Image provided by: University of Oregon Libraries; Eugene, OR
About The Oregon statesman. (Salem, Or.) 1916-1980 | View Entire Issue (Nov. 11, 1920)
THE OREGON STATESMAN. SALEM. OREGON.
THURSDAY MORNING. NOVEMBER It; 1020
It Should Be Made an Qffense Ag to Maintain Other than
frahquette or Mayette Walnut Tree for the Good of Our Coming Industry
WE VILL SOON SEE THE DAY
OF CAR LOT WALNUT SHIPMENTS
Iht i the Prediction of Knight Pearcy,; Who Believes
the Salem District Has a Big Future in the Cultivation
: of Walnut Trees Recommends Grafter Trees
(Tne following was written by
Knight Pearcy, former secretarf
of the Western Walnut ass
elation, who for the last sev
rt years has been dTeP
iut Skyline orchards, a 200
tere walnut and ' prune prop
erty in the Liberty district.
?earey with his brttrs. all Ore
con Agricultural college gradu-j
ales, who hare had a wide o r-f
charding experience, last ear
organized a business in Sa'em af
-Pearcy Bros., in contracting the
planting and care of orchards,
renovating orchards that are not
paying, and selling fruit, nut and
berry properties: )
The past winter, when the tem
wrature dropped as low as 20 de
cree, below xero in parts of the
' 'alley caused considerable Injury
to many of onr walnut plantings.
This injury is much more notice
able in some sections than in oth-
. ers and more so in 8om orchards
than in others. A visitor driving
through-certain sections of the
valley would conclude from his
observations that the walnut in
dnitrv had been wiped out, while
driTlng through other sections be
will see the trees neavy wun crop.
There is very tittle injury evi
dent in most of the bill orchards.
Where injury is found in these
orchards it vill usually be found
that the trees injured are in low
vitality from too close planting,
poor drainage.- lack of cultiva
tion or from other causes.
There is an orchard at Salem
Heights that bore a crop this year
that weighted downthe limbs of
many rees to the danger point.
There are many other plantings
that can be! mentioned that pro
duced heavily this year, enduring
the intense cold of lest December
without even a perceptible loss of
crop. While the bill orchards
were In jrfred' little or not at all
some of the bottom land orchards
likewise escaped serious injury.
The writer 'recently bad occasion
to examine a four year old nut or
chard near Wheatland and found
that 75 per cent of the trees had
not suffered except for tip injnry.
The' trunks and main limbs weT
not injured. . Other orchards a
few 'miles a way In somewhat simi
lar locations were froren to the
Why some of the plantings es-
' - . . , J . 1 I w.
capea serious injury ana owi
very similar locations suffered
vratly Is often hard to explain.
Soma sections of our bottom lands
seem ts be more subject to frost
thn othet. Som of our peach
orchards north of -town produce
regular crops while others aTe very
frennentlr. frosted. The same
condition will probably be found
to be true-with the walnut, and it
to rervnfobable that some of
those plantings that got by in
good shape are a Ittle better pro
tected from some cause.
The injury of the past winter
alone should not be enough to
cause ns to abandon the planting
of walnut orchards out of the
hill sections, as there is a .very
good -chance that .e will never
aula we such a low temperature
here-especially in -early Decem
ber before the Jxees are complete
ly dormant. .
However, It has long been no
ticed that the low land walnut
trees are much mors often hit by
lat. spring and- early .fall frosts
than are the well located hill or
rolling land plantings. This lia
bility to. frost injuty should not
result in a complete cessation of
planting in the lower lands, but
it should cause a grower to think
deeply before putting- his all into
a walnut -planting in such loca
The Talley and river bottoms
will grow larger 'trees and will
oring tnem to a good bearing size
berore the hill Orchard locations
can be brought into an equal con
dition,' and when not injured by
frost will usually bear more nuts
than the hill orchards of equal
age. Whereas in the hills we
would plant walnuts SO or 60 feet
apart with fillers between the
trees at the rate of three fillers
to each walnut tree, in the loca
tions more subject to frost we
would plant the walnuts Pioni i5
to 100 feet apart and with eight
to 13 fillers to each walnut tree.
Part of these fillers would al
ways remain in the orchard so as
to give two crops on the same
ground. The walnuts would be
shaded little by the smaller filler
trees and would !bear more per
trea. whenever theYe was a crop,
than In a solid planting of wal
nuts and the grower would always
have the filler crop to fall back on
in case of a -frost injury. -
- We would not abandon the val
ley and bottom locations for wal
nut growing, but we would pro
tect ourselves by a two crop plant
ing as above suggested.
