THE OREGON" SUNDAY : JOURNAL, PORTLAND,. SUNDAY MORNING, v OCTOBER 31, 1920. Hidderi in iVIounfairi Caves4 -C iT" Professor Farabee, of the University of Pennsylvania, Comes Back from South America with Dazzling Samples of Treasures Buried Centuries Ago to Keep Them from Spanish Plunderers DR. WILLIAM CURTIS FARABEBJ, the distinguished ethnologist and explorer, returning from an expedi tion in Colombia, has Just made a report to the University of Pennsylvania rereat lng the existence In South and Central America, of hidden treasure to an amount that almost staggers the imagination. It has been known, of course, that for. hundreds of years gold was Indians during their religious festivals Into the sabred lake of Guatavita in Colombia, and efforts on a considerable scale have been made to recover it. The surprising discovery made by Professor Farabee is ' that in many other lakes and In mountain caves of South and Central America pure gold is burled to a value of what he conservatively esti mates to be $300,000,000, and perhaps, much more. Part of this treasure he brought back with him, and the occasion for his report was the announcement by the Museum of the receipt of this collection and also a second one purchased in Europe. The two collections make to gether the largest in the world and their combined value is set at five million dollars. ' In one of these sacred lakes there is a huge chain of solid gold, as thick as a ship's an chor chain. Professor Fara bee's report recites. It was once strung from posts around the Palace of the Inca, at Cuzco, Peru, and it was so heavy that two hundred In dians were required to carry it. They were on their way with this chain from Cuzco to Catamarca in 1532 'to de liver it to Piiarro, when they learned their King had been strangled to death, and they threw the chain into a lake. cast bT Vs ) ft. - rfM it'1 - Four hundred other Indians In charge of as many pack loads of gold were trooping over the mountains to pay the ransom of the Inca, and they, too, threw their treasure Into lakes or hid it In mountain caves. And although three centuries have passed and millions of dollars' worth of gold has been found in the ancient Inca cemeteries, not more than a negligible part of the hidden treasure has been discovered. The European collection" was obtained the Museum In Paris. It contains ex amples of all the ancient American gold- working civilizations from Mexico to Peru, and is of particular interest because It is part of the gold that was sept back by the Spanish conquerors of these countries five hundred years ago. Since then It has been handed down through various families until it finally found its way Into the pos session of a wealthy Frenchman, who was forced to sell it because of war conditions. The second collection consists of a group of objects recently excavated in the moun tains near Ayapel, Antloqula, Colombia, . where they had been buried by the Indians tn some remote time. It is described by Dr. Fafabee as "the greatest discovery of burled treasure that has taken place in South America since the days of. the Con quest." A native farmer found the objects while digging fence posts. He came to a small mound with which, he was quite familiar, but which he had never taken the trouble to excavate. It was necessary for Kim to dig a hole at the edge of this mound, add In so doing his spade struck a small pot nery Jar. This excited his curiosity. He adug further into the mound and came to . "the edge of a huge, oblong pottery urn Shaped something like a trunk. And this is what he found at least the following list represents that part of his find finally sold to the museum; Three breastplates of thin beaten gold twenty-two Inches across.'" ' v ,- I ' I I A Mummy and Ita Golden Mask, from the Tableland of Bogata, the Home of the "Gilded Man." The Bodies of Priests and Chieftains Were Covered With Thin Plate of Gold. A Rude Death Mask, Also of Gold, Was Made of Their Features. Five circular breastplates of beaten gold from ten to thirteen inches in diameter. A girdle three feet long and seven inches wide, made of one hundred and thirty-eight solid gold bars, each four Inches long and from one-eighth to three-eighths of an inch thick. Six solid staff heads in the shape of birds, a Jaguar, a monkey one of which ia seated in a golden chair all of gold. Four hand bells of gold two Inches high. Sixteen Bolid gold nose or ear ornaments of various sizes from a half to an Inch and a half ecross. Eight fan-shaped nose rings cast in solid gold, four and a half inches wide and two inches high. J Nine strings of gold beads, one made