V mi Seventeen Military Posts M Are the Result of Sixty-Two Years of Developments of the Department of Written for The Journal by Calvin C. Thompson. THK forts of the department of the Columbia were established dur- ing three distinct periods. First, during the early Indian wars prior to 1860; secondly, during the Civil war, and. thirdly, during the Spanish-American war excitement, when the country suddenly found itself face to face on a war oasis wun a nauun whose navy, on paper at least, was equal or superior to that of its own. Other small posts were established from time to time for Indian defence pur poses, but these have all been aban doned. Since the sudden leap to the front rank of the ancient yet youthful empire of Jnpan. and the American fear of trouble from that source, a new Im- pulse has been given to the public de- mand for better coast defenses and army organlxation. ' Not only is me war ueparimeni pmu- nlng recommendlng series niln-s and other lines or derenses along the Pacific coast, but reorganization of the army in several vital points Is be- ing urged. Instead of many little gar- risons. hundreds of miles apart, army men are recommending concentration of troops In larger posts, located near rullroad centers, and the maintaining of the army units at full war strength. Posts Guard Great Area. Now that the spirit of change, ex pansion and Improvement of the Pacific coast defenses Is in the air, a brief sketch of the widely scattered military posts of the Pacific northwest will he of interest. Tn all this vast empire, extending from the foot of the Rocky mountains on the east to the Pacific on the west and from California on the. south to the Arctic ocean on the north. there are but 17 forts with 253 officers and 5265 men. The first Pacific northwest military post to be established by the United States government was Fort Vancouver, on the north bank of the Columbia river. a few miles from Portland. Since the site upon which it stands was se lected bv the farseelng eye of Dr. John McLoughlln, chief factor of the Hudson"s Ray company in Oregon, near the close of Monroe's administration, Vancouver has been a central point in northwest history. The unfurling of the stars and stripes at the top of a lofty Oregon fir tree by order of Major John 8. Hatheway, lay 13, 1849, session of the fort and of the Oregon . IMUIKfU III,' irrKiiiiiiiin ' ' ' J ' v .. . . , country. The headquarters or tne partment of the Columbia were es tablished at Vancouver in 1878. Fort Vancouver Pioneer Garrison. In 1848, a year before Oregon terri tory was organized by an act of con gress, two companies of American sol diers, commanded by Major John S. Hatheway, sailed from New York to aid the settlers of the Pacific nprth west in their struggles to keep savage tomahawk and torch from their frontier homes. Upon reaching the Co - lumbla river May 11, 1849, one company was left at Astoria and the other ar- tlvrd .at Fort Vancouver, May 13.. Dur- Ing the next quarter of a "century troops marched from Vancouver to par- tlclpate In many conflicts, among the most historic being the Rogue river, the ltt river, the Spokane, the south- ern Oregon, the Modoc, the Nez Perces, and the Bannock wars. General Grant, as a young man, was at Fort Vancouver one year, arriving In September, 1852. "Phil" Sheridan wpbn laurels in the Rogue river war while stationed here. Other ramous names fixed in the history- of Fort Vancouver are McClellan, Howard, Miles, Harney, Ingalis, Pickett, Otis and Funston. Historic Walla Walla. Although Fort Walla Walla has been abandoned, the fact that it was the sec- ond oldest post In the northwest, where for half a century the military reveille greeted the rising sun. and the fact that the rich reservation and substantial barracks are still In the possession of the government, make hls fort worthy of more than passing notice. The Whitman massacre, at Waulatpu tn 1847, brought the first Amerlea'n troops into the Wat& Walla valley and was the prelude to the Caytise war. Fort Walla Walla was not established, how- ever, tintl4-after the close of the war of 1855. The fort was established by Colonel B. J. Btcptoe, who, with four companies of regulars, went to the Walla Walla ' country at the call of Washington' first governor, I. I. Btev- THE UNCLE szzzsz ; I ijff i a. 7 -: .:::','rS: Vu4i Xv&&s&&sp: ; the Columbia ens. The last call for troops from Fort Walla Walla was. in 1878, during the Bannoek war. , t GarriSOIMflg the Columbia, while Fort Stevens, at the mouth of the Columbia river on the Oregon shore, wag garrisoned In 1865. the site was reserved as early as 1852. Therefore tnlg old fort.may De classed with cither th- earlv forts or with the Civil war