The Oregon daily journal. (Portland, Or.) 1902-1972, October 26, 1913, Page 38, Image 38

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, . , ";' -Y 'CABLE NEWS i ' t '
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vplomac.HealthndcEngine'eringFailure'ofFrenck -r
1; rFurnished' Valuable,' Experience to-Amerfcansr' - r -
,(8 the latera.ttenal Vtwt
F tnere was a wf,
45 the rQrty-n!ners,"we could all
X V They said It the mire and the
, mlai.pi of -tne Biaca swamp, ayw
. Gatun lajtei They said it Jy Iho, Chayrea
- -tiaak4'iath hot .season, when death,
0' trim ana .dreadful, -marched 'as for-
- jwral of the guard. They -said it allmb-
Ins the Littla Pivde, thec vertebrae
f tha l.rraa They, the dreamers of
the were' the . 'meif who. flrstplaniied
th Panama-canal., f - . 4 '
. Morfan." the' buccaneers .Yeraon.Uhe
bravi'.'nUsMt havf " thougTat anniyof
; th tnta. as a-way ut,
' to any who lived with them, it.wa. 1m-,
YMtrsiblA r - ,.'
: But OA the. mule-bacav Ucaii,
the burro, toilina- behind tUo,pck tralit.
, stridinc throuKlt th deep rwts and the
, sticky, adobe (ftheTOad that, marked
the way- of -the 'freighters, where
' .warmaV. (and, died) J the. ousanda
rushing to the gold fields of Caf
. " waa born.thiB colossal Idea, , . k. . . t
. i t Bate the Aspiawalla; -,- -
" Then - came Aspinwall. th intrepid.
Three generations had built, up AO this
man His grandfather bad followed tie
ITea and had dreamed of conQuest ot
' foreign lands and f oreigtt markets.. . His
father had owned the shlpa and made
ventura bulltMuT? was
fortune. WUllam- H. Aaplnwall was
WhS b0fyomnThnKei;ton.b.rdered
trail, marked by the bones, of some of
those who had fcone . before., a dry went
n for" a way, it waa Aeplnwallwho
knew how to command. " t " t
tto one year after the first' rush to
Californls. if 1W0. Aspinwall- told two
; : friends. Henry Chauncey andJohn l
Btephens, ofWs plan to cross the lath,
mus. He already had In mind a. Water.
When Aspinwall reached the Isthmus
and ventured finto that endless, terrible
" "morass he was cony 1 need that a.-canal
. waa mpoaSlbh!., t '. ' ; : ' ;
-"But the idea was fixed- Out of It
came the first railroad across ranama.
It was- pushed 'to. completion iWijth, un-
f Kampled speed, backed from the start
( by Aspinwall t and his two business as
sociates. V . . . , " '-i.," "...
I It was said . that . every tie ; on 'the
railroad stood - as' a tally. f or the death
i of a' man JThii was: not- true .qulta,
' for there, were J00.000 .ties. ;":" v
' From the start the railroad succeeded
-wonoenuny.' -Aiinuum
Mtlra ln'186 i', W " i .v..
; - ETI I and IUmesis'II thought of
- 'iX canal to " marry ' the aeaa They,
aV reigned Jn Egypt ,betweea-JiT50 and
l00 B C. ' A' waterway, actually' wan
constructed 'by' them from-the- Nile to
t Xke Timaah, and thence to the-Red sea.
v . Than canal was 'Choked-by v sand. . A
' hew anal was. started by. Necho, r tho
son of Psammetleua I.ln B.' O." 600.' . It
was not finished until, 488, B. C when
Partus Hystaspia broke down; the dykes
' and let the wnt(rs of- the seas flow
i- jnto union. 'Again, In .time.; the Sands
trliimped., - - " J
V' Centuries lapsed before finally. Ferd
v -Inand de Lessepa pointed, a. final tri-
umpliapt way across..Hue. '
i i Tbls had an important .bearing on the
project at Panama, ues . proved . the
' value of' such a project . . ' x - 1
h" What Ie -Lesseps succeeded in doinR
V ht 6ue fie' tried to do at Panama and
failed. '' - " ll v v 1 ;-
. . , , work Segaa la 1876. ..