of forty-one email bells, one of twenty-six bells, and one with a hundred and thirty five cylindrical beads. Eight plain bracelets onfi-eighth of an inch In diameter. Ten gold noBe ornaments. Twelve discs or bosses of plain gold. One funnel-shaped ornament three Inches high and two and a half inches in diameter. Gold arm band three Inches broad em bossed at both ends. A helmet of plain gold, in fragments. Six sheets of thin beaten gold sixteen by twenty inches in site, with perforations by which to hang them on garments or walls. ' These pieces, wondrously wrought and embossed, sre from the famous "Chibcha Empire," Invaded and destroyed by Que sada, who crossed the Opon Mountains, 6,500 feet In elevation, with S00 men and sixty horses. It Is a matter of history that he landed in 15S5 at Santa Marta, on the Magdalena River, and the hardships he suffered be fore reaching the "Valley of Palaces' also la of record. At CMa the bandit found the pal ace, of the Zlpa, as the ruler was cayed, forsaken and the treasure gone. But at Tunja he got $600,000 worth of gold and silver and 1,815 emeralds. "It Is estimated that one ancient cemetery In Costa Rica has yielded $50,000 worth of gold objects In the forms of birds, frogs, fish, alligators and numerous anthropomorphic forms with human and animal elements combined," says Dr. Farabee, "the most common be ing the human body with the head of an alligator, Jaguar or parrot." According to the same au thority Cortes seised gold worth $7,600,000 from prt pal ace of Montezuma in Mexico. Plxarro got even more In his conquest of Peru. "Learing of Pizarro's love for gold." says Dr. Farabee, "the Inca, Atahualpa, offered to fill the room In which he was confined with pure gold as a ransom zor nis freedom. The of fer was accepted and the gold soon began to pour In frotn all direc tions. When the room had been filled to the height a man could reach the cupidity of the Spaniard could stand the strain no longer. The gold, valued at ten or fifteen million dollars, was seized and divided among the leaders and the men in pro portion to their Stations. The loyal fifth was sent to Spain under the care of Pizarro's brother. But Atahualpa, his ransom paid,, was not re leased. He was tied to a stake, baptized and suddenly strangled with a bow string. In the meantime Plxarro had sent a brother to Pachacamac, where he stripped the temple of twenty-seven loads of gold, but he was unable to find the four hundred loads which the chief had previously Bent away for safety. When the news" of the Inca's murder reached the pack trains bearing additional g$ld for his ransom, the men turned aside with their treasures and hid them in mountain caves away from the Spaniards. "AJt Cuzco the temple occupied one whole side of . the great court. The cornice of the walls, a yard wids, outside and in was plated with gold, as were the inner walls also. At the eastern end a great plate of gold, representing the sun, spread from one wall to the other This great image was not taken for the ransom, but when the Spaniards afterward returned to Cuzco it had disappeared and was never found." Sebastian de Belalcazar found the terri tory of the Qulmbaya, the race of gold smiths, adjoining that of the Chibchas, in Colombia. It is here, in the myriad lakes and mountain caves, that Dr. Farabee and other explorers believe will be found the great bulk of the huge treasure which was . thrown into the water, not only to prevent the Spaniards from getting it, hut also as part of regular religious ceremonies. "Among the Qulmbaya," says Dr. Fara bee. "only those of, high rank, the chiefs, priests and war leaders, were allowed to wear objects of gold. They wore cotton garments ornamented with gold plates. The doors of the palisades were hung with plates of gold which gleamed In the sua and clashed melodiously in the wind. 4C) 1920. International ftsturt Service, Ine. h Atahualpa the Inca Whom Pizarro Murdered, Presiding at the Execution of His Own-Son, Huasar, and His Followers Following a Rebellion by Them a Few Years Before th Spaniards Overran the Inca Empire. From an Old Print. - - i, , j Objects of Pure GoU Among Those Brought to the Unlvanlty of I : . V! I , ' f ' :. Pennsylveala Museum bv Professor Farabee. The Idol at the V. I - Richt Is Nine Inches Hiih and Is of Quimbeva WorkmanshlD I the I-' I CW I -.