The Oregon statesman. (Salem, Or.) 1916-1980, January 26, 1918, Page 1, Image 1

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Unsettled weather, probably
rain; moderate northwesterly
: i
, , .
: Letters From Swift's ; Files
Show Efforts, to Defeat Con
. gxesjional Inquiries Into
y"i - Business in Year. 1916
mure cnoccttir
Congressman Stockholder Ap-
pealed to -Documents Are
' WASHINGTON, Jan. 25. Activi
ties behind the scenes in Washing
ton during agitation in 1916 for an
Investigation into the livestock re
packing Industry .; were revealed to
dajr in correspondence taken Jtrprn
the confidential- files of Swift and
company of Chicago, showingthe ef
forts of the bis pack in a: firms to de
feat any Inquiry-.lnto their business.
The' correspondence was introduced
at the resumption of the ., federal
trade commission's . investigation
. which i k was . transferred 1 abruptly
from the - middle west When Walter
Twombly,- an agent of the commis
sion, unearthed from the Swift files
documents' regarded us of such sen
sational import that Francis J. Hen-ey.-
special counsel, - and, his, assist
tnts, hurried here, from Chicago to"
put the discoveries into the official
records ''"' fc V;- 'r li.f -' : . . ;
During the period covered by the
Correspondence ''there were pending
in congress resolutions Introduced by
Representatives Borland of Missouri
and Doolittle of Kansas, proposing
inquiry Into conditions of livestock
marketing ? "which.' cattlemen had
charged "permitted 'the packers to
manipulate the market as they chose.
A report on the situation made by
counsel to G. F.. Swift Jr. and other
officers of the fira said
, . i Criminal Act Admitted.
, !'I believe the situation to be se
rious and recommend that every
thing be done in every direction to
t head off the present movement Ws
believe that as it stands today, noth
ing could -'stop ' criminal prosecu
tions." ", -
. Jn addition to working in Wash
ington the . packers went to " th
source,, of the agitation for an in
quiry. Their records .howed " tnev
were kept Informed of 'the-plans of
the American National Livestock as
sociation by T W. Tomjinson, secre
tary, and made their preparations
to nullify the association's work-in
addition, ''educational" work was
undertaken at the association's con
tention and counsel recommended
that the packers assist conservative
elements in the various associations
to gain control and hush the oppo
sition. . y ' .'
- Immediately ; after ? the .Borland
resolution was introduced In con
gress; according to the records. Ar
mour, Swift and Morris arranged to
oppose it Later Cudahy was asked
to join them because it-was suggest
ed counsel for -that firm had "pow
erful acquaintances" in Washington.
Investigation Are Feared.
It. C. McManus, counsel for Swift.
' proceeded to Washington to keep in
touch with developments. If the
resolution could not be killed in com
mittee, the packers proposed "to
. draw a herring: across the investiga
tion trail" as Commissioner Murdock
phrased If, by having the bureau of
markets commence publication of
livestock and beef price data, which
they hoped would make an investi
gation unnecessary. Vailing that, it
was proposed to have any investlga-
tion touch merely the economic phas
es of the industry and be conducted
by the bureau of markets, rather
than the federal .trade commission.
though the commission was prefer
red to a congressional committee, as
likely to be less Influenced by polit
ical considerations. r f .
"'Ia connection with references to
an effort to obtain governmental
publication of price figures furnish
ed br themselves through an amend
ment to the agriculture appropria
tion bill, Mr; Heney announced that
this matter would be the subject of
'very interesting documents to be
introduced tomorrow. 7
. KtorkhoKler In Congress.
According to the evidence, as time
for hearings, on the norland resoln-
, tion drew near the Doolittle resolu-
non Having dropped, many emmi-
-saries were sent to Washington. Sen
tor Wadsworth of-New York, who
Ilency said wan a ntnrk holder ih
Swift and company," was appealed to
ior aid. W. H. Gates, at that time
t "airman of the Democratic statfl
committee of Colorado, according to
documents, reported on the at
titude of varions senators andcon
crewmen, especially hie friend. Sen
or Thompson of Kansas, whom he
characterized jis a good man to stav
ciose to and recommend that Swift
hd company gr hig firm some of
aeir Kansas business
' Oates also rpoorted that advisers
of the president declared he opposed"
n tlOrlanit r-1 ntlnn aa HlKtlirhlnZ
(.Continued on page C.)
