The Oregon daily journal. (Portland, Or.) 1902-1972, March 12, 1919, Page 6, Image 6

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Essen Raid ed Only Twice During ike Great Wdt--Boih. . Times . by ''F-remck
Once Busy War Plant Is Now
' Silently Awaiting Dawn of ln-
dustry on Peace Time Basis.
Only Watchmen and Handful of
V:. Workers Remain Whee Jere
thousands a Few Months Ago.
SpeUl Wlraiaaa to Tha Journal and The Chicago
Dailr New..
(CopyrUbt. 1S19. fey.Cbicaco Dally Nawa Co.)
By Bea Hecht -
j Essen, Germany, March S. (Delayed.)
The old watchman, smoking a Rhine
land pipe, eat on a steel Ingot and re
garded me with a wistful em lie. Sur
rounded by massive cranes and a wil
derness of lathee by cold furnaces In a
jungle , of Iron he eat, the toothless
guardian of a . dead inferno, Bmoking
his pipe and dreaming of yesterday.
Before me stretched the great Hlnden
burg shops of Krupp's works In Esaen.
'' Her four months ago 107,000 men and
women stood turning out shells 4,000
shells an hour and guns one gun every
45 minutes for the armies of the kaiser.
Here the guns that battered their way
to., within 40 miles of Paris, the. great
marine guns, and the mystery gun of
1918, the mouths of which threatened
to devour the world, were forged. We
had walked to Krupp's, guided by Herr
Uohmann. I was the first American to
enter the gates since the war began, and
in excellent Jiinguan iionmann tola tne.
story of : the mystery- and demonlae
grandeur of the factory that sought to
land the kaiser in s his - "place in the
sun," , i
. Chasge Wrosght by War
i nere were JR. 000 persons working at
Krupp's when, the- war began. . The out
let of the factories at that time ' con
sisted or 90 per cent Industrial ma
chinery 'and the remaining . 10 per cent
of -military ordnance. A month later
Uhidenburg delivered the ultimatum that
Germany and the armies of the kaiser
had, one chance of victory and that this
chance lay In the furnaces at Krupp's.
"Guns, more guns, shells, more shells"
UUs was the order sent to the board
of directors at Essen. Huge buildings
covering miles of ground sprang up, the
88,000 workmen became. 107,000 : and the
10 per cent of ordnance became 100 per
cent. For four and a half years Krupp's
remained day and night the blazing soul
of the Teuton host.
We walked through the corridors of
the Hlndenburg, shell shops and the
Hlndenburg gun shops, and as we paused
between the colossal lathes and f orgtngs
stretching with wide, silent and black
mouths as far as the eye could see,
Hohmann talked. Of the 107.000 men
and women who worked in Krupp's, only
IS per cent represented organized labor,
and of the 18 per cent only, four per
cent, were Socialists. The remainder be
longed to the Krupp family men whose
fathers and grandfathers worked for the
Krupps neutrals from Holland and
Scandinavia and Poles. Unskilled labor
ers received $3 a day and skilled work
men it a day. More than three-fourths
of the workers were .women.
Oaly Two Raids oa Essen
.: There had been two raids on Essen,
. said Hohmann. . The first was on a Sun
day morning In 1915 when a lone French
man dropped two bombs which killed
two children. Later In the year, a sec-
Numb iicr1rj c
t - '7 lZ"r-,
1 Ml tt S JL . ' ' j ' ' i Z'
It -jk
9".: -
,nrpVi jsWxow
IW r ii in mtmrmmt i ni.iin ikw
Thirty American submarine chasers leaving the' American base at Plymouth, England, for home. Their de
parture closed the base, -whieh at one time harbored 200 American war vessels and 3500 naval officers and
men. A big crowd 'Witnessed the departure of the last of our naval vessels In England.
ond Frenchman appeared, but the bombs
then fell outside of ; Essen. During the
war Essen waited day and night for a
gigantic air raid. Ten batteries of anti
aircraft guns . surrounded the works.
There was a signal system at Cologne
and ' at headquarters a German air
squadron was kept in constant readiness.