! ' France bean hor1 brave and futile
; project In Panama ' in t In '1879
re Lenaepn took- oharRe. In 1880 tho
. first di't flew. " That was the tragedy
' of lt. Ko preparation,-no. protection for
- the' working army from v the -deadly
tropic ; sun, ' from tthe. deadlier ' troplo
fcickness. . i' ' - ' "
; It Was a civil company Funds Were
vV raised ,: by popular .subscription ...j '.In
" t France. De Iiesseps estimated the need
. f $120,000,000. Much of the money
was raised by government lottery. - The
1 --whole French nation went into a same
of chance. . .- ; j
T In r nine vnrs ' 1041 patients dtoil of
yellow fever at the Ancon-hospital. , All
J were.ahite ppisons1 and nearly all
l"rench, Outsldo the hospital the deaths
'.Solutions ,'of ; Problems;.of DI
for the - Panama railroad. . Another
SICT.OOO.OOO had been spent on the isth
mus. In Paris $78,000,000 had been paid
out in. "dltdends'r,' to, the investors,
though not a penny had. been earned. ;
" Revelations that ' . followed filled
Franca with humiliation, .the whole .civ
ilised r world ; wi,th 1 amaraent. ,The
chief financial agent Jiadfeoelved 6,000,
000 -francs In commissions for. .sale,-of
stock., and for "publicity,", another word
for bribery.- 4 ':,.'- VhS- Z
; Another financial agent got .4,000.000
francs for services and commissions. ;
Charles de Iiesseps' confessed that'he
had paid one agent 800,000 francs' be
cause of his great influence with -the
government. The "French -minister !; of
public works admitted that- he had ac
cepted a bribe of 87,000 francs and paid
pver 76,000 francs, out , of this, money,
to the 'map who had tempted -hlra . to
accept' the bribe. ' ' .. ' .h , v v ; w-
Ferdinand 1 de- Lesseps snd his son
Charles, were sentenced to fine and five
years in prison. - The sentence against
the son was .'subsequently annulled.
That against the. father was never ex
ecuted. Impoverished, disheartened, De
Lesseps, then 88 years old, died id De
cember, 1884. , , ,Y':'.';-;;., ''' Y
HEN- the Trench workers on the
Isthmus were decimated by fever
and disease, when the money of
Franca was wasted in bribery, and stolen
by -dishonest officials and when bank
ruptcy and then disgrace ended the proj
ect and sent the peerless De Lesseps
to a dishonored grave, the United States
was struggling to rise after another
war. M . j 11 w,vx ?...;(
. Even tlietr the 'seaboard commercial
interests, the shipping Interests,4 urged
that this country . was, the logical build
der of the canal. ; But the United States
could not then pick up the burden that
France had been , forced" to put down.
It waa not until 1904 that 'this country
boaght the rights of the second French
company for $40,000,000v- . :ry-:
t Jnaonasloa Ovar'ote. . . .-H
' -Prion to t this, there .had baenl much
discussion during all : the yeara that
had passed 'since the Oregon finished
her 15.000 mile -run on. May 28, . 1618.