group. The Stars and Stripes sup planted the Union Jack at Astoria in 1818. Thirty-four years later 1250 acres of land was set aside by the govern ment for military purposes. This land was on Point Adams, the present loea- fl nf tho nrf T1 ' fir. rftuliir Mr- rlBOn arrive(j April 1, 1865, and the post was named In honor of Major General i,,aac j Stevens, first governor of Washington, and one of the north wests first practical boosters. As a subpost 0( por. Stevens. Fort Canby Was es- tabllshed Ilwaco, Wash., miles awav. In 1864. The lighthouse at Fort canby rises 232 feet above sea level and commands A panoramic view of j00 mug- radius. The first step toward the establish ment of Fort Columbia, on the north elde of the mouth of the Columbia river, was taken early during the Civil war, when the government purchased the present slta on Scarborough's Head and placed a government agent. Ser geant Fannon, In charge. Construction of a fort was begun soon afterward. Cape Disappointment. During revolutionary days Captain Heceta of the Spanish ship Santiago, first sighted Capv Disappointment, Au gust 15, 1775, and named It Cape Kan Rooue. Cantain Heceta named the Co lumbla river "Knsenada de Asuncion" (Assumption Inlet), not thinking It was a river at all. On his chart he marked the hill on which the present fort stands, this being the first charting ever made of Fort Columbia. A dozen years later Lieutenant John Mearcs, an Kngllwhman. looked for Ensenada de Asuncion and. thinking he had not found It, named Cape San Roque, Cape Disappointment. In 1792, Sir (leorge Vancouver discovered that both Heceta and Meares had correctly located the present Scarborough Head. Captain Gray sailed into the Columbia in 1792 in the ship Columbia, and again chart ed Scarborough Head. Old Fort Boise. , , , . . . . . " '. l. "rp? .Jl- '." "Z.t Rolse, located two miles from the cap ital of Idaho. To offset the lnfluenoo of the Columbia River Fishing & Trad ing company's post at Fort Hall (now Pocatello, Idaho), established by Na thaniel J. Weyth, that company's rival, the Hudson's Bay oompany, in 1835. built a miserable fort 100 feet square at the mouth of Boise river, and nam?d It Fort Boise, meaning In .French "wooded." Weyth's company failed to make good In the western fur trada and sold out to the Hudson's Ray com pany in 1837. Old Fort Boise fell down lmt year and was rebuilt of adobe, was wrecked by a Snake river flood In 1863 and abandoned in 1864. Military orders Issued In 1860 dl- rectcd an exploration of southern Idaho wltli a view to selecting the best loca- tlon for an army post. The breaking out of the Civil war caused this or- der to he neglected. The gold excite ment or 1861 caused a stampede or miners and settlers Into Boise valley. Orders were issued In 1863 for the es tablishment of a post In the mining re gions. The strategic location of old Fort Boise was early recognized. Major1 Plnckney Lugenbell, w4th a company lot Washington Territory Infantry ami a detachment of Oregon cavalry, en camped near the site of Boise barracks. June 28, 1863. At the suagestlnn of John Hailey who operated a train of nark horses to and from the mines north of Boise mountains,' the present site of the post was selected and per- manent Improvements begun, , . Center Of Indian Outbreaks, From its establishment until the clos-j of the Bannock war, which ended with the famous 2000 mile chase after Chief Buffalo Horn In 1878, Fort 'Boise was a hotbed of Indian troubles. Buffalo Horn ended hi flight .and hia life among th Umatilla Indians near Pen- dleton, Or., where he failed to enlist their aid In his running fight and was beheaded by them. . The long; chase after the Bannock band was led by Captain R. F. Bernard, until General O. O. Howard Joined the party In Mai- hour county. Oregon. Another famous Indian campaign In which tne troops OREGON SUNDAY JOURNAL, PORTLAND, SUNDAY k .Svvr1 J I from Boise barracks were called to par- tic I pate was that against the Nez Pcrces, in 1877. In which Joseph, "Tho Napoleon of the Nez Perces," was cap tured after a 1500 mile retreat to Bear Paw mountain in Montana. Building on'Puget Sound. The last ripple of the wave of coast defense building In" the Pacific north west during the Civil war period was the reserving by order of President An drew Johnson, In 1866, of a section of land on Marrowstone island, In Pugot Bound. Then the nation sank Into a long slumber, only to be awakened by the approach of war with Spain. Ac tivity was resumed on Marrowstone Isl and and the revival of the policy of establishing coast defenses on the north Pacific coast whs Indicated. Troops ar rived In the fall of 1899 -and buildings wero erected the following year. The post was named In honor of Brigadier Oeneral D. W. Flagler. Fort Ward was located on Beam Point, ' Bainbrldge island, Puget sound, in 1899, as the beginning of a second line of defenses for the Bremerton navy yards. This post Is small and the buildings are few and temporary. An other of the small Puget sound posts Is Fort Casey on Admiralty Head, in Island county, Washington, located In 1897 as a subpost of Fort Flagler. Fort Worden was established. 