Necessity for Quick Training
Prevented Proper Health
Conditions .
Failure to Requisition Ships
Kept National aGuard
From France
WASHINGTON. Jan. 25. From
Surgeon General Gorgas the senate
military committee today sought
light upon health and sanitary con
ditions In the army, resuming its in
vestigtaion suspended a few days. ago
to present the reorganization legisla
tion about which centers the commit
tee row with the administration.
General Gorgas , reiterated state
ments made in his official reports to
the department rter a tour of ,inr
spection, that the .crowding of men
In the cantonments and camps not
ready to receive them was largely
responsible for the epidemics of dis-
ease which have raged at some of the
posts. He agreed with other officers
who have preceded him on the stand.
however, as to the necessity for hur
ried training.' r
(."Wouldn't It have been better to
have waited until the , cantonments
weje ready?" asked Senator Frellng-
,"Frora a physical .standpoint, yes,"
the general replied, "but I think the
training of these men should not
have been delayed." '. .
t Hospital constrvfetion was stopped
last summer that barracks might be
erected fasten he explained, and no
camp hospital is complete now.
though sanitation ' conditions are
improving as shown by recent mor
tality reports. Gen al Gorgas em
phasized the need for observation
camps, the establishment of which is
beine- considered. He did not con
sider clothjng shortage as an impor-.
tant factor in the - pneumonia epi
demic. General Gorgas said mat
with the exception of Cf mp Funston.
Kansas, all camps were aamiraDiy
located from a sanitation standpoint.
!Rnntnr Wadsworth gurgested tnai
lack nf central-oower could be held
largely responsible for overcrowding
and-inadequate clothing supplies. He
said he had been Informed tnat tne
war department eipei;ieu w
the national guard to France nerore
winter but had -not co-operated with
the shipping board to the extent oi
requisitioning tonnage to send it
across. " .
j Questioned about hospital ships-
General Gorgas said the question had
ben taken np by nim seven or eigm
months ago and that he waV expect
ing decision every day. He had
been told' it was decided that the
navy should control these ships.
darence GWho Said Wo
I man Once Married Him, 1
Is Assailant
I TnrtTLAlifD. Jan.,?5. Mrs. Gladys
Morden. 2?. was twice hot tonlgat
by Clarence Gay. and at the hospital
v here she was taken, it wa8 8a id she
would likely die. Guy then started
toward a shipyara wnero
man'a husband was employed., say
tog e would kill him also, but
arrested before he reached therfe.
At the jail Guy said the woman
had been married to him at Vancou
ver, Wash., las November. Mrden
denied this, aaylng he himself had
marked her at Vancouver carry with
in the present month. Inspection
of the records at Vancouver ojtfcd
licenses to wed had been Usuedto
each man on the dates ae claimed,
Guy's to wed Gladys PensHen and
Morden's to wed Emmeline Clark.
Officers tonight said Mrs. Morden
had admitted having married both
1 Transfusipn of blood was resorted
totonight in an effort to save Mr.
Morden's life. Morden and her
btother furnishlns.the blood.
. ' . t .
Destroyed; Loss JZUU,UUU
BALTIMOllE. Jan. 25. The ship
building' plant of the llenry Smith
and Sons' company at Curtis Bav
was fired tonight about the same
time that the Oel la woolen mills in
Baltimore county, near EUIcot City,
were burned. ' " 'f'j'' -
i Both concerns were engaged upon
government 'contracts. The loss to
the shipbuilding company is estimat.
ed a half a million; the loss to the
mill about 1200.000. At' the ship
building, plan! two watchmen fired
vpon a supposed incendiary who
leaped fnto the water and was prob
ably drowned.
If They Do Not Go, We Do
Not Know What May Hap
pen," McCormitk Reports
at Inquiry Officers Said
Happenings . of Session Held
: Behind Closed Doors Are
WSHINGONrv Jan. 25. Some in
teresting disclosures regarding army
affairs at home and abroad wero
made today through publication of
confidential testimony given recent
ly "before the senate millitary com
mittee In executive session. -
Statements of nearly all "wit
nesses heard behind closed doors, ex
cept Major General Croizer, chief of
ordnance, were given in tne usual
printed report of committee pro
ceedings. One that created some
thing of a stir among members of
congress and in official circles gen
erally was that of Representative Mc
Cormick of Iiilinois, who back from
a visit to the allied' battle front j.
told the committee allied officials
were apprehensive regarding coordi
nation of American war manage
ment; that Premier Lloyd-George
earnestly suggested General Leonard
Wood's appointment as the American
military representative abroad and
that high officers in. General Persh
ing's command ufged that Major
General Crozler, chief, of ordnance,
and Quartermaster General Sharpe
be superseded.