Many had favored a canal across Nica
ragua j as more- practicable than - one
across Panama.' Panama was represented
as a country, unstable, volcanic; subject
to- earthquakes and upheavals,! physical
and political. ( . , ,
A 4 aecoijd FreneUX Company had Sio
cueded the first, organised In the wreck
age,, rising like a. phoenix. The com
pany, bad a relatively small capital, and
about all It. had been trying- to do was
to,", preserve :.tho physical property at
Panama In asood, condition as It ire
cejved It. It had continued to employ a
force of from 1900 to 3600 men during
tho interval- this to maintain its con
cession , from , Colombia. ' . vf, : '
, - What, the United States contracted to
buy may be summed wt Mi't
Thirty thousand f our ) Kndred and
thirty-one buildings, Including offices,
q ua tters, warehouses, ' shops, hospl tals
and terminal ' sheds, , usable - structfes
worth $2.44,20. ' V.-..vV,.fjUV.i;
An - Immense ; collection of , dredges,
tinrs,-, barges, excavators, cars, locomo
tives - and "other machinery and ' appli
ances, krtl of it rusted and archaic, but
estimated .at fl,113.0l. -. '",:'- I,
. - AVork done by the old hnd new French
companies, with an estimated removal
of 88.000,000 cubic yards of material at
a host of little more than f88.00O.0OO to
the French.- The present value Of this
work was sppralscd at f 25,889,840. )yyr
Maps,t drawinKS and records leathered
by 'the French , engineers, valued - at
f 2,090,000. ' ' , Y. . .'.:'.
Ship channel, Panama bav. 8B00.0OO. .
.. Clc.-arlni,s, rouds, etc., 3100,000. '
Of the purchaso price of 340,000.000,
tho sum of f24.000.0uo, mlmis obliga
from yellow fever numbered 20J3. Other . It II' ri ( i -
dlsesaea In the nitie years laid, low B61( I ' m "if I '- '- " V-- ' 4
in tb hospital and 11,2 outside., Beat m n'f . ' " ' VW
estimates place the tout death fCort at .1 w"'f fx'?'" '' , ' v VA
' When tlie work etopped 75 per cent " ml Hill v v ' " - - 1
of the-romatnln workers Were In' hoa- " Ii" T.'f"-- '
pltals. ' . vv r4 rf , ; Wil li ) V " m WWV
.! :! Trard7 B riaaneiai ide.vr;"-!:t; - il p ; Ii A, 4 YWW
i:Oh' the' inanclal? sMe ' was another I v v . - Will II I ! Wlll
tragdy.J- KxamlnaHOn 1 i prOYed -hat ; ifl i . ''"'" " a " 3 llllll - . ' V. ' I 111 I:-
ltKe.000,000 had' b ciV0A-an44ex. ib 1 1 . 'f? llllll I , 1 II 1 f
pended. -1 The. number i of tocltlioldra ? I r; llllll I 4 - ..- 1 1 1 1 1 " '
000.000 had teen paid I p'T C-r 1 1 1 1 11 1 t . IfI'
tions. went1 to the old French company,
which spent- 32f0,000,000. Y 1 : ; y , ,.
The Republic of Panama" received 1 10,-
REGARDINO;, the. purchase ' of ? the
canal rights fromi France, 4 or the
. v French company, the American peo
ple were agreed. The- order, to the
presldont, spoken unmistakably in every
state.), echoed! from cliffs," of Eastport
to the .hllla of ,an Diego; was to buy.
i-Bvt regarding the acquirement v of
the..rlghtto-bUUd ,a canal-In thai first
place, there4, has - never been agree
ment! ,It 'has been the ' subject ' of' cbh
troversy rfrom the" beginning it will
remain' a -.mstter, of dispute; tol the' end.
Theodore uHooseVelt'hasrsumqied'up
the. argument .In t the following para -
graphs., defending the action of .the gov
ernment: v.- f ? -. -..- i;Y-'4,-( f. -.; ...,;''!
Through' two army of fleers, whd had
Visited .the . Isthmus' In- September. ; I i
gained .concrete and definite informa
tion. ...They '.informed me tliat.- owing
to the dissatisfaction because-- of the
failure i of ? Colombia y to - ratify. 7 the
Hay-Herran V. treaty,,- a revolution . was
certain to break , out on the isthmus,
and that the people were in. favor, Of it;
and' tha It' might" be expected immedi
ately on the adjournment of the Co
lombian congress without ratification of
the ,( treaty., yw; ;';' 'ii;.:":?.-v"V (sX-y,h, j
Y';V'i "Beadr for a fterolutloa.. i. ';
4. ,'Tn ' response , to'1 my : questioning, they !
