
5 Interesting ono because many ot
I our finer lorU have never boon
1 tested out commercially to aay
extent, t Of the iEsropean. grapes
1 ivuik vintfuraV the following
r 1MB .
v it.AMtfnllv in
the state: -
Flame Ttokay tred)
Rose of Peru (black)
Thompson Seedless (white)
Sweet Water (white)
With American grapes. Vltls
hbrusca, blood enters into the
composition of most of these var
ieties, many of which are crossed
several times with other species.
- - Early Varieties
Moore's Earlyfl black)
Luclle (red) 1
fa bella (black)
I Soil, Slopes and Cultivation,
i Th9 grape requires plenty of
warmth and sunshine. It does
beet ton south and southwestern
lopes where the air drainage and
water drainage is good, and
where the soils are not too rich.
W soils are rich and heavy, a
tlgorous growth of vines will
result at the expense of fruit.
Stony, thin lands are often util
ized for grapes when they could
ot be put into profitable use
ita any other crop. However,
1b this climate, the grape should
either have irrigation from tlfe
to tlm or should be given care
ful cultivation during the grow
ing, season to keep up a reason
able amount of moisture.
I Pruning and trellising varies
DATES OF SLOGANS IN DAILY STATESMAN
; (In Twice-a-Wcek Statesman Following Day)
Logaaberries, Oct. 7. "
prunes. Oct. 14.
jurying, Oct. 21.
lax. Oct. 23.
Gilberts, Nov. 4.
ialBBU, Nov. II.
Strawberries, Nov. 18.
PPles, Nov. 25.
Raspberries. Dec. 2.
Klnt. Dec. 9.
Creat cows, Dec. IB.
Blackberries, Dec. 23.
Cherries. Dec. 30i.
Jears, Jan. 6, 1921.
COOBfhri-i o rwl r.,rrmnl Tan
J J 1 v. . OIIU VUt I .".J, ww...
Corn, Jan. 20.
lery, Jan. 2 7.
Spinach, Feb. 3.
Onions, Feb. 10.
Potatoes. Feb. 17.
Sees. Feb. 24.
Mlnl"g. March 3.,
Costs. March 10.
Beans. March 17.
ed highways. March 24.
Broccoli. Marc,r 31.
Silos. April 7.
Legumes, April 1 4.
Asparagus. April 21.
QrPs, April 28.
WE SHOULD BE
GRAPES IN OREBON
greatly with th- different kinds
of grapes grown, and will not be
treated in this article.
The Kuropan varieties become
very popular for several reasous.
They contain a larte percentage
of sugar:- they have a solid, firm
flesh which enables them to be
shipped long distances and they
will k"ep longer in storage than
our American grapes. They as
a class dry much better than any
of the American grapes. The
American grapes are best known
for their table qualities. Some
people prefer the greater quan
tity of juice and soft pulp of the
American grape to tho finer flesh
of its Kuropean cousin. The Am
erican grape can be shipped by
freight or express several hun
dred miles without serious dam
age, but it is doubtful if the Pa
cific slope, will ever ship farther
east than the Rocky mountains
on account of Ihe eastern compe
tition. The finest grape juice
Is made from American grapes, ot
which the Concord has been tbe
leading variety. At the present
time, quite extensive plantings
A Number; oft Varieties Do -Well in the;WilIametteVal-;'
ley Says Gordon Tower, Horticultiirist'ofthe Oregon
State Hospital, and He Gives Very Complete Direc
tions to the Man Wishing to Have a Supply for His
The purpose of this article Is
to give a general view of grape
culture for the small grower who
wishes to have a few grapes for
bin own nse, so here we will not
consider those cultural , methods
which apply to commercial Tin
yards. A number of varieties do
well in the valley, and the kind
of grapes grown can be governed
by personal requirements. Among
the good varieties are the Early
Moore, Concord, Sweet Green,
Niagara, Verdun and Delaware.
Grapes are started by cuttings,
layering, grafting, and from seeds,
but for our purpose only the first
needs to be considered. It being
an easy and ready means of get
ting the young plants. The cut
tings should be made soon after
the vines become dormant in the
fall. These should be from 8 to
20 inches long and made from
young, well matured wood. On
the lower or butt end make a
blantlng cut close to tbe bud, and
on the upper or top end leave
about an inch of wood above the
bud. There are two ways in
which the cuttings can be bandied,
one being to put them out where
the permanent vines are to be.