But there were no air raids outside of
those mentioned. , .
. There were no strikes. During the
labor troubles ' In Berlin In 1918, only
400 workmen In Krupp's struck. The
others remained at their posts turning
out 4000 shells an hour and a gun every
45 minutes up to the end of the war.
Some of the workers in lissen believed
firmly that President Wilson was Fried
rich Alfred Krupp in disguise. Fried
rich died In ,the 80's. under mysterious
circumstances, but the workers refused
to believe that he was really dead, and
the. legend about his Identity with Mr,
Wilson was believed, particularly by the
old employes.
We came to the factory where the mys
tery guns were made. Bruno Bauer,
director of the works, told me the story.
Leas than ten such guns, he said, were
made, each firing two different kinds of
shells. The shells cost less than . $800
each to manufacture. The barrels of the
guns wore out after a week's firing and
had to be "replaced. The long distance
gun was designed originally, not to
bombard Paris, but London, from Cal-
rais. The bombardment of Paris: was an
afterthought. ; .
The allies located the mystery gun
eight hours began firing. Bombs
dropped by allied airplanes made it hot
for the gun crew, ; but .the ' huge ma
chine. Itself was not damaged. A spe
cial staff of -mathematicians were called
from Berlin- to calculate the sighting of
the gun on Paris. As in America, the
great weapon was called a freak gun,
and the Germans did not think It would
alter- the fate of the war.
Prom Gsnj te Locomotives
Walking on, we came to a factory con
taining men seemingly only a handful
of .men, These men were making loco
motives. , I watched the molten metal
pouring like streams of sunshine out of
huge ladles and 20-ton plates rolling
under hydraulic presses, striking and
sputtering. The guide yelled disdain
fully tat my ear that these huge iron
arms moving gently about me had
handled 120-ton steel blocks and that
here the armor of the U-boats had been
forged. The activity now waa only a
hang-over from the wonderful chaos of
movement four" months ago. For In
stance, only 32,000 persons are left work
ing in the factories, and most of these
are making engine parts and locomotives.
Forty thousand workers were demobil
ized In a fortnight and given tickets to
their homes, with money on Which to
live. - ' ;
There were other figures figures as
stupendous as the gently swinging
blocks of white hot metal. In these fig
ures lay the last of Germany; in the
half-hearted movements of iron masked
Retail at 35c lb.
wn, rvwnw a . .
TkE Nucqa Butter Company
x KiU.. mA ii ' . . & . .
:. . - T. - c n wunout - a single apology.
It is ijot in imitation of anything Nucoa is the original nut margarine
other margarines are imitations. The next nut marjarine you buy,
insist on Nucoa. .You might just as well use the best it costs no more,
bola from coast to coast. i ,, i
Ask your Dealer
. . j - .
af"m " aa '
y' " ' ' ' '
U Wis Vi-Jfr-ssaWii 1
mi Il'e'vijl'1""1 ' i1
men before the furnaces under the cranes
fay the future. I, learned that the
Krupp's works were turning out . loco
motives at the rate -of one a day and
that they could turn out 600 a year, as
there waa enough iron ore from Alsace
Lorraine and Sweden to last many
months. I also learned that the direct
ors bf the works depended upon Spain,
Scandinavia and Franca for future ore
purchases for, -despite of everything, as
Herr Bauer said, "Trade Is trade and
people will buy and people will selL
We left the locomotive shoas where
the ghosts of BIg Bertha," -Jack
Johnsons" and U-boats lingered and
came to a shop where they were still
making guns. On the way we passed
great piles of : bursted shells. In - the
gun shop we saw stacks of camouflaged
cannon returned by Ludendorff and Hin
denburg for repairs. They lay untouched
with silent tongues and lost to the cause.
The allies will take them. I watched
2000 men making new guns... They were
fining the last of an old government
contract. The guide smiled. "Moat of
them, he' said, '""will be Junked and the
rest will go to the allies. We keep on
making them because it is cheaper Than
to abandon the half finished product
About 800 guns are being completed In
the works."