Decision Is Defended;
In the confidential testimony of
General Sharpe he defended the de
cision to send General Pershings' ex
pedition to ranee sooner than had
been planned, .and the calling into
service of more men than had been
provided for. He said he knew and
formally notified Secretary Baker
that clothing shortages woul result,
but , that even . with the sacrifice of
some lives, as many men as possible
should be summoned for the effect
on the Germans.
Some of the statements In secret
session of Major Generals Greblr,
O'Ryan and Wright after their re
turn from the French front, ' "also
were made public. General GrebleJ
said that in October the allied artil
lery was unquestionably superior in
effect to the German's and that Gen
eral Pershing's men were well cloth
ed and equipped. ;
All of the testimony of General
Crozler was ordered kept confident
ial. So.OOO Big Guns Needed. ,
Mr. McCormick in his statement
said that for the American and allied
armies to break through on the west
ern front they must' have 25,000
more big guns and that ft is im
possible for the allies to make them.
The French, he said, cannot make
the guns, f Every man In France,"
he declared, "is needed to makeg una
for France or to be on the line. We
have to 'ship the steel to them. I
can only say an I quote the man
who won the battles that it is im
possible tohave too many guns.
"We ought to set 25,00 as the
mark and 20,000 as a minimum."
Representative McCormick said he
did not think production could be
attained v under the present system
and suggested creation of a minister
of munitions.
The witness said Lloyd George has
insisted that in making big guns the
United States would not. add a third
caliber. : i . -
'"You know we have done it,"
question Senator Wadsworth.
Sharpe And Crozier 0liked.
"I did not know It." Mr. McCor
mick replied, but I -an trery easily
believe it from what else I have
heard since I have been hdme. The
most disappointing news I have
heaid was not on the Italian front or
in France, but since I have come
back. " I could- not say specifically,
except here and there, what Is wrong,
but members of the senate and house
on both sides, give me"the impres
sion that we lack the coordination
and energy, which is especially mark-,
ed in- London the tremendous ad
ministrative -machine which they
have over I there. They said 'why
do you not summon so and so and so
and so to Washington to sit in coun
cil?'" ' ;
I In references to Generals Crozler
and Sharpe, Mr. McCormick said:
f would rather not mention any
names but the most Important
American' officers said: 'If Sharpe
and Crozier do not go we do not
know what may happen.' "
? "Whom do they have confidence
in over thert? ' Asked Senator New.
; "They talked of General Marsh, 1
think. Some of these names are un
familiar to me. They spoke of Gea
eral Morrison and General Wood.
These are the three men who wei-
mentioned as representing the best
military 'Intelligence we have."
: Discussing air fighting, Mr. Mc
Cormick said the French were short
of officer for aviation.
I Continued, on Page 6).
High School Debaters Defeat
Estacada and Hubbard
Teams Last Night
Monroe Doctrine Again Fur
nishes Contention for Op
posing Speakers
Salem high'school won the debat
ing championship of the .North Will
amette district last niKhty defeat-J
ing, Dy unanimous votes oi tne
judges, beth the Estacjada high
school and the Hubbard hah school
teams. The victories together with
Salem's success over the Albany and
the Oregon City teams a (few days
ago. puts Salem in the rujnning for
the state championship. Estacada
last night won a 3 to 0 victory over
Hubbard at the latter i!ace.
The subject discussed was the
same as debated in the previous con
test: "Resolved-, That the United
States should abandon the Monroe
doctrine." '
The negative side of the question
was f.rheld by Salem in the debate
at hornet 'The 'members of the team
were Dewey Probst and Paul Rich
ardson. Their opponents on the Es
tacada team vreref Lewis Jones and
Lorna. IVtIs.
At Hubbard the Salem team. Ken
neth Power and Phillips Elliott, took
the affirmative side of the question.
The North Willamette Valley dis
trict over which Salem has won the
championship is composed of Linn.
Marion and Clackamas counties. .