The better wy is to tie the cut
tings into small bundles with jhe
butt ends together and place
them in soil with the butt ends
up and covered over with three
to six Inches of dirt. Handled in
this way the butt ends, from
which the roots will be produced,
form a calloiis. while the top por
tion is kept in a dormant con
dition. Then when the cutting
are set out In tbe spring the cal
loused end is ready to produce
strong roots at once and before
the buds develop sufficiently to
take Up the sap and plant food
stored In the cutting. In the
spring put the cuttings in a nur
sery row or in the garden in good
soil and where they can be kept
well cultivated and hoed during
the summer. The following spring
they should ! set out in the per
manent location, which can be
any good, well drained soil.
The planting distance depends
Drug "garden. May 5.
Sugar beets. May 12.
Sorghum, May 19.
Cabbanje. May 2.
Poultry and Pet Stock, June 2.
Land, June 9.
Dehydration. June 18.
Hops. June 23.
Wholesale and Jobbing, June
Cucumbers, July 7.
Hogs, July 14.
City lleautiful, flowers and
bulbs. July 21.
Schools. July 28.
Sheep, Aug. 4.
National Advertising. Aug. 11.
Seeds. Aug. 18.
Livestock. Aug. 25.
Automotive Industry, Sept. 1.
Grain and Grain Products.
Manufacturing. Spt. 15.
Woodworking and other things,
Paper Mill. Sept. 29.
(Hack copies of Salem Slogan
editions of The Dally Oregon
Statesman are on hand. They are
for sale at 10c each, mailed to
have been made in the vicinity
of Kennewick. Wash., where
grape juice is manufactured in
considerable quantities. Grapes
in that locality are used almost
entirely for the purpose of juice,
although many of them find their
way into local markets.
The European grapes succeed
only where there is a long season
of summer weather and consider
able warmth. For that reason,
it i. likely that the three sections
mentioned above will be the only
parts of the state that will suc
ceed well in growing Vltis vini
fera. The American grape, how
eer, is capable of a much wider
distribution and will succeed on
the right soils and slopes most
anywhere in Oregon, except in
the coldest and most exposed sec
tions of the eastern part of the
state. There is no reason why
the grape should not be used
much more In our dietary than
it is at the present time. We
should be producing in the state
of Oregon more grapes for our
own home consumption instead
of importing so many from Cali
fornia. In addition, there is a
splendid opportunity for the de
velopment of a grape juice trade
of considerable magnitude
W. S. BROWN,
Chief in Hortieflture. O. A. C.
Corvallis. Or.. April 28, 1921.
(The above was received late
last eveping. The reader will
find another article In this Issue,
from a former letter of Professor
Hrown. describing the trellising
of grapes. Professor Brown says,
in his letter of yesterday, accom
panying the above article, that
the Oregon Agricultural college
expects to publish a bulletin on
grape growing about the- first of
upon the vigor of the plant, soil
conditions, and the kind of prun
ing. Tho strong growing varie
ties can bo set 10 by 10 feet, al
though a planting distance which
gives eight feet between rows and
10 feet between the plants In the
rcw will be found satisfactory.
This will give necessary growing
space for the roots and good cir
culation of air for the vines. After
planting keep well cultivated bo
as to produce as strong and vigor
ous a plant as possible the first
Pruning and training is prbably
the most difficult part for the
amateurs in the care of the grape.
Tbe first year no support or prun
ing is necessary, although the
young canes may be tied to a
etake to get them out of the way
tor cultivating. The following
winter the vines should be pruned
and staked, using stakes five or
six feet long. The amount of
pruning done will depend upon
the growth. If small growth has
been made, remove all but the
strongest cane and cut this back
to two. eyes. If one strong, well
ripened cane has been produced,
cut this back to height at which
the head is to be formed (about
60 inches) and tie securely to
the stake, removing the other
canes. In the first case mention
ed, only one bud should be al
lowed to develop a cane, all the
other young shoots being removed
so as to concentrate all the growth
into the one cane which is to be
come the trunk of the vine. By
the third yeaf the vines should
have erect straight stems, with
two or more canes for the head
and from which the vine can be
renewed each year.
In the pruning of bearing vines ,
mere are several dutercnt sys
tems, some of which are more or
less complicated and requiring
iruch trellis, and some that re
quire much time for cutting and
tying. Whatever system Is em
ployed, it is important to keep
in mind that the fruiting branch
es are always produced on last
season's growth, that is, one year
old canes. The condition and alfo
vipor of the plant should be taken
into consideration when pruning.