131 miles from I'ort xownsend. In i02. Modern Fort Lawton, Largest of all the Puget sound posts Is Fort Lawton, on Magnolia Bluff, near Seattle. This fort has the dis tinction of being named in honor of a Spanish-American war hero, Major Gen eral Henry W. Lawton, who died on the field of San Mateo, Luzon, Philip lime isinuuH, iiraenoer i, invv. I'nor to the location of Fort Lawton, Tacoma and Seattle waged a vigorous warfare pine Islands, December 19, 1899. Prio.' th. 1..- effoeteH whernhv It nn to h,. Wt.t,i i Seattle on condition that the city would his peculiar Tame that he announced, deed to the government 600 acres of several years ago, the possibility of de land free of cost. This was done, tha termlnlng the precise weight of the first deed being recorded In 18D6. Con- soul at the moment of Its departuru structlon of the barracks began In April from the body. of that year. As Is the case with all A set of platform scales, delicately the posts located on Puget sound, tho balanced, carried a light Ted on which reservation Is wooded anjj there Is little la the form of the dying person. Not clear space for maneuvers or encamp- once was It done, but half a dozen mcnts. times within a period of two and. a half Fort George Wright, located near Spo- years, kane, was established as late as 1895, "Three of the results were positive yet It has an historical significance as'ly in the affirmative of the proposition It Is the successor of the old forts Col- that the human soul has' definite, ap- ville. Chelan, Spokane, Coeur d' Alene, prcclatlve weight," said Doctor Mac- and Sherman. The development of the Dougall. "One was rejected because of country, and the growth 'of population certain occurrences, and the other two has long since made protection from were almost in the affirmative. The the Indians unnecessary. So these old, experiments proved that there Is a de- out-of-the-way posts were abandoned crease Lu weight at the Instant of when their garrisons were ordered to death." " Cuba. After the war the returning ne described as typical the first of troops remained at the new post in Spo- the experiments, where every factor kane. Fort Wright was named in honor Cf the dying man's weight had been .i a , 5r . rA the Spokane Indians in 188, and who was drowned July AO 1S6R, in the wreck L"i!f.Tr' . .'I Iw afnK whllo on his wax to take charge of the adpprun.ni oi me woiuroom. Uncle Sam in Alaska. Eleven hundred and thirty-three men, views had been Independent of his own, light lines, like ioriie mad maelstrom. pu'Uon of the vaillluttnn of tha spirit In , Qladys." Including officers and soldiers, are on Doctor MacDougall said Doctor Sproule's The sleeping soul In nightmare was op- the presence, of danger. , . .'. "And what do you wish the new one duty, for the government 1 1n th forts words were: pressed with darkness, through which- But to th.e scoffer these eastern lmag- to be?" ; . . In the "Land of the Midnight Sun."' SAM'S - These men are divided Into six garri sons and one signal corps, the latter be ing stationed at Valdez. Kerosene lamps, dog teams, slow and uncertain mails, and lonely regions of frigid mountains and sIKilHt valleys swarming with mosquitoes are among the unpleas ant features of life in this far northern empire of gold and glaciers. Maintain ing soldiers In Alaska Is a difficult problem. Vegetables cannot bo raised In the open and transportntlon of sup piles is difficult and expensive. The peaceful disposition of the natives has madft large garrisons unnecessary. Of tho half dozen army posts in Alas ka. Fort Michael, the gateway to tho Yukon and military headquarters for Alaska, ranks first in history and In prestige. The Island upon which this post Is located, a piece of level table land broken only by two abrupt vol canic peaks, was named In honor of Michael Dmitrlevich Tebenkoy. director of Russian colonies, in 1 833. The island was discovered by Captain Cook, an KngHshman, In 1778. Fort Michael was established In 1833 and remained a Rus sian post until Alaska was sold to the WHAT IS the nkme of science previously. One of the men who attempted to solve the mystery of soul and life Is still active in his opinions and his research Dr. Duncan MacDougall, of Haverhill, Mass. He has declared It his