The judges of the loeal contest last
if'ght were Professor E. T. Reed and
Professor U. Gv Dubach,: respectively
college editor and professor of gov
ernment at Oregon Agricultural col
lege, and Judge E. P.' Morcom of
Woodbum. -
Dinwoodie to ln for Legis
lature Al Jones Unde
cided About Senate
John Dinwoodie of Woodbum. in a
letter to Secretary of State Olcott.
informs Mr. Olcott that he expects to
becoimra candidate for the Republic
an nomination for Marion county
representative in the stateVJegisla
ture. He ask that the secretary of
state mail him all necessary Inform
ation relative to the launching of his
candidacy. - Mr. Dinwoodie is a.
W. Al. Jones, orie of Marlon coun
ty's quintet in the lower house at the
1917 sessldn. showed up in Salem
yesterday and was asked point blank
if he Is going to be. a candidate for
the state senate as has been rumored
in Salem for weeks. Mr. Jones ad
mitted he was contemplating the ven
ture but declared he fl&s not yet de
cided definitely.
A. W. Lafferty has informed Sec
retary Olcott that he- will file his
candidacy for congress by etif1o'
and not by payment of the $100 fil
ing fee.
Federal Aid in Obtaining
1918 Supply Promised '
by M. H. Houser
SPOKANE, Jan. 2Z. Promise of
government assistance in obtaining
grain bags to handle the 1918 wheat
crop was made to farmers of the
fiorthweet by M. H. Houser of 'Port
land, representative of the food
administration grain: corporation, at
the first session here today of a con
ference of growers of Washington
and Idaho on grain handling.
He said that between eight and
nine million bushels of wheat of last
year's crop would have to be moved
east by rail in the form of flour and
that 35,000,000 bushels of 1918
wheat would have to be shipped
from this section. If farmers couI3
not handle this grain in bulk, he
declared, bags can be obtained at an
advance over last year's prices.
New Contingent of .
Portuguese in France
PARIS, Jan. 25. A new contin
gent of Portugese troops has Just
been landed in France. -
Before eni barking, the troops were
reviewed by the Portugese premier,
Dr Sidonlo Paes. who reaffirmed the
Intention of Portugal to continue the
war to the end.
wu ni u iin.v 1
Difference oTone in . Aus
trian and German Notes At
tributed to. Varied Condi
tions in Two Countries
Lord Robert Cecil Calls Hert
ling's Speech Distinctly
"Warlike" -
WASHINGTON, Jan. 25. NoXad
vance toward peace ie soe-n here in
the speeches made today in Berlin
and Vienna by the German chancel
lor, and Austrian foreign minister,
upon the war aims of the centray
Formal comment will be withheld
until the texts are jut out by 'an
authorized German agency but after
reading press accounts of the speech
es officials expressed the opinion
tat they were framed largely for
internal consumption with the inci
dental purpose" to plant, seeds of dis
cord among the. allffes by suggestions
of -separate negotiations and to ap
peal to the sympathies of the radical
socialist elements In the enemy
countries. .
' German Note Aggretudve.
Regarding the design to effect the
Internal conditions of - Germany and
Austria, one official strgsested thrt
the striking differences of tone fa
the two notes, the German being al
most defiantly aggressive, and the
Austrian compromising and insinu
ating were calculated preclsefy to
.meet the varying conditions in thj
two empires. In Germany, strength
ened by the Russian collapse re
sulting in the transfer of vast forces
'from the eastern to the western
front, the militaristic party Is in the
ascendancy and 'the chancelldr,
abandoning the conciliatory attitude
he occupied when he assumed office,
apparently voices the fill of the mil-
liar; icuuciD. v
in Austria the working people are
Lreported in Incipient rebellion and
the demands for peace at almost any
price are Insistent asd clamorous.
This is the explanation found here
for the- foreign minister's vague
promises of peace without . annexa
tions or indemnities and his support
bid for negotiations direct with Am
erica. ,.
Speeches Inter-Dependent.
It is noted, however, that tha
speeches are inter-dependent:' that
Austria will not negotiate without
German's consent and approval, and
that Germany gives her sanction; to
what has' been in Austria. Both
spokesmen express confidence in the
success of the peace negotiation
with Russia, in contrast to the bitter
denunciation of the conduct of the
Teutons by Leon Trotzky, the Bol
shevikl minister for foreign affairs.