The Best Fillers
The prune, the filbert and the
sour cherry make the best fillers
for a walnut orchard. All of these
trees begin bearing at an earlier
age t nan does the walnut ana win
cause the orchard to be a com
mercial success before the first
crop of walnuts is harvested.
These varieties do not develop
large trees, so make better fillers
than. does the apple' or sweet
cherry. - : ;
We often hear people say that
the walnut does not need cultlva
tion when It grows to be a little
This is a fallacy.
There is not an orchard in the
Willamette valley not well culti
vated that is producing the crop
that it would produce were It wen
cared for, and it fs these uncared
for. tree that are the -first to no
tice any unfavorable climatic con
ditton, such as low temperatures
or drouth. .-:,-.. r
Grafted Trees Best
Many people are confused on
the. question of sedlmgs and gran
ed trees. All the grafted trees
originally came from a sfednnp
tree. The only way to maintain
the characters of a desirable seed
ling is let tropogate it by grafting
or budding. If one undertakes to
grow new trees from the seeds of
a desirable tree he will have poor
success, as every tree will differ
in some respect from eveTy other
tfree rrowine from the seeds of
that particular tree, but by graft
ing scions of this tree on other
trees we can obtain trees that will
resemble the parnt tree In, very
i Many seedling orchards are
vleldine verv attractive returns
but the grafted trees due to their
uniformity yield mtfch better re
The walnut, when from good
grafted stock and when well cared
for, will begin to produce eood
crops the eighth, ninth or ttnth
year generally. . -
We know of one nine-vea'r-old
grafted orchard that averaged
23 pounds per tree and of a 10-year-old
orchard that produced
$1000 worth of nuts and $2000
worth of peaches from its fillers
on a seven-acre tract. vV
Many of our old Orchards f are
yielding a thousand pounds per
acre, and we have every reason to
believe that by the time our graft
ed orchards are 13 or 20 years
old we will often find yields of a
ton per acre.
Such is the case in California,
where the seedling orchards yield
about the same as do our seed
lings, and they have many grafted
orchards that have gone much' bet
ter than a ton per acre.S
The walnut has suffered some
injury by the late freeze, but its
culture will be continued even in
the valley and bottom locations.
In the hills there is no crop that
offers more attractive possibilities,
where proper location is first se
cured. We will soon see the day when
Oregon nuts are rolling In car
MORE WALNUTS VILL BRING
MORE WEALTH TO THIS VALLEY
The Oregon Franquette and Mayette Walnuts Are Bound
to Come to the Front in the World's Markets as the
Choicest and Best Walnuts Grown Will Increase in
Value Every Year
the sell made very firm about theUween the company and the sUte! payment of $ZQQ9 at the rate of Ja compromise the com pa ay agreed
(The following article was wriU
ten in the early part of this year
by Jesse Huber, the well known
farmer and writer of the Salem
The English walnut' has, by
universal consent, been crowned
king of the nut family and regally
does it bear the crown.
We have three states only in
which the English walnut is
grown commercially. California,
with her 50,000 acres af walnut
orchards, sends around 25,000,-
000 pounds of nuts each year into
our markets, i ,- , .
Oregon has 8000 acres of or
chards, much of which is still be
low bearing age. These trees
yielded 200,000 pounds in 1918. .
The state of Washington Is
credited with 325 acres of these
Yamhill county leads all other
Oregon counties in walnut orch
ards. There, are 4000 acres in
that county. Marion steps alone;
with 1000 acres, as well as a very
large number of individual trees
in family orchards on the farms
and located en city lots.
In Salem are found walnut
trees a quarter century old, wide
spreading, symmetrical in form
beautiful as an ornamental tree
and useful in their annual crop of
It Is now definitely - demon
st ratea mat walnut culture on a
commercial scale in western Ore
gon may be made a paying propo
sition. , .
To insure success, however, all
the requirements which expert
ence has demonstrated to be ne
cessary in establishing a profit
able walnut orchard must be care
fully met. The indifferent treat
ment of even one-of these fs cer
tain to modify the results which
might be expected.
Location is of prime Impor
tance. The site selected for the
trees should be on deep, fertile
loam. It must be well drained
In the eastern states the black
walnut is not found on ridges
where the soil Is shallow. Nature
establishes these trees only on
the best soil.
Nearly all of the large walnut
trees In the Ohio river basin are
anchored in the rich alluvial loam
along the streams.