There was factory on factory silent
and empty except for the presence of
Idle watchmen. We passed all the morn
ing through the great sheds and finally
emerged into the sunlight where an auto
mobile with the insignia of the council
of soldiers and workmen waited.
At Mercy of Everybody
We drove through miles of beautiful,
merry, plaster houses that contained the
hearthplaces of the gun makers. "There
is no socialism or strlxes here, said the
guide. 'Nevertheless'-r-and this - Herr
Bauer later corroborated "we are at the
mercy of everybody. The Spartacans
may occupy, the works at any time. We
have no soldiers to protect us and the
government will npt send us any. We
are waiting, and while waiting we are
working for a new Germany a Ger
many of locomotives and steel girders."
We returned to the works. There were
more figures, i The guide showed me
where powder waa .made by new inven
tions. I saw the huge machine Invented
by the Germans to ,make saltpeter out
of nitrogen. I saw a din in groom seating
7200 persona at once and In which 35,000
workmen were fed dally.
"Germany's past is buried here," said
Herr Bauer, pointing again to the gigan
tic emptiness of the Hlndenburg shops,
"and Germany's future lurks here like
wise, in these old furnaces."
The watchman opened the huge front
gate. He looked at me and sighed.
You should have been, here." he said,
"when when ." The guide waved him
away. The old watchman limped back
to his cold Ingot and Rhineland pipe. :
Seasoned slabwood and Inside wood.
:en stamps zor casn. tiounan
aiara sos. A-oao. aot.
- .
, - ' " v A, , ' ' '' ' '1 V- " -r i
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9 , A
1,100,000 MEN HAS
Officers of the Old Regime Have
Thrown in Fortunes With
Red Marauders. -
By Charles H. Beaals
Special Cabia to The Journal sad Uia Chicago
Daily News.
Copjriaht, 191, by tha Chicago Daily Kevs Co.
Paris, March 12. How the Bolshe
vist government, in Moscow has been
able to create a powerful array of more
than 1,100,000 men was told in consider
able detail to me by Dr. F. Cresson.
long director of the French medical or
ganization In Russia.
Dr. Cresson was engaged in the sani
tary service of the Russian army at the
beginning of the war. Later he was
captured by the Germans and retained
on duty at the Russian prison camps in
Germany for nearly two years, when
he was finally released. ' He returned to
Russia, where he waa in charge of a
cumber of French medical units until
late in "November last.
Thus Dr. Cresson was in a position to
see the methods which the Germans
employed systematically among the Rus
sian prisoners of stirring up the racial
sentiment of the Ukrainians. Poles and
Baltic peoples. Promising subjects were
sent to an espionage school In Berlin,
and later were- permitted - to "escape"
through the German lines to Russia,
wiere they carried on agitation under
the supervision' of German agents.
Though millions of Russians are rtu-
ally starving, the Bolshevist army has
grown irom ieeble to great strength and
efficiency. It contains many Letts and
Chinese outlaws and Is largely officered
by the best soldiers of the old regime.
it is also provided with many thousands
of German drlllraasters. These troops
are well clothed and splendidly armed
with cannon, machine guns, rifles and
other weapons, because the German
troops, when retiring- on the eastern
rront after te armistice, turned over
vast quantities of military suoDlies to
the Bolshevist soldiers.
Airplane Terminus
Will Be Big Problem
For World' Traffic
By Edward Price Bell
Special Cable to Tha Journal . and the Chicago
Daily News.
Copyright, 1319, by the Chicago Daily News Co.
London, March 12. In the coming
aerial age there must be a certain great
central , terminus upon which the air
routes of the world will converge. The
British experts are now studying the
map In this new aspect.
It is recognized that the airplane will
be confined mainly to flying overland
or over narrow strips of water, whereas
an airship can fly over land and sea
with practically equal safety. Some sug
gest that Australia; on account of its
position, which is equidistant between
the eastern and western hemispheres,
should become the hub of the flying
world. However, there seems little doubt
that the Pacific ocean, 6000 miles broad
between Australia and America, will al
ways prove difficult of passage for air
craft, even though use be made of
groups of Pacific Islands as refueling
England's connection with Australia
by airship will probably be by way of
France, the Mediterranean, Egypt. Aden.