This attitude, officials and diphv
mats believe to be the result of ap
prehension that the confession at
this moment of the failure of the
Brest-Li tovsk negotiations would .ex
asperate the German and Austrian
publics beyond the safety point:
In some -quarters there was a dis
position to find a grain of hope In
the concession by both speakers that
there were points in the utterances
of Lloyd George and President Wil
son that might be acceptable to the
Germanic powers and afford the bas
is for further discussions. But oth
er officials insisted that this was
only another demonstration of the
truth of President" Wilson's state
ment in his address to congress, .that
It was the Dractice of German dinlo-
fmacy to mislead by declaring adher
ence to large principles and then
neutralize them by insistence upon
(Continued on page 2)
Eyre Leaves Band of Sheep in Care of DogVfien Mr.- , t
Smith Comes Along jn His flivver They talk Pigs- t
to School Children and
G. W. Eyre, daddy of the
United States National Bank
Pig club movement, 'always
has time for pigs and children
and will let any other job go
by the board If opportunity Is
offered to pseach pig raising
to boys and girls.
5Ir. Eyre-"was driving a band
of sheep along a rural road
yesterday when along ramts
County School Superintendent
Walter Smith In his "flivver."
"Come along over to Hayes
viile school with me." called
Smith.. I'll gove you a chance
to say something about pigs.
Mr. Eyre didn't acd sec
ond bidding. He left the
sheep in charge of his dog, and
when he and Mr. Smith fin
ished Italking lo the school
children a few minutes latr
eleven members were added to
Secretary Baker to Describe
Every Activity of War
New York Man to Be Surveyor
General of AH Munition
WASHINGTON, Jan. 25. The ad
ministration's answer to Senator
Chamberlain's seech in the senate
yesterday on war department short
comings will be made by Secretary
Baker before the senate military
committee Monday. .
Mr. Baker wrote Chairman Cham
beiiain today asking the committee
to arrange an opportunity for him to
present a summary of what has been
done in America In the war and that
a time and place be fixed so aa to
enable all members of congress so
disposed to attend. The commute
Heterrained not to have a hearing
any where except In the regularacom-
raittee room and invited the secre
tary to appear their Mondarmorning
at 10:30 o'clock unless be desired
an earlier date.
Baker To cfive Views. -
Although he Is anxious to address
. as 'many members of congress as
possible, and is said to have hoped
that he might be Invited to . appear
before the senate itseir,. it Is uuder
fcjood Mr. Baker will take the op
portunity given.-v
Commenting, before he had been
advised of the action of the commit
tee. Secretary Baker said he would
lay before the committee every fact
in connection with the war-depart
ment's activities except those which,
through publication, would endanger
the lives of American soldiers. -
He added that he wonld be glad
to answer any questions which the
committee approved from .members
of the commltte or from any other
person who might be present. .
' Stettlnius Is Named.
.The war department took a step
today regarded by some observer!
as forestalling the seriate committee's
proposed legislation for a munitions
director by appointing - Edward R.
Stettlnius of New York , surveyor
general of all war department's -purchases.
Mr. Stettinius will assume
his duties at once under Colonel
Palmer E. Pierce, director , of .pur
chases, and lend the weight of his
wide experience as supervisor of pur
chasing for .the allies In the United
States to the task of coordinating the
production and procurement of war
supplies. His work for the allies wa
taken oyer some time ago by the al
lied purchasing commission.
Mr. Baker said the organization
planned by the" department differed
essentially from any plan for a mln
irten or director of munitions. Under
the department's plan, the Individual
bureaus continue I o make contractu
and to supervise production.
F. R. Wilson Publicity Man
for Third Liberty Issue
, WASHINGTON, Jan. 25; Frank
R. Wilson?' now assistant secretary
to the federal farm loin board, -has
been selected as publicity "' director
for the third liberty loan campaign.
.- Mr. Wilson formerly was editor
and owner of the Sioux City (Iowa)
News, and for the past, year and a
half has been connected with tb-
federal farm loan board. He actd
as ai advance representative for
Secretary ' McAdoo on his Hberty
bond speaking tours and also pre
ceded thefarm loan board when it
toured the country before the organ
ization of the land banks. The date
of the campaign has not been an
nounced. Add Thirty-two. Members
the pig clubs in Marlon -county.
Hayesville school enrolled
only two members last year.
"Bat we weren't through ;
yet," said Mr. Eyre in 'speak
ing of the day's work.- "Fronj
llayesvile we ' drove over to.