In the Willamette valley this
same: demonstration worked out
by nature also applies in growing
the English walnut tree.
But there is one consideration
which has caused some planters
to seek locations for their trees
on elevated sites so as to avoid
possible frosts when" the trees are
It Is yet too early to state defi
nitely what are the most desir
able locations under Willamette
valley conditions when all factors
of influence are taken Into ac
Luther Burbank once was cred
ited with the published statement
that there is but one way to start
a walnut orchard for best results.
end that is to plant three or four
black walnut seed where you want
your tree to stand.
At the end of the second year
the strongest of these seedlings
should be grafted to English wal
nuts with scions taken from a
tree known to bear full yields of
huts standard In quality and size.
The remaining seedlings should
hen be removed.
The variety recommended for
lanting in the Willamette valley
s tne Kranquette with a limited
umber of Mayette trees stationed
through the orchard to serve as
A to what kind of walnut stock
to pUnt. I would simply say. don't
punt seedlings unless you propose
to graft them to standard varieties
later. If I were planting now and
could buy good Oregon rrown
trees, grafted on California black,
t $1 to $1.25 per tree, I should
certainly choose such treets in
preference to any others. But If
I could not get such trees I would
plant good sturdy seedlings of
California black, ' and ' top graft
them later. : h's top grafting may
'di-ae fr ya$ after le se
ir.g i t J In the orcha-t
or it may be delayed until the
fifth or sixth year. In case It Is
done the second year, the main
trunk of the reedling should be
grafted at i point to 12 Inches
above the crown; yhould the graft
ing be delayed until the later date
mentioned, the seedling should be
developed into the permanent
form of the tree, and five tr six
of the main branches of this tree
should be grafted at a distance of
five-to six feet from the ground.
, As to the most desirable and
profitable varieties of walnuts to
plant in this section, there is now
IV tie question that the Voorman
Frauquette leads all other varie
ties.' We still adhere to the Swiss
Mayette as one of the best to plant
with Vrooman, although it suf
fered more than the latter variety
from the freeze of last December.
Mr. Blake of West Kelser. found
the Parlssene much the hardier of
all varieties growing on his
place, and as it is productive and
of extra fine quality. It Is 'worth
planting, though not large In size.
There are many fanners and city
dwellers who. while not desiring
to go Into the walnut business.
would yet like to plant a few trees
.about their grounds for ornamen
tal effects as well as for the nuts
they would yield. Such planters
will do well always to secure good
grafter Vrooman' trees from relia
ble nurserymen. These trees
should be carefully planted and
either mulched or cultivated thor
oughly for the first five or six
years, after which they will do
well la sad. A walnut tree is slow
to start, and requires extra good
care for the first three or four
years after planting out.
Now let us see how many of
those worthless English seedlings
and California blacks we can get
grafted to Vroomans next spring.
We did not make, much headway
In Harney and Malheur rountie. I ' Pr -
The whole amount Is $125,000 of I
Tbe lands are
1 ! . a v. . a. w .
whlrh l?5ftno ... ,t.i . .r n,CB a;wgeo me -!
ago. Another S5&.000 will be paid "",v vr
November 10, 1521. The payment talned fraudulently and which the
was accompanied by an interest 'state sought to rvaia by suit. In
l to pay the state iiz.evv xor a
those title to quit claim deed to a part of the
lands and screed to sell 19.0V9
acres at a price wklcn this week
was fixed by the company at an
averare of about I7S per acre.
The space between the trees last season, but hope to do better
mould be 45 or 50 feet. After next.
15 or 20 years of growth each
tree will occupy considerable
space. Crowding of walnut trees
In an orchard will react on the
yield. . - i
The unoccupied ground may be
utilized by growing small fruit
or vegetables for a Humber'Vf
A very encouraging feature McmherS 01 Growers Co-
aDout tne walnut industry is mat
market requirements cannot be
supplied at a price within reach
of the average consumer. The
United States imports annually
about 50.000,000 pounds of Eng
lish walnuts. Spain and France Id red and ninety-five pounds of
Report Heavy Crops
Forty-five thousand, three hun
are the heaviest producers. . From
China we get annually around
7,000,000 pounds of what are
known commercially as Manchu
rian walnuts. The Oregon grow
er has, therefore, to concern htm
self only with the question of
growing the product and prepai
ing it attractively for the mar
ket by properly curing and grad
ing the nuts.