said ithey; were certain that a : revolt
Uon several different revolutions were
being, planned independently of 'one another-
would., occur (after the adjourn
ment ."of f the ' Colombian ' congress in
October; while on the isthmus they, had
calculated-that it would not occur, until
after October 20, because not until then
would a sufficient quantity of arms and
munitions, have been landed ,to supply
the' revolutionaries. 'i. Y'!;,-,',..:p:- ;-(
("AcUng- in view V of all , thesa i facts,,
I snt several naval vessels to the isth
mus.' The-order to the American naval
officers were to maintain . free, and uni
interrupted transit across ' the isthmus,
and. with that' purpose, to prevent the
landing ' of ? armed forces ; with i hostile
Intent at any point within .50 miles. of
Panama. , These . orders were precisely
such as had been Issued again and agaln
In preceding jrears-lDQO, 1901 and 190
for Instance. ;They , were ;carrted . out. .
."Their , necessity was. conclusively
shown by the fact - that a body of Co
lombian troops bad landed at Colon and
threatened a reign or terror, announc
ing 'their Intention of ' killing all the
American. Citizens In Colon. The 'prompt
action of Captain Hubbard of the gtm
boatK Nashville ; prevented - this threat
from' being put into effect;' ha .rescued
the : ImperllledYAmerlcans, j and J finally
persuaded ; the Colombian , troops ': to re
embark and . peacefully return ; to Co.
lombla.:Y ''Cr'.-:v;.-i.:';.y('"Ji y ;',"' '
With absolute unanimity tha- people
of the Isthmus declared themselves an
Independent republic, and ; of fcred ! im
mediately, to conclude with our govern
ment, the treaty which Colombia had
rejected, and , to make Its i terms 'more
favorable to ' the United States. , No
bloodMiecl whatever bad occurred, and
It could not occur unless we. permitted
th Colombian troops to land. The lie-
-i v''':. V'.V'' ; '.- ''' .-,!.'t Vr Y''v'. .'.'"i
publlo of Panama waa4 tha de-facto government,-
and .there was no other on the
isthmus,' ':; - ' v .Y' ' Y v:,'t.
'--.vtn.;tMa':-.'lMavinptlon,i.! the United
States' recegnlced the new - government,
completed Its' treaty.' took possession of
the canal xone, and In ,- that strip has
since constructed the Panama canal,' to
the final suocesa of - the uniting of the
waters of, the. Pacific and the Atlant'o,
HT did' France fall1 In Panama" and
the United States, succeed? t
d -.-,-!,( .y. because rance -uaa no ;uoei
hals , and no Gorgas ' will - be - the answer-
uttered by'! everybody; ' ''
Y'Bntt of the -two, France had more
Of; Goethals than .of. Uorgas. ' This Is
why f 260.000,000 went Intd .the enter
tprlse -at . the Isthmus, only to be lost,
the project ending in disaster.
; Americans learned f rom the French
the. necessity of preparation. The
French', made enormous- progress In ex
cavatlon. t Thy et jUp't vast quantities
of; heavy ; machinery. , The greatf ore-'
yasses they, duT are still .there, grown
up ' In Jungle. , What -France did not
have, what she could not have; was the
modern skilled scientist in sanitation. -
if ,'tiV;Wk ' of ..Colonel Gorges, si
'Colonel Y William ':;Cia',w''prt'i')''dorg:aa
went into the Panama canal sons when
quinine was staple there.1 and malaria,
yellow fever, tha plague, and other dis
eases were endemic, .- Tha death rate
was 4M4 per , 1000 of population. , In
1 1 3 th dea th rat e has - b een cu t down
to. 81.18. This ' means' that ithe Panama
sons . has aeon, made healthier than
many American cities.'