-Hazel Green school and liste'J ,
twenty-one more members. "
That school also had only two
members last year."
. Mr. Eyreglves Superintend
ent Smith much credit for th
rapid progress of the work In
Marion county.' He thinks Jhe
work of organization for this
year is about half finished, and
declares , that 400 members
will , be enrolled! Should
bridge traffic be established
between Marion : and Pol
counties at Salem, however,
Mr. Eyre xpcts to work Polk
county for a distance of fifteen
miles from Salem.
' )
Imperial German Chancellor
in War Speech Holds Res
toration of Alsace-Lorraine
Beyond Realms of Discus
Agreement With U. S Term:
Is on Armament, Econcm::
Freedom, Open Diplomacy
andFceedom of Seas
AMSTERDAM. Jan, 25. In hi
address bfore the reichstag ' mal:
committee yesterday Chancellor voi
Hertling referred to the negotiation
with the Russians at Brest-LitdvisL
saying he held fast to the hope tha
a good conclusion -would be arrive
at. He continued i '
Our negotiations with the Ukrain
representatives are in a more favor
able position. Here, too, difficult
les have yet to be overcome, but tli
prospects are favorable. We hop
shortly i to reach conclusions wit:
Lkraine which will be in the inter
ests of both parties, and also econ
omically .advantageous.'
. "One result, gentlemen, might b
recorded as you all know. The Ru:
slans last month proposed to lssu
an Invitation to all the belligerent
to participate in the negotiation
Russia submitted certain proposal
of ar very general character. At the
time we accepted the proposal to in
vite -thebelligerents to take part i
the negotiations,, on the conditio:
however, that the Invitation shoul
have a definite period for Its accept
ance. " - ' .
New Enemy Views Claimed.
."Instead of the reply vrhich wa
expected, but which was not fortn
coming.two declarations were mad
by enemy statesmen Premier Lloj i
George's speech and PresldentvI
son's speech. I willingly admit thn
Lloyd George altered his tone. II
no longer Indulges In abuse and ap
pears desirious of again demonstrat
ing his ability as a, negotiator, whic:
I formerly doubted. I cannot go
far, however, as " many opinion
which have been expressed in neui
ral countries, "which would real i:
this speech "of-Lloyd George.a serlou;
desire for peace ind even a friend 1;
disposition. It is true he declare:
he does 'not desire to destroy Ger
many and never desired to destro;
her. He has even words of respec
lor our -political, economic and cult
ural position.
Early Events Recalled. --
"But other utterances-' , are D'.
lacking, and the idea : FCu'ntlnuall;
comes to the surface that he has t;
pronoiJhce judgment on Germany
charging he with being guilty of al
possible crimes. That is an attitude
with which we can hav nothing to do
and In which we can discover n
trace of a serious purpose to attaii
peace. We are to be the guilty one:?
over whom the entente Is now slttlr,
in judgment. That compels me t
give ashort review of the situatioi
and the events preceding the war
at the risk of repeating what Ion;
ago wis said: The establishment o
the German empire In the year'187;
n ade an end of dismemberment. . V.
the union of its tribes the Gerinas
empire fa ' Europe acquired a pot!
lion rorresponding to its economi
and cultural achievements and tb
claims founded thereon. BIsmar;
crowned his work Jiy the allianc
with Austro-Hun?CrK It was pure
ly a defensive alliance, so conceive'
and willed by th j exalted allies fron
the first. The defensive alliance be
tween Germany and the Danube mon
archy, closely connected by old tra
ditlons and allied countries by 'torn
mon Interest, was to serve especlaii;
for' maintenance of peace,
ImperiaJUm In Denied..
"But Bismark had even then, u
he was often reproached for havln
an obsession in regard to coalition
and events of subsequent time hav
fchown it was no vision of terroi
The danger or hostile coalition
which menaced the allied cent in
powers often made Its "appearance
By King Edward's isolation pollc
the dream of coalitions became .
reality. . The German empire, pro
gressing and growing In strength
ism. In ranee lust of revenge an
stood In the way of British imperial
Russia, aspirations of expansion, tlii
British Imperialism found only to
ready to aid. Thus future plan;
dangerous for , were -formed. -publican
France lent the Uufh'ia:
czar billions to construct stratfglca
railways in the kingdom, of Poland i:
order to facilitate an advanco aKafr