WALNUT ASSOCIATION WILL
1 MEET AT PORTLAND NEXT WEEK
Matter of Speeding Up on Nursery Stock Will No Doubt
be Taken Up Two Salem Men Scheduled to Speak
; . Knight Pearcy, the well known
specialist, says the setting out of
walnut orchards would be much
vore general in the Salem district
if there did not exist such a short
age of the best nursery stock, j
The acreage In California al
most doubled In the ' past five
Tears, while in Oregon the nur
series got behind during the war,
oa account of the scarcity of com
petent help, and for other reasons.
It will be two or three years
yet, perhaps, before our nurseries
in Oregon catch' up on walnut
trees of the 'right varieties. This
Walnut Association Meeting
The sixth annual meeting of the
Western Walnut association will
be held at the Chamber of Com:
merce, Portland next week, the
dates being the 17th and 18th. It
is likely that at this meeting ef
forts will be made to speed up the
nnntvinr of narserr stock.1
Both Prof. C. I. Lewis and
Knight Pearcy -t of Salem, are
scheduled on the program for ad
every prospective walnut grower
in the. Salem district ought to cut
out the following article, or fue
away this paper, for future refer
ence. It is a letter to The States
man, under 'date of November 8,
1920, by S. H. Van Trump, jcounty
fruit inspector of Marion eounty: )
DATES OF SLOGANS IN DAILY STATESMAN
(In Twice-avWeek Statesman Following Day)
Loganberries, Oct. 7.
Prunes, Oct. 14.
Dairying, Oct 21.
. Flax, Oct. 28.
'Filberts, Nor. 4.' "
Walnuts, Nov. 11.
Strawberries, Nov. 18.
' Apples, Nov. 25.
f Raspberries. Dec. 2. . . "
Mint, Dec. 9. ' - V
Creat cows. Dec. 1C.
Blackberries, Dec. 23.
' Cherries, Dec. 30.
; Pears. Jan. 6, 1921.
? Gooseberries. Jan. 13.
4 -Corn, Jan. 20.
- Celery, Jan. 27.
i Spinach. Feb. 3.
f Onions. Feb. 10.
. .Potatoes, Feb. 17.
Bees. Feb. 24.
Mining. March 2.
Goats. March 9.
' Beans, March 16. '
I Pared highways, March 23.
; Broccoli, March. 30..
I f Hos, April . .
legumes, April 13.
, Agparagng April 20.
-Crapes, April 27, '
Drug garden. May 4.
Sugar beets. May II.
Sorghum, May 18.
Pahhapc ,Mar 25. .
- Poultry and Pet Stock, June 1.
Land, June .
Dehydration, June 15.
Unna Jnna 22.
Wholesale and Jobbing, June
29. ' , ,
Cncumbers. July 6.
Hogs, July 13. . ,
City beautiful, flowers
butts, July 20. f
: Schools, July 27.
Sheep, Aug. 3. -
National Adrertlsinff, Aug,
Seeds. Aug. 17.
Llrestock, Aug. 24.
intnmntivA Industry, Aug.
.nrain and Grain Product.
Sept. 7. , .
irannfaMtlvJn?. SeDt. 14.
Woodworking and other things,
d.mi Mill. Sent. 28.
( Back" cbJRes'kr Salem Slogan
i.in nf The Daily Oregon
Statesman are on hand. They are
. in arh. mailed to
ior Biiic k-vy..-
yaj addressT- " .
GROWING A WALNUT ORCHARD
IN THE RICH SALEM DISTRICT
County Fruit Inspector Van Trump Tells What Kind of a
Location, What Kind of Soil, What Methods and What
Varieties He Would Recommend; Information From several-large orchards of English
i r I walnuts, eacn or more tnan iv
Long and Large Experience 1 acres, besides quite a number of
maiier incu, win cum a iai
bear In r within a Tear or two
(Erery walnut grower and
English walnuts were grown this
season by members of the Oregon
Growers Co-operative association.
These have been washed. -almost
all graded and will soon bo as
sembled at the Salem. Yamhill
and,Sheridan plants ready for de
The grading will place on the
market three sizes. Jumbo, No.
and No. 2. The meat of the Ore
gon walnut Is regarded by expert
Xroit and nut men as superior la
quality to the California crop
As tbe English walnut acreage
is rapidly developing in the Wil
laraette and Umpqua valleys, the
Oregon Growers Co-operative as
sociation is working with grow
ers to standardize and to have the
nut properly washed, dried and
graded before placed on the mar
Reports received at the office
of the Oregon Growers show that
In "an article which 1 contrib-
nted to the first annual report of
the Western Walnut association, jl
said: . " !