India and Singapore, or by a more north
erly route almost entirely overland If
by airplane. In either case, Cairo or
Alexandria will be a port of call, since
It Is the commercial center of the east
ern Mediterranean; also the route from
Europe to South Africa will lie through
Cairo, passing down the valley of the
Nile and thence via East Africa and
Rhodesia to Johannesburg and Cape
town. '
It Is assumed that two routes across
the Atlantic will be used, one from Ire
land to Newfoundland and the other
from, England . via Portugal qrnd the
Asores. :
Germans Talk of
Asking British to
Operate Factories
Berlin, March 11. KX. N. " 61)- Via
London, March 12) A majority ,of Ger
man Industrial leaders are supporting a
project which may soon be launched of
ficially by the German government, that
Great Britain take over a certain per
centage of the German Industries and
make herself responsible for the pay
ment of German' Indemnities to other
countries, according to. Arnold Rechberg,
former, aide s to the erstwhile crown
prince.' ' " '. ;
"This economic anion would not prove
a menace to the United States. -for that
country is as economic domain in Itself,"
said Rechberg in the interview. . -
ii ...i.i.ium aii'il-i .. 'a' VJ
Forty-two machine gun bullets in his
body, partially paralysed, deaf and one
eye out, is the war - record of 19-year-old
Eugene :F. Sevignejr of Dorchester,
Mass. - -
Fifty Young Americans Arrive
in England After Varied Ex
periences in Cold Dark-North.
Served for a Time on Russian
Destroyer Yourovski Under
Dane From Virgin Islands.
. By Edward- Price Bell
Special Cabla to Tha Journal and tba Chicago
Daily Nawa.
(Copyright. 1019. by CMeaao Dally Kern Co.)
London. March ,12. Fifty young
American sailors have arrived in Lon
don from Kathertne Harbor, Mur
mansk and Archangel. They are vete
rans of the United States navy in Arc
tic waters forming, the remnant of. the
historic Olympia's crew detailed for
service on the first cruise of an Amer
ican" warship so far north in 64 years.
Since last May they have been either on
convoy between northern Russia and
the Orkney Islands or on land service in
the country of the Bolsheviki.
To these men tho Bolsheviki, whether
friend or enemy, are not very terrible
people. Many of the Bolshevik forces
against which they fought, they say.
were not wholeheartedly with the Red
cause nor with any other cause, for
that matter. These Bolsheviki readily
surrendered to the Americans for food
and equally readily deserted to the Bol
sheviki when their hunger had been sat
isfied. Our sailors say that even when
in actual conflict with ,the Americans
the Bolsheviki refused to fight with
resolution, either surrendering or re
treating. Went Aihort Unarmed
American sailors went ashore can
armed without ; fear of snipers, while
their entente comrades could not do this.
Bolshevik pickets when confronted by
an American picket and having satis
fied themselves that he was an Amer
ican .would exclaim "'Amerikansky !
extend their hands and otherwise show
signs of friendliness. At times, how
ever, the Bolsheviki and Americans
fought tooth and nail.
When Archangel -was captured by the
entente forces 25 Tank sailors, enjoying
the scrap, pushed? the Reds opposed to
them seven miles into the country. Our
Impetuous chaps got lost in a swamp
and were surrounded by Bolsheviki; be
ing saved only by the fidelity of a Rus
sian prisoner and the timely arrival of
a detachment of French Alplni. Once
a Russian garrison with . the British
mutinied and thj Tanks- joined the
British in a barrage on the barracks
which speedily brought the mutineers
to an altered frame of mind.;
. Served oa Bastlaa Destroyers;
Our men's convoy service was aboard
the Russian destroyer. Yourovski, to
which they were transferred shortly
after their arrival at Murmansk, sail
ing under the . Russian naval flag and
commanded by Russian - officers with
Lieutenant Norgaard, a native of the
Virgin islands, in immediate command
of the Americans. Norgaard is des
cribed as a jolly little Dane who said
that he was part of the livestock bought
with the islands from Denmark by the
United States Norgaard wjio has sailed
for many years and whose master's li
cense reads, for unlimited tonnage and
all seas, speaks with enthusiasm of his
American boys and says that when the
trouble is over he Intends to leave the
Virgin Islands and with his family settle
down In Hartford, Conn., with his naval
experience forever at the service of
Uncle Sam.