One system often used in com
mercial vinyards is well adapted
for the small home planting is
what is known as the four cane
Kniffen system. With this a trel
lis of two wires is Ufed. the bot
tom wire about 30 inches aove
the ground and the top wire about
60 inches. The cane to form the
main trunk of the vine is carried
up to the top wire and two canes
are trained along 'each wire, 'mak
ing four canes for each ?vine.
Each year's pruning consists in
cutting away all the tops except
the four most vigorous caries pro
duced the preceding season. With i
well established vines these are f
shortened back so as to allow '
jbout 10 buds -to each of the up-
per canes and five buds for th !
two lower ones for vigorous
growing varieties, like the Con
cord, while less vigorous grow
ing varieties. like the Dela
ware, should be pruned so as to
leave a smaller number of buds.
Other canes coming out near the
main trunk can be cut back to
two buds, that Is. spurs, for the
purpose ot getting new canes for
the next season's fruiting wood.
Tb" ranes left should be carried
alons the wires and secured to
(Continued on page 4.)
GRAPES FOR H
FIFTY YEARS 110
Mr. Ruble Commenced Raising Grapes Near the Summit
Of the Eola Hills, and He is Still on the Polk County
Side of the River the Advantages of Grapes Over
tB D. R. Ituble, Salem. Ore.)
Being a native of Oregon and
having had experience with grapes
since the day that I first walked
the earth, I hope to be able to
interest a part of your readers by
my long experience. It was near
the sumit of the Eola hills that
my father had about one acre of
grapes of about 15 kinds. Fifty
years a;o the Royal Muscadine
was king of all grapes In this part
of the country; athough it seemed
to fall from grace or it outlived
its usefulness many years ago.
The Catawba and Isabella were
grown in the lot with great suc
cess, always ripening the crop,
notwithstanding the temperature
was generally five! degrees lower
at that point than it was in the
valley. There was ho mildew or
other diseases to mar their prog
ress. Prices in those days were
very good, averaging around 8
cents per pound, but from some
strange cause there came a period
of about 35 years that grape cul
ture was not profitable. But the
wheel of fortune has turned the
industry to a very desirable busi
ness. Apparently grapes do not
mature so well now as in early
years. Cawtabas are very uncer
tain about ripening. The famous
Concord will only mature in fav
orable spots. And while Isabellas
in some places ripen one year with
another, in other places they just
won't respond. 'Campbell's Early
is a' seedling ot the Concord and
ripensabout two weeks 'earlier
than.Concord. In fact.Campbell's
Early 'can be depended upon to
mature in almost any locality, and
it has the Identical flavor, and ar
oma of its parent Concord' Eclipse
is another Concord seedling and is
one of the earliest grapes grown,
very sweet, but a poor looking
bunch. The King, McPike and
Mammouth are all seedlings of
Concord, but the fruit is about
twice as large. Moore's Diamond
is the rival of all the white or
yellow crapes, very hardy and ma
tures its fruit, making a very pre
sentable, compaact bunch, but too
tender for shipping a lone dis
tance. There are a number ot red '
or pink grapes that mature In this
But for a good producer and a
fine keeper the Agawam certainly
I EXHAUSTIVE ARTICLE ON WE
GlfiG IN THE WILLAMETTE VALLEY
All of the Stages Are Treated, From the First Planting
Of the Vines and Their Care Through the Years to
The Varieties Adapted to This Section and the Har
vesting and Disposition of the Crop.
("Uncle Billy Wright." by C.
C. Wright, pioneer and well
known market grower of fruit and
vegetables, at Independence, Ore
gon, furnishes the following very
complete article, under date of
The success of a vineyard de
pends on a few factors. One of
the first is to get started right.
Some of the fatal errors are as
follows: Those who after getting
their plants destroy them by dry
ing them in the sun or wind or
freezing them before setting out.
The crowding of the roots into
small holes in sod. The plant
ing in low, wet land not well
drained. Those who consider their
labor done when the plant is once
Good nursery stock of suitable
kinds is fundamental. The grow
er should get in direct touch with
a nurseryman who knows the va
rieties and their adaptability. It
is not infrequently that the grow
er selects high-priced novelties
whose value is uncertain and the
conditions where they are to be
planted is unknown to the nur
seryman. We have found it best
to have a nurseryman to visit the
farm; and the character of the
varie'ics with reference to hard
iness, vigor and adaptability is
considered before ordering. It is
a mistake to try to cut the cost
of the plants too much; cheap
plants usually make poor vines.