i Smallpox, plague and other such viru
lent diseases have been , banished alto
gether, i- Ja , all the tim thati, Colonel
Gorgas has been on tha Isthmus there
has been only one epldemlo of yellow
fever, this, In 1 905. and it was checked
after $Ti employes had ldledYiYj'i,rtv!''i;-
'Colonel Gorges has effected a sanitary-
organisation as wonderful . as - the
greater organisation of workers'-formed
by - Colonel Goethals., In Gosgas' de
partment there are 1300 men each, man
trained in the methods of killing off
the deadly mosquito. . u
i iWhlle ':' the ' French tolled - "yellow
Jack"., raged through tha towns , on -the
seaboard, malaria held wild and .fatal
debauches, with- wasted ; laborers, and
the . dread ."blackwater fever" of the
Chagrea yalley i; sapped M the I strength
from the1' non-immuncs. Y Elephantiasis
assailed th negroes and berl-berl' took
Its tithe.t :(;! A'i: --. t-t'kr-4'lw'Y --v-,
- Colonel Gorgas made the Isthmus as
safe, almost, for the non-Immune as for
the immune blacks from the -West India
islands. 8o the' force waa able to exert
itself and there - was - emulation to do
things.' This, the French could not get.
JY '-r:V i ' p; Siesson' fo World, , ; .:c,
' Incidentally Colonel Gorgas '. has in
structed the whole world how to meet
and .worst tbo mosquito. . Under, his
leadership waa 1 evolved i system i for
ridding- a country bfv mosquitoes that
has , proved marvelously . efficient and
at" the same time Inexpensive. .
Small . pools near- thei sea are ' enn
nected with tidal waters and tho rise
and fall of the tide,, the moving .water,
makes lt impossible for . the ; wrigglers
to '' develop. ' 'A way is opened 'for the
OCTOBER 26 'lftlS. t
tlaj 'fish to '-VI11 the s.mosqulto'i larysa,
Smaller 'pools Inland are covered' witn
petroleum. Coming up for air. the wrig
glers ' find It - Impossible to . get, It
through, the 'oil and -die. ; ;
' ' The whole Canal .sons is .treated in
this' way. The country .has been changed
from' the dreaded "Death .Hole' , of the
old , daya to a summer, , resort, . wbrld
famed for', its healthfulness. Tbls -haa
been done at an . expense of, f 1.800,000.
' , A thousand prpofs ' might ,be ' given
of the. wonder wrought by Colonel (Gor-.
gas, but one will do. The sale; of quin
ine on the Canal sons is now practically
nilnot as much , of the drug Is, pur
chased - as . would .be sold by. one.busy
drug store In tb. 'United States. In
1908 the amount of quinine sold at retail
to"the natives fit the aone was 1,675,000'
two-grain capsules, ,
N less1 than" nine years the real con
structive wonder, of the world has
been created on the Isthmus.'4 , 1
The canal cost., -despite, the elides and
countless ..oosiacIeH .uniooked for, ' yr'-ll
be- within the .estimate of 3375,000,000.
The work Is a year ahead of time. )
' '": "".A Wajl Aoroaa' Ootraty. - '" ' ,
Tourists travel half around the world
to- see';;th CWnese wallj , marvelllnf in
Its. Immensity. The earth moved at Pan
ama the. earth and 'rock woiild bplld
such a wall, across the , United States,
ttm,t New vtork ; to Portland, airline. ; i
Y The nlan who- haa spread a', car load
of loam. in his "f'yard will understand
dimly what- It t means to say that it
would require-a train of flat cars 100,
000 -miles long to -carry the excavated
material t at Panama. .This train ' would
reach five' times around the ghibe.'
V The number , of men on the payroll
Wse -to 146,000 In iAUgust; 1910;f(Of these
f000 were Americans and ;th r others
were Itallana i Greeks - aftd Spanish lav
borers ' aijd colored laborerea ' from ' Ja
malca,: - the '.Barbadoes - and other West
Indian-, points;),'. ;S I'h ' ) '-'
Perhaps the a verasti" of the labir
army at panama-fas Xh 35.000 men.