belief that, if the X-rays are the dependence of the new experiments, they must fall, a1- though there exists a bare possibility that the soul substance, at the Instant of death, may become so agitated as to let' llo-hti r snot aiiow on iho iihnli)- , - - - - KraPhic Plac where the bones -o the. kul otter resistance to the rays. lift avers inar he ihm pxiH-r mpnipi with a dozen dying persons: and It was reckoned with, leaving only the erreci 0f the death change to be perceptible?" watching with him at the CuIHs Free Homo for Consumptives, In Boston, were Dr. John Sproulc, the house physician: nr- Ha,.ry Emm0ns ond Dr. William Victor Grant, of the visiting staff. Quot- ing Doctor Sproule as a witness whose "It was the most sensational moment MORNING, SEPTEMBER 3, SOLDIDBS - GROUND VAT(-OtJV&lC 3AKRAC3CSOH-OEIMG United States in 1867. The present American fort was established October 20,. 1897. Following the Gold Seekers. Nearest to Fort Michael Is Fort lavls, established on Cape Nome In 190(1 for the protection of property and the main taining of order In Nome. "Tho City of a Day." which sprang up and enjoyed a mushroom growth during the Days of Gold in Alaska. This city reached Its zenith In VJ99 when Its population reached 20,000. The following vear it dwindled to 12.4SX and at the present time there are but 300 people left there. This far-away post, h'ort Davis, Is on Bering sen. It was named In honor of General Jefferson Columbus Davis who commanded the first troops sent to Alaska. Up the Yukon from Fort Michael Is Fort Gibbon, the scene of years of THE HUMAN SOUL? Continued of my life. We had been watching the patient's existence slowly ebb tor five hours. Just at the moment of death his face twitched. It wns over. And In- stantly the beam of the scale clanged. down so you could hear It all over tho room. It took two silver half dollars to balance the scales." That series of experiments is Doc- tor MacDougall's ground for belief that he has successfully,' repeatedly, weighed the human soul and that it weighs . f'm one-half ounce to an ounce and a :,uar,,f ; Ah , f(,vr, ' .' f," ''.,'!' ne uuimn n ir memieu ui mr wan ,M-.- protoplasm of the brain spinal the brain fcpmn1 cord: and he believes it gives off a lllit re sembling that of interstellar ether. What Is the light of Interstellar ether yet remains to lie learned; and thiiv am distinguished physicists who would be astounded to learn that interstellar ether has uny Unfit at all, ether' not ipinir hniit timt v.kv since it lack's the substance to be affected by the light vibrations. Most serious attention, prior to the current experiments Inaugurated by Doctor Kllner in London, was,' however, given to the famous "soul photo graphs" of Dr. Hyppolltir Baraduc. In Paris. He not only undertook fo see the human soul under ordinary condi tions, of Its existence, but uinld phases of its most tempestuous passions and its most benign moods. Mere In these photographs there Is none of the com monplace notion evolved -by Dr. Hose M. Reading of Chicago, a year later, where she and her husband saw the soul of an old man as he died form It- 8t,f nkeTxvripor from his body. In eicact similitude, and dive headfirst through the wall bf the room. Dr. Baradue's photographs were compar- Bbie only to the vuguest Idea we can form of force made visible. The soul of a nerson nlunred in vio lent mental suffering was a whirl ot' yet gloomier, formless things loomed, 1911. - DAJiWV. - JS.O ttji.u. IN BACKGROUND wrangling between early Kngllsh and Russian fur traders for possession of the land. The first steamer to sail to the present site of Fort Gibbon, former ly Fort Yukon., was commanded by Captain C. P. Raymond of the United States in 1869. He settled the English-Russian controversy by hoisting the American flag. In 1899 Major Ray sailed up the river from Fort Michael with two companies and established a fort and named It In honor of General John Gibbon who served half a century In the United States army. The Midnight Sun, On the Yukon, 20 miles from tho Brit ish boundary, Major Kay established Fort Kgbert. June 13, 1899. The climate is dry, uniform and heulthful. The soil is a rich loam and covered with a blanket of moss. In December 20 hours each day are dark and in June and appalling. The curative forces at I.ojrdes fell like the gleaming bubbles in a cascade of limpid water. The blisses of the soul's benediction might have been sweet Incense fumes radiant. The physical body. Dr. Raraduc con tended, has its counterpart In a body fluid, subject to Innumerable vibrations, lie used, late at niKht In an absolutely dark room, u highly sensitized photo graphic plate, capable of registering the emanations of light given off