The original cost of the plant is
of minor importance; a few cents
saved on inferior plants usually
ends with but little success. For
home use, you should be gov
erned first by the adaptability of
the soil, and last the color and
Where to Plant
The best site is reasonably free
from late sprine frost, deep soli
and well drained. The commer
cial grower considers the market
and shipping facilities.
When to Plant
We rind fall planting to be ad
vantageous, as the plants will
tart to grow as soon as spring
comes, and as a rule more atten
tion can be given the work at this
time. We set our plants elfiht
feet apart in the rows and the
rows six feet apart. This requires
f07 plants to set one acre.
How to Prepare the Ground
Land that has been in some
farm crop is usually In good con
excels. They can be kept all win
ter, and the favor is all one could
desire; but. like the Isabella, it
requires to be pruned to a few
j long arms. In regard to pruning
i and training the grape, the many
Rsiems and whims that are of
fered leave many in the field of
confusion; however, like the apple
tree different kinds require differ
ent methods. In my boyhood days
there were but two systems prac
ticed. One was the arbor system
and the other the stake system.
The latter was for field culture.
tying about six new or of the prev
ious year's growth arms about
three feet long tied with a stout
string to the stake, and such a
load of fruit! I have picked 75
imjuuus irom one plant many a
tune, i seldom see the stake used
any more. The trellis system
seems to be the favorite plan as
a rule, but the stump system has
proven a great success and has
some very desirable advantages
It is inexpensive and allows cult!'
vating and plowing both ways
which reduces the labor expense
to tue very minimum; besides the
fruit is grown near the ground.
wnich helps it to mature, the
ground keeping it much warmer
man when up on a trellis. In
France, the stump plan and low
trellis are the main systems; they
piant about 1000 plants to the
acre and ripen the fruit as near
the ground as possible to allow for
nosing. They don't want v much
vine in thJs country. We generally
plant about 500j to thevacre, but
raise 'more vine. Mildew is th
worst pest we have with grapes,
and it a vine is only slightly af
flicted the fruit will not mature.
It is. however, 'very easily con
trolled by spraying with dry sul
phur once just before the bloom
appears and once just after the
little grapes are formed.
To grow grapes successfully re
quires the same care and attention
that other fruits demand; and es
pecially the first two years after
the plants are set in the field tbe
work can hardly be overdone.
Grape culture has one or more ad
vantages over other email fruits.
It will respond for many years,
and the trait will stay good on the
vines or after being picked for an
indefinite length of time.
dition. The plowing should be
deep, as the ground cannot be
plowed deep after the plants have
started their growth. The ground
should be thoroughly worked with
a disk harrow and a Bpike tooth
If the vines are to be planted
in sod, that is close to hard pan,
It is advisable to drill into the
hard pan. and blast. This will
give better drainage and also give
the roots deeper soil. There are
some varieties that will produce
good crops on land that is too
rough and stony for farm crops.
The general principles of grape
pruning are about the same for
First: The cuttings should be
made 10. 12. 15 or 18 inches
long. The shorter cuttings are
used In planting In moist soil,
while the longer are for planting
in soil which lacks moisture. The
best cuttings are made from well
grown and well ripened laterals.
If one-year-old vines are to be
planted they should be pruned to
one cane, and shortened to one
or two buds. All surface roots
should be entirely cut off. and
all lower roots shortened to about
four inches. The first growing
season requires but little prun
ing. During the winter months
following the first year's growth
the vines should be pruned to one
cane and this cane cut so as to
leave only two buds, the same as
was done with the cuttings be
fore planting. The vines are then
staked, using a stake about thre?
feet long. They should be driven
from three to four inches on the
north side of the vine.
Second year During the grow
in season will require careful
and continual attention, as many
shoots will start. All but two of
these should be removed when
they have grown about two inch
es; by pruning in this manner it
throws the energies of the vine
into those left, which will there
fore grow rapidly.
When the shoots are about 10
inches they should be tied loosely
to the stake, which has ben set
on the leeward side, and at this
time removing any new shoots
which have started. As soon as
the shoots have grown one or
two feet above the stage they
should be topped at about threo
feet from the ground, which will
force a growth of laterals, and
f-hould these laterals grow to such
a length that they may be dam
aged by wind they should be
topped. Suckers should be re
moved as soon as they appear.