-'"l f Breastplate Is 22 Inches Wide and Is One of the Three Found- ; I J X- y2 Among the Treasure of Antloqula, Colombia! the Sitting Figure Is . I -''""' XJr Representation of the "Gilded Man" from Near Lake Guatavita. - -j j. 1 s. ' s. ? N . ; Vi i ) 1 cr " t I vi '.x iter p I " gmsPx 11 WW The gold plates from the door of Sogamoso palace were valued at $80,000." The same authority declares that it Is possible to locate all the lakes that were considered sacred in ancient days by means of Indian legends which have been handed down to the present day. "The Colombian treasure," says Dr. Far abee, "was unearthed a few months ago In the department of Antloqula, not far from the famous sacred lake of Guatavita, into which enormous quantities of precious ob jects were cast as offerings to the gods at the'annual festival of the people. "Priests with treasures of gold and emeralds proceeded on a raft to the centre of the lake, burned incense and sacrificed the offerings. The high priest, who bad been sprinkled with gold dust until he ap peared a gilded man. the "El Dorado1 of the Spaniards, cast himself into the sacred waters bearing the treasures of all the people, deposited them at the bottom and returned to land. When the ruler of this region was compelled to submit to the Spanish conquerors he is said to have sac rificed to the lake two tons, of gold and precious stones. The collection at the mu seum may well have been a temple accu mulation which was hidden away to pre vent Its falling into the hands of Quesada, who began the conquest of Bogota in 1536." In the later days of the Spanish treasure hunting various clumsy efforts were made to- drain some of these lakes. In some sec tlops it would be relatively a simple mate AimI Britain tit Ms KMerrel, ter. In the . larger lakes, which are very deep, the method would be to drag them, making frequent lifts. Since the gold thrown into the lakes to prevent the Spaniards from getting it was nearly al ways thrown in one place, or in large quantities, as soon as one piece was dis covered the rest would be simple. Most of this gold came originally from the streams and was obtained by a system of placer mining. There are now two American companies working In the An des but by far the majority of the streams which would still yield heavily are un worked. Many ancient quartz lodes, the workings of which are still visible, have not been touched for five hundred years, yet there is still gold In them. The esti mate of 83,000,000 worth obtained by the various Spanish conquerors is cased on the official record of the "Royal Fifth," sent back to Spain. But in many cases this was not sent, so that all toldthe Spaniards may possibly have taken two hundred million dollars.' worth: That they missed a much greater portion Is shown ' from their own records. There has been found tasLak' Slecha, near Lake Guatavita, a gold sistina of a small group representing El Dorado,, "the goia man,- on a rusn balsa surrounded by his guests as he proceeded to the centre of Lake Guata vita to offer sacrifice to the gods. Some of the territory about the head waters of the Amason scoured by the Spanish conquerors hai not been visited since by -white manJDr. Farabee however, has crossed many of the routes and has been to sections where even the Span iards did not penetrate. Dr. Farabee's scientific reputa tion is world wide. He is one of the men called on by the Allies at the end of the World War because of his deep knowledge of ethnological problems to redraw the map of Europe, and he has but recently returned to the University Museum after two years spent In that task. He will be kept busy for an other year or two arranging his collec tions at the museum and writing the his tory of his three-year exploration in South America. . The work of the English syndicate at Lake Guatavita" has resulted in the re covery of perhaps a million dollars In gold and emeralds. The. 'first attempt of the syndicate to drain the' lake was unsuccessful, because the tunnel they blasted to carry off th water was above the water level. The sec ond attempt drained it all right, but the hot sun baked the mud so hard that the only way" to get at what it held was to blast it. 1 Tnis prpved unsatisfactory. Now the work Is being carried on with great success through the expedient of softening ma mud with water. Temporary dams are placed 'about the section to be excavated and ihe water, carried br sluices. Is played noon th!s snot until the hard unner crust has been softened. The water is then di verted by cutting the dams and the digging niece co- begins. It is Important that tne soiteninc of figures'- process cease when the upper crust only has been softened, ror otnerwise, u me water penetrated through -the lower strata, a quagmire might be formed and. the precious treasure of the centuries might sink still farther from the white man's grasp.