by the band of t lie subject if need be. The photograph showing the violent perturbations In that of a woman wild- Iv Insane The bene dlcthm proceeds from the hands of a', clergyman at the time when he nave bis blessing. These soul asi ects, as pictured by Doctor Haraduc. aic less clearly formed, more amorphous, than , the conceptions of the aura of man as It Is held by mys- tlrs In India; yet there are certain slmi- larltles which would make It appear pos- sible-'that the western scientist has per- reived phenomena, identical with those which existed but were more highly colored, more1 einj hatlcally defined, by the self-hvpnotlz- d vision of the oriental mystics. In those eastern conceptions of the human soul the li cal symbols, of pas- sions appear to be supplemental to the mathematical forms tliut mark the workings of the suite eastern Intellect, Anger, when It Is raised to its highest degree. Involves the human spirit In mighty, yet gran f..l, contortions which, when portrayed, resemble nothing so much as the curves of the deadly cobra. A soul prone to the irritations 1'iat re spond to all life's petty annoyance ap pears amid a rain of fire, crimson dots of wrath, ever changing. That one emo- lion wmcn pimosopners nave so oiimi contended lie at the bottom of all ani- mal existence, fear,' is seen as a suoces- ln t wavering lines truly a fair de- ingaoi the human spirit are) .taken wltn LIVE July one Is able to read by the light1 of the sun at midnight. The air is highly charged with electricity In cold weather, making it dangerous to touch metal. The post was named in honor of Colonel Harry Kgbert who was killed during the Spanish-American war. The largest post in Alaska and the one located In the least disagreeable climate Is Fort Llscum on the coast near Valdez. The p"ost was first located by Captain W. R. Abercrombie, at Valdez. In command of the Copper riv er exploring party in 1899. The danger from the glacial streams In the spring caused the fort to be removed across the bay. Ships from American ports anchor hero regularly. Heavy Blanket of Snow. The coast at Fort Llscum is washed . by the Japan current which, keeps the climate moist and reasonably warm. The temperature ranges between 38 and 70 degrees in summer and does not fall lower than 15 degrees below In winter. Snow falls to a depth of 10 feet. On winter nights there are brilliant dis plays of the aurora borealts. The post was named In honor of Colonel Emer son H. Llscum who died on the battle field of Tien Tsln. China, July 13, 1900. The baby post of the department of the Columbia was established 17 miles from Skagway In 1903 and the follow Ing year was named Fort William H. Seward by William H. Taft In honor of the man who negotiated the purchase of Alaska. The land on which this young est of aW the forts of the department stands is a gravely beach, drained by a stream from Lilly lake. It formerly belonged to the Chllkat and the ChlU koot Indians. From Fir3t Page even a larger grain of salt than skeptl- cal science has accorded the soul thoi thought photos of Doctor Baraduo, and now tne lire spark and auiu. observa tions of Doctors K liner and O'Donnell. Spiritualism has so long contended ' and so oftn "proved" tho existence of Just such a "fluid body" as Doctor Bar aduc contends for that the whole lnves, tlgatlon has at last been left, along those lines, to the societies for physical research. In England the entire range OI ""man experience nas neen covereu 'lth formal Investigations as careful lf llly were being madi In criminal cases for solemn courts of law. Her J " 'he senses have been called Inta play i to detect tho existence of any ghost. astral body, aura, spectral sight Or sound, or even odor, which might poesl-, bly have a bear'-ig upon some essential spirit In a man apart from the mere dy- namic force by which he keeps his llv- mg eniuy. aiany cases, regaraca oy me partisans of the theory of tangible spirits, have been recorded; yet science has consistently held aloof, demanding proof which can be made evident When called for, au'.-u .is the visible aurae pro claimed now. , .,. If the exp.-rtiner.ta at the University of Pennsylvania demonstrate the tshgi- hie, visible existence of those aurae, ab, solutely free fr.wi all errors of obser vatlon, science w'U accept the hope that mankind stands on the verge of true discoveries in tne eternal proDiem ni existence sets before him: "Man, know thyself." ", ."'" A New Password.7 From Judge. T .oiarft rt ttmnv mv tiiiimwnrri f iilit v the nan who h,4 for two ytur9 rnied a safety deposit box. "Very well," replied the ' man In charge.. .' What la the old one?" Mabel. O mays nss gone to neao. i 1. 4 ' 4 ' i 4 'is'- ("' .'viV'V''