If the summer work has been
done properly, the winter prun
ing is very simple, 'which consists
of cutting back the Mngle cane
to about 20 inches, leaving a full
joint above the top bud. If strong
laterals have been produced on
the upper part of the cane, they
should be cut back to two buds
and all lower laterals removed.
Any vine which has not 20 Inches
of cane should be cut back, and
treated the same as the preced
ing year. During the winter the
vines should be carefully exam
ined to see that they are all pro
erly tiedMo the stakes. Binding
twine is very good for this pur
pose. Third Year
As soon as the buds have start
ed in the spring, the vines should
be gone over, rubbing off all the
shoots within 12 inches of the
ground; these shoots should not
be allowed to grow more than
two inches long. This will re
quire the rubbing off about three
times. By removing the lower
shoots It forces the growth into
the upper shots, which are to
bear the crop, and form the ulti
mate arms of the vine. The upper
shoots should not be allowed to
grow over 74 inches long; at
about this length their tips should
be pinched off. which will give
the vine some protection from the
wind. The suckers and lower
shoots that appear should be
carefully removed soon after they
appear. The number of canes
and spurs to be left will be de
termined by the vigor of the vine.
In a strong vine one or more fruit
canes and two or more wood spurs
are left. To give the vine the
required shape the spurs shoud
be, whenever possible, below the
fruit canes. Tbe spurs shonld be
arranged according to the kind of
trellis to be erected.
All the brushahonld be remov
ed and j, burnt . as soon as each
pruning is done, f,' ,
The trellis most .commonly used
consists of . two ' wires stretched
along the ' rows in l the. direction
where the '-vines ( are closest to
gether. The lowers wire should
be placed about 30 inches from
the ground and the top wire about
18 inches above the lower wire.
Strong posts are to be placed at
each end of the row, and these
may be braced by wiring to a
dead-man buried about four feet,
and a litte ont from tbe training
poet. A supporting poet should
be set every-IS to, IS feet, plac
ing; .these posts between two vines.
These posts can be ordinary fence
posts, or four by tour pieces. --.
Number 12 galvanised fenc
ing wire is most commonly used,
although number eleven wire is
better for the lower wires.
The trellis should be erected
and tbe vines attached to it be
for the buds commence to swell.
The temporary stakes should not
be removed for two years after
the trellis is up, as this will give
the vine some support and will
cause the trunk to be straight
The fruit canes are to be tied
to the lower wire. The canes
should be looped over or turned
around tbe wire. The upper wire
is used to support the growing
shoots and to keep the fruit off
Pruning Bearing Vines.
During this year the vines
should be in full bearing and the
regular form of pruning bearing
vines commences, which consists
ot leaving two or more fruit canes
of about four feet long and four
to six renewal spurs of one to two
A fruit cane should be of well-,
ripened wood, but it Bhould not
show an over growth. The laterals
with their buds should be left, and
cut back to short spurs of two to
three buds. The lenghth of the
fruit canes should be determined
by the thickness and its general j
physical condition, but in no case
should it extend beyond the ends!
of the canes of the next vine.
All suckers and water sprouts
from the trunk below the head
should be removed soon after they
make their apapearance. The j
pinching of the tips of the Bhoots
on the fruit canes when they are
about 24 inches long and the
blossom bunch has been well
formed will help set the fruit and
also increase the site of the fruit.
To produce good fruit, buds for
the following year can be made by,
cutting off about 12 inches of the
shoots from the renewal spurs
when they are about three or four
feet long. The proper pruning of
each vine will require careful
study and experience.
There are several diseases in
grapes which occur in this locality
which may cause heavy losses; the
most serious being the powder
mildew. This disease receives its
name from the whitish powdery
appearance of the parts of the
plant affected. The whitish pat
ches of mildew which form oithe
leaves will within a short time run '
together until the greater part of
the leaf is covered, and may also
attack the young canes, which be
g.n at the base, and in severe
cases covers the whole surface
By rubbing off the mildew that is
on the canes small brownish spots
will be found which will soon
turn to a black.