"Mr observation and experience
during the past twelve years leads
me to believe that the best sous in
Marion county for the culture of
the walnut are the first and sec
ond; bottom lands, lying adjacent
to the natural water courses -of
the valley." . ' .
Most walnut growers 01 mis
vallev believed this view to te
correct until the severe and disas
trous I experience or s Decern Der.
19 iy. The extreme com 01 iasi
December was fatal to very many
of the walnut orchards planted on
thA low lands.. and. inasmucn as
walnut orchards growlng-4n the!
hill sections came through In first
class condition and nore gooa
crops the past season, we are all
now looking to these higher eleva
tions as the . peramnent nome 01
the English walnut. , ' .
If I were planting a walnut or
chard this coming year I would
endeavor to exercise great care In
selecting a suitable soil and loca
tion. I should prefer an elevation
two to four hundred feet above
the floor of the valley, with a gen
tle slope in any direction that
would afford good drainage for
air and surface water. I should be
particular about the depth and
quality of the soil that it should
soil without hard-pan, or Imper-i With this additional acreage, tt Is
vious shale, and possessing good estimated that ths English walnut
natural drainage. I
this soil at the earliest possible .Treed 100.000 sounds
date to a depth of 8 to 10 inches. i order properly to place this
thus giving an opportunity for j4rge crop on the market to the
weathering and mellowing of snr- advantage and to enable the
face during winter season. Next in public to become familiar with
order I would mark off my the high quality of the home pro-
ground, locate the position or eaen duct, the Oregon Growers is co
tree, and blast each hole at a operating wjtb owners of English
depth of three feet with one-half walnut orchard, urging standard
stick of powder. This work should izatioa and a proper preparation
be done this fall and the holes of the walnut for the . general
tnouia De leit open untu planting i maraei.
time next spring. The distance to
plant walnuts will vary with.fer-
tiiity ot the soil, on hiii land of 5alem People Attend
average rerlliity, 40 to ieet is . a v tL I V 1
sufficient distance. I should pre- fflineT AdeUielm S rnnfffll
ter to plant in squares 45 feet
each war with a filbert half way a number of Salem people at-
between each walnut. This meth- tend the funeral of Father Adel.
helm Odermatt. founder of Mount
Angel college, which was htld a:
! Mount Angel yesterday. Anion
those going from here were tne
Rev. J. R. Duck. Justice George
IT. Frnett. Sisters Juliana and
The proper time to plant Clare Marie. Dr. Schoettle. Mr.
is during, favorabmw. -'" r'
n9tli In Fphrnarv and March. TS. r.n mum."m. .!.
when sol, is not wet. The blastel Mr. and Mr.
holes should be carefully !!"! ;"'" n r. Th F
with surface soil to within 15 In- S'UniwilT iteWd!
che, of tcp of ground, being par: Br Ln " u
sun-1 w1 - - --- r, mm -,..,.
ana ur. it. r..
od of planting will give 20 wal
nuts and 0 filberts per acre,
r-hlch will fully occupr the ground
when they come to bearing ags.
During the first three or four
years beans, peas or strawberries
nay be grown between the rows ot
walnuts is during.
tlcular to get all spaces in
soil filled and firmed. In planting
the tree care should be taken to
prune away all injured or dis
eased roots, setting the tree two
to three Inches deeper than when
In the nursery. Surface soli should
be filled In about the roots, the
sub-soil placed on top and all
v K i v firm ai mnA narked
. . . j m trilir made the state a pay
aDout me rwi u VT ' . " V . Mrt of the
young tree. In planting tne m- mem i for
filberts it will not be necessary to amoont to be paid i. return for
Paafic Livestock Company
Makes Payment to State
The. Pacific Livestock company
lire 10 toM in che'sof 0:1 bVtThe Vole, but they should be a unit claim deed
tJJ, light Surface loam, and suh-ldus ot good size and dcylU audi wtre Inrolved In
7:30 TONIGHT 7:30
Eugene Bible Unirersit Evangelists
I 5 Fine Fellows 5
EVANGELIST A. TED GOODWIN
. 19 year old preacher
With Message for High School Students
4 Gospel Singers 4
'x NoTemher 11-14 : i"
Court Street Christian Church
Known as "Bungalow," Corner North 17th and Court Sts.
COME SING ENJOY
j i ii i I
at 9 o'clock, at The
Store Closed All
Day Thursday ;
Ads Showing the Tremendous Cuts
in Friday's Papers. ;
Wild Elk Bocfcr