These boys nbwon, leave, had their
Mrs. Wells of Petersburg
Tells How.
Petersburg, Vo. "Pbr two years
my daughter Buffered from a weak-
,nesB ana pains
in her right
side; lit times
she was so bad
she could not do
any -work. For
two years ' she
was attended by
the best physi
cians here, and
both agreed that
she Would have
to be operated
on. I suggested
T.vifla IP. PlnV.
ham's Vegetable Compound, and at
first she refused to take it, but
finally consented. ; From- the very
beginning it helped her; and now
she is entirely well, and telling
everybody how much ; good i It has
done her." Mrs. W. D. Wells, 228
North. Adams SW Petersburg, Va.
If every : girl who suffers as
Miss Wells did, or from irregular
Jties, painful periods, backache,
sideache, dragging down pains. In
flammation or ulceration - -would
only give, this' famous root " and
herb remedy a trial they ! would
soon find relief from such suffering.
For special advice women are
asked to write the. Lydla B. Pink
ham Medicine Co., Lynn, Mass.
The' result of forty, years experi
ence is at your service.
ana COUGHERifi
; Couching
- . ' prea fli3l ihtTJ?
ueoe;,t rrce I &f rtl'ij
Ussf 30
first exciting experience in the far north
In helping to subdue a mutiny aboard
the Russian cruiser Askold. When they
reached Katherlae Harbor late last
spring only King- George's . ship Glory
stood there for the western world. The
Russians on the cruiser had: thrown
overboard and drowned u their captain.
They controlled the Askold .; absolutely.
Their guns had not been turned upon
the Glory but the British and American
naval officers considering discretion of
the first importance decided to suppress
the mutineers. Just at this time the
French cruiser. Admiral Aub arrived and
a boarding party- of 60 men was sent
alongside the Askold in tugs. Machine
runs ashore covered the operation and
the Russians surrendered with only one
casualty among themselves r and none
among the entente sailors.
Cold,' wet, dark and monotonous are
the adjectives used by the . Americans
when speaking of the White sea and
northern Russian service. : In the middle
of June they saw the midnight sun but
from November 20 to January 25 they
did not see the sun at all and only when
they arrived off the coast of Scotland on
their way to London did they see daylight--
- -.V-
. ,Uit of Sailors Gives ;
Among these sailors are John Murray
engineer, and Edward J. Stika. first
class seaman; of Chicago. Among the
others in addition to Lieutenant Nor
gaard are Chief Boatswains Mate Frank
Lafouroade, Charleston. S. C; George
Lee Anderson, Klngsville, Md. ; Ray
Aman, Fort Wayne, Ind. ; 'C. M. Byers,
Weatherf ord, Tex. ; P. K. Berry, Flor
ence, Miss. : James Campbell. Greenfield,
Ohio ; Herman Christopher, Boston,
Mass, i Walter Crawford, Raleigh, N. C ;
Howard Campbell. Warm Springs, Va. J
Claude Carten Franklin, Ky. ; John
Dowd, Denver. Col. ; Fred Delalr, Nor
folk. Va. ; Lloyd Flaherty, Manson, la.;
Roy Kerstead, Presque Isle, Maine ; Leo
Koppe, NapervlUe, 111.; Walter Landers,
Athens, Oa. ; F. H. Lamphers. Lynn,
Mass. ; William Malec. Amsterdam, N.