This disease can be easily
treated and also prevented by the
use of sulphur, which we find
very good to apply in powder form
as some of the powder falling to
the ground the heat from the sun
will cause a fume to arise. We
find a sack to be very good to dust
the sulphur on to the plants. We
find one application of sulphur
will prevent the disease, but if the
disease is present they should be
dusted once before they are in
THE TRELLISING OF
The Oregon Agricultural col
lege has not yet published a bul
letin on grape growing. However,
W. G. Brown, chief in horticulture
at that institution, recently wrote
for The Statesman on the subject,
and he made tho assertilta that
grapes are very productive In this
country, and the question of prof
itable grape growing rests hot up
on producing the grape, but upon
getting a market for it. V
The following is what; Prof.
Brown had to say about the trel
lising of the grape: .f.
"The American grapes $ re all
trellised, in commercial work,
along one, two or three wires, the
two-wire system being much more
common. Posts are set abO,ut 30
feet apart and tho wires ire us
ually about 12 gauge galvanized
l-on. The end poMs should be
very well braced and larger than
those used in between. g
"The two common methods of
pruning the grape are what is
called the two-arm or tie-up sys
tem, and the four-arm or kniffin
system. In the first, two wires are
run for tbe trellis at heights of
2 1-2 and 4 1-2 feet. The?; little
vines are trained up to the first
wire where two arms are allowed
to run out one on each slde'along
the wire, and from these arms the
young shoots are tied up Id th
upper wire if they get long enough
. ZIMMERMAN SOLD 6RAPE3 AT -THE
BATE OF S700 TO THE ACHE
A. E. Zimmerman, route f, Sa
lem, sold his grapes last year to
the Phex company at 5 cents a
pound; andvtbat?was at the"; rate
of about' $700 an. acre forwhat he
had. -He thinks that Is more than
could" be' codnted on , year after
year. ' - ff-
Mr. Zimmerman thinks one of
the most delicious fruits S that
grows does not receive the atten
tion it deserves from our people.
He is himself favorable to!? the
Concord grape, as ft is one of the
best commercial varieties. - U
bloom and again when the tmit i
set, also wherever the 41seat ap
Varieties . s; . II
Of . the, several varieties Ithat
we have grown, we have found
the following- varieties to be the
best for this location: l
The Concord As this grape is
superior in hardiness, and f: the
bunches are of good size, .very
good appearance and is very good
for grape juice, it is our :best
shipper. We have found the vine
to withstanddisease and . Insects
and to be very productive.
The Worden This is a little
larger grape and is equally! as
hardy and productive, but does
not do as well in some soils. : j It
ripens a little earlier than ; the
Concord, but Is not as good; a
keeper or shipper. . M
The Delaware This grape J is
adapted to a very wide variation
of soils and usually bears good
in the Willamette valley. U It
ripens a little earlier than the
Concord. The vine and fruit are
small, and is very susceptble to
The Sweetwater The bunches
are large and compact; the fruit
is light color, of medium site;
the skin is thin and transparent,
very juicy, sweet, and of (lae
The Salem The vine is strong
and vigorous, and produces latge
fruit of a light red color. The
skin is very thin and the grape
is free from hard pulp, very sweet
and animate. Ripens the first Of
September. .' ,
The Clinton A black grape,
was used a great deal for wfne;
the bunches and grapes are small.
This grape Is very good for ar
bors and screens, but is not very
desirable for market.
- In picking the bunches they
should be cut from the vine with
sharp scissors and placed In a
tray or picking basket. - The (riy
or basket should be placed on a
stool which ia moved along 'the
row as the fruit is picked. The
use of the stool will not require
the picker to bend over each
time, and the bunches will be
placed in the tray, while it the
tray is on the ground mores or
less of the bunches will , be
dropped. When the tray is full'
it should be placed under the
vines, to be collected later. A
small wagon or cart Is used to
collect the trays and carry them
to the packing house.
For the better pack some trim
ming is found necessary to ire
move defective berries. All small,
unripened fruit, as well as Ihe
cracks or shell should be removed,
and if any mildew is present ft is
not advisable to try working- U
In the first class pack by trim
ming. The trimming should5 be
done as the grapes are picked,
that they may be packed into the
final container. The work when
done In the packing house adds
expense and injury caused byfad
ditional handling, although; a
higher quality pack may be tiad
If the work is done in the pack
At the present time there are
not standard grades of grapes.
The producers who sell a hiRh
quality and good pack are U8Ully
offered a premium for their fruit.