It has been a constantly changing fbrc,
of rnecesslty, : thouglt swages paid ; hav
been high. Wages for skilled labor Were
twice,, or nearly , twice, the -wages paid
in the United Statea Boilermakers. ( for
example, were paid 5 cents -an hour,
with ; time and a half for over time,
16 days leave -of absenoo and 30 days'
sick leave.Y'5Y,',' 4:'-tsi' p. i
; gH, Pace Tor World. v. - j
' What - these men have. done at -the
Isthmus Is to , set ' tha pace - for tho
world : In C construction. Work. In exca
vatlon . records were made that have as
tounded the engineers of every couhtr.
An average cart load Is a cubic- yarJ
of earth. The French expended ,380,000,.
000 In actual' work on the Isthmus and
left for the-builders of the-new canal
29.908.000 cubio yards: of excavation ' us
able In the,''newrPlan..Y'S'i..Y;:,'Y,'
( The American 4 canal diggers at first
aimed to reach l,000,0(t0 cubio. yards
a month." For mora than- two years the
average ' monthly -total exceeded 3,000.
000 yards. In one month- It reached
4,062,000 cubic yarda - l
To conceive ' what this accomplish
ment Is. fetk for am engineer -to plo
tuie it.' It is necessary to consider thttl
Toj),,left to rlght-f Colonel Goethals, engineer in charge of. tha Panama,
r canal; waterjppurlngjthrough.-fpu In ' Gamboa dika
it -lntOiCulebra cut. prior to -the -blowing' away of' the'dlke;' this water.
y being admitted to, act ' a cushion against , the , discharge of! tb :
' J firrrfnalvft H,;--,f-r'-.'iv- --'.'i!' - ripVV",i
1 74 iOfflw-!.),,i-, - v.''-v.ivt'l.-y.v-' ' ",'f';it t y;v ii::j .'-Jsc? ''.. w
Bottom,, left; tos right Pump . house, 3jt Gainbpa vdiKe partially- destroyed
? prellmlnaf y to the s bio wlngaway of the dl ke October, 'Id; Colonel
' Gorgaa, chief sanitary4 officer of the canal ''ioae,' whose-work made'
the' actual construcUon' of' the'
nine months, of the year at Panama la
a .'rainy- aeasoni ? y.v?Y(r: .tY'.fxi
When unfavorable .weather compellad
the. work, to atop, the '.organisation
achieved Its average - speed, .in , the wet
months.,-precisely as.ln the dry. montha
Tbe aggregate excavation exceeded 212,-1f4a,7fjl.-.oubo$
yards. J,r..;s' ';.-vn;s
Considering the wages paid, and the
cost of living, the laborer's Job at Pan-!
ama' waa the best offered anywhere. The
skilled, laborer - also' could scarcely - do
better. The "government" looked ;upon
these men- a, wards. :.'.'K- v " '';' v .
The employe was' pro vlded with , free
"v A m Every
The Activities
Are. Growing
Greater and1 ureater
' "4 LtArri riill - rriinffo V '
: '-;''i:wo.ruii;.rages.'.i
! i . u ' 4 ; i , "" ' , TT , . .
: v.cjnphasize;! his ract
'm.j i 1 f v am MrynntN
, v FIRST.:
'1 V
. 1 1..1
v, yb
t 1
can .-:::, ,,';;
quarters, and a ';mirrjtdwman with h,
modern'hbuse. Thaliousawas furnished.
Tha'; doctor- responded In ,, caa of sick
nesa' and- tho..,government .'.footed the
bllU .iEvsn1. the. druggist's charge for
medicine was pild by . Uncle Sam. . .
; The ' Ice .'jBikn,,. hammered . with ,h!s
tonus at the door and left a chunk that
In: th statea would b a ten-cent plecu, ,
and ". the 'work was 'af government , ex
pense. v Light . was furnshed " free an!
there-" was no charge for -fuel and r.o
watae''bUl.-?.-'..-:'-: ,"
Continued n .Page Nina.)
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Day-.v ;,!,:',
of This Store
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