T. ; Walter Mason, Lynn, Mass. ; Rich
ard Ossn. Philippine Islands ; Samuel
Story, Kissimmee, Fla.; Joseph Scanlon,
Wakefield, Mass. ; Arthur Stlerlet, Lyn
don. Mass. ; Ford Studebaker, Dayton,
O. ; William Twaddle, Tulare. . Calif. ;
Walter , Thompson, Kansas City, Mo. ;
Aselino Viera, New Bedford. Mass. ;
Joseph Wood, Mount Pleasant, Tenn. -
Bolshevik Communique Received1
London. March 12. -U. P.)The
Bolshevik communique covering last
Wednesday's operations was received
by wireless from Moscow Tuesday. It
said: "Fighting in the Shenkursk re
gion continues. In the direction ot
Murmansk we occupied Isiagoseros." In
the Archangel region there were ar
tillery exchanges and scouting . opera
tions." -V'
' fC fin the ;
grnw "
People Tired of Being: Hood
winked and Used as Political
- By Bea Heebt
Special Wiralaas to Tha Jonrnal and The Cbicato
Sally Newa.
Oopyrlstt. 1819. 7 the Cblcaco Dally Nawi Co.
Weimar, Germany, March 7. (De
layed.) I recently listened to two peo
ple iaugh at FrederVch Ebert. . One, - a
tall, " white : bearded man in ; evening
clothes;' laughed politely with a shrug
of h's shoulders. He was Count Addlph
von Posadowsky-Wehmer, friend of Von
Buelow and the former kaiser and now
a leader of the German peoples party.
Mrs. Slots didn't laugh politely or shrug
her shoulders.
"Ebert Is an honest little man," said
the count, "but alas, he talks foolishly.
He thinks there has been a revolution
In Germany, whereas there has been
only a dase. Tou must remember that
Germany has been a monarchy for S00
years. - There is no reason .for Ger.
many not to continue . the monarchy
because' a handful of people wave red
flags. It does not signify that any
thing fundamental has happened to
the nation. - When Ebert said in the
assembly that the monarchy was dtfad
he was speaking foolishly. Personally
I am in doubt."
- Turning to Gehelmrath Hugenburg,
former president of the board of direc
tors of the Krupp works, the count
laughed. A new sleigh took 'us through
the ancient streets of Weimar to an
old ' tumbledown inn above , the door
of which was 1 the sign ; In German,
"Rooms 25 cents a night." , The inn,
so our .driver told me, was the head
quarters of the Independent Social 1st a
Here I saw Mrs. Slots. ..
"There will : be a revolution again,"
said Mrs. Slets. "What is happening
in Weimar" is a farce. Ebert thinks
there has been a revolution In Ger
many. Not yet. Before the frock
coats finish dancing around on the
stage of the theatre In Weimar. Ger
many is going to split open. We are
AH of Its coodttcrx
sealed, in
Protected, prescrvede
The flavor lasts!
SK for, and be
to set UTCDJEVS. ifs
in a sealed package, but.
look for the rrame the
Greatest Name in Goody-Land
SsalGd TfchtttePt
sick of being hoodwinked, sick of beUi
political catspaws, we people of Ger
many." '
The Spanish government has aswumed
full control of important deposits of
platinum discovered in that country. -
Dr. King's New Discovery
relieves them and keeps
you goins on the job
Fifty continuous years or almost un
failing checking and relieving coughs,
colds and kindred sufferings is the proud
achievement of Dr. King's New Diacov
ry. ......
Grandparents, fathers, mothers, the
kiddie all have used and are using it
as the safest, surest, most pleasant-to-take
remedy they know of. .
Sold by all druggists everywhere, 60o
and L20.
Keep Bowels On Schedule
Late, retarded functioning throws the
whole day's duties out of gear. Keep
the system clesnsed, the appetite lively.
the stomach staunch with Dr. King's
New Life Pills. Mild and tonlo in ac
tion. Sold everywhere, 25c, Adv.
Small Pill
Small Doss
Small Price
have stood the test of time.
Purely vegetable. Wonderfully
quick to banish biliousness,
headache, indigestion and to
clear up a bad complexion.
nk - ini.
. 1