Their pack should be branded
THE GRAPE. Br '
THE STATE COLLEGE
during the summer. In the four
arm rystem. the young vine Is
trained clear to the top of the up
per wre and the two wires ire at
the ueigbts of three and five feet
above the ground, so that the
vines can run along the wires and
not have to be tied up, but fha
young bhoots, after they come out,
droop down. .
"In. both these systems, theettt.
ting back or renewal, as it Is cal
ed, for each year is practically tbe
same. The old cane, which sent
out tbe fruiting canes for this
year, will next year be cut back-to
a strong cane nearest the stub of
the vine. This .strong cane, that
has fruited and grown through
one season, will then be let. down
along the wire and will be the
parent cane for. new shoots that
will come out next year and bear
the fruit. Usually two good
bunches can be counted upon to
come out of the young shoot which'
springs from the bud of the 'cane:
which is laid down along the wire..
It is, therefore, necessary to cut
back these canes, after they are
laid along the wires, to a point
where the vine will not- over bear. -.'
For strong growing American
grapes like the Concord, a maxi
mum crop for commercial vines Is
considered to be about 120 bunch
es. That would mean that about
60 buds would be left upon tbe
canes to produce fruiting shoots. .
He says that In planting gripes
one should, dig a hole like be
would in planting a1 tree and-nse
the' same methods. .
Unlike, other fruits, he says, the
grape produces fruit on growing '
wood; that apples, pears, cherries,
etc., .form their fruit' spurs Zand,
buds the year before fruiting, but
not so the grape, and unless It is
cnt back to a few bnds, there will
be too many bunches formed, and
the fruit will be small 'and Infer
ior, or there will be no trait at
ail. . ... , .-. : -
with an attractive and appropriate
label placed on the basket la a
position - which naay . be vsry no
ticeatte by Hhe" consumer. Twe :
and four quart basket are moat
commonly used, .which, usually re
ceives a premium ot one to four
cents when properly branded. "
The standard wooden " veneer
basket, of the Climax type has
been adopted for table stock In
the two, four and 'twelve-quart '
sizes. The federal . statute ot
1916 prescribes the demensions .
of the standard container. 7
The try or lug box Is a low, nar
row open box. holding 2S to 10
pounds of grapes. Tbe try! Is
generally used for bulk .shipments,
but should not be used where the
appearance ot the package will at-
feet the sale of the fruit.
The gift case Is used mostly, in .
the eastern market; it Is a small
case, holding eight two-quart (
baskets. , . ,
The market baskets; the sizes
run from 8 to 16 quarts, the half- '
bushel and one-third bushel -baskets
are most frequently used.
The Delaware is an eight bas
ket carrier used In the eastern
states for fancy stock. It is r
crate composed of two la yen of
four baskets each, the baskets be
ing of two quart size.
Marketing. . .
Tbe sale from the grower, tp the
consumer is not always possible :
bacause of conflicting factors,
Credit must be given to tbe much
criticized middlemen who have de
veloped the grape industry. The
grape Industry is in a very good
condition so far as distribution Is
concerned. In this section the
farmer who has only a small
quantity of grapes to dispose of
usually sells them through his
grocer, while the larger .growers
make a large per cent of their
sales direct to the consumer and
ship to the commission men that
part of their crop which they can
not sell locally. J"
t'nferniented Grape Juloe.
For home manufacture of grape
juice the fruit should be clean,
ripe, but not over-ripe. An ordin- '
ary cider mill is very good to
crush and press, or they may be7
pressed out by band. Tbe juice,
should be gradually heated In a
doube boiler at a temperature ot
180 degrees F to 200 degrees FV
but not, over 200 degrees F. The
juice should then Joe placed In
enameled vessels and. let stand for
24 hours; then drain the juice oft.
from the sediment and filter
through woolen cloth. After, til
tering place in clean bottles, leav- '
ing air space in each bottle. Place
the bottles into a wash boiler -and. '
fill in with water around the bot
tles until the water is within
about two inches of tbe top of tbe .
bottles; heat gradually until the
water boils. Take the bottles out
and cork and seal - with wax or
paraffin. Un fermented ' grape
luxe when properly made and
Kept In sealed bottles will keep
The following application was
received by the civil service com
mission from a backwoodsman:'
Question 1. In what state or
territory do you claim actual bona
fide residence? t
Question 2. Length of resi
dence in such state br territory?
Answer ' Fortv.twn w i
I inches. Browning's Magazine, , '