The Oregon daily journal. (Portland, Or.) 1902-1972, September 03, 1911, Page 42, Image 42

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jMtigley, Student of Flight
Smithsonian Institute Will Prerve First Flying Machine Developed
hjr 8. P. Langlejr, Who Solved Aerial Problems.
' r ' ' "
Tie Btory of Samuel Flerpont Lana--ley's
study and experiments In aeronau
tic Is one that appeals not only to
the engineer and others directly inter
ested In the subject, but to tht public
as well. It Is a story not generally
knowrviliKe-4tai ts back iy the year
1S87. before rrtany eerioim mimieu i-u-
nle considered arial navigation prae
ticil for heavier than air machine, and
tontlnues for nearly 16 years. During
that time Mr. Langley created and dem
onstrated many steps now Invaluable to
this modern and permanent science.
In 18R6 he became assistant secretary
of the Smithsonian Institution, and' the
following year, upon the death of Pro
fessor Baird. lie succeeded . him as sec
retary of the institution, where he com
bined the administration of its various
branches with his own Investigations
and studies, until his death In l!)0l. In
recognition of his scientific resparrhes
Mr. Langley was the recipient of de- i
trees arid medals from the foremost
universities and scientific societies in
Europe and America.
Wlda Sanf of Eztwrlmantf. a
From his first studies with toy aero
planes propelled by rubber bands to his
final experiments with a man-carrying
machine propelled by a gasoline engine.
the like of wtrtrnrfias hardly beerTsur
passed to the present day, the story of
his endeavors, handicaps, failures and
successes holds the attention of the
reader with an interest not unlike a
romantic narrative. The memoir Just
published deals largely with experi-
ments and their results, which are now
accepted as matter of course facts. At
the time they were made, however, they
were the first steps of a great scientist
groping in the dark, and he well de
serves the title given him as the first
birdman. ,
Having secured a grasp upon the ele
mentary theories of wind resistance and
matters pertaining to aviation, Mr.
Langley started in to build a model
. heavier than air machine, the first that I
had ever been built, since the nearest
approach at that time to such a fly
lng machine was an Ingenious invent
tion or the Frenchman jfenaud. who flew
a paper toy, propelled by means of
robber bands, for 10 seconds.
Studying- riig-ht Itself.
Secretary Langley undertook to build
a larger and more practical machine,
not simply for proving; the theories upon
which he had bn working, but because
he said it was impossible to learn more
about the principles of flight without
studying flight itself. In 1892 he start
ed building the first of his steam driv
en models, but It was four years be
fore successful flight was accomplished.
The problem was difficult and discour
aging, especially for one who had only
a casual knowledge of steam engineer
ing. There was ample literature on the
subject, but there might as well have
been none for all the assistance it gave,
with steam engines rated light at 600
pounds to the horsepower. What Mr.
Langley needed was just about one hun
dredth of that weight.
Seeing no other way he set about build
ing an engine himself, although prac
tical engineers told him it was impos
sible, .and he eventually produced one
weighing only 23 ounces, which with
the whole power plant, burner, boiler
and fuel, weighed seven pourlds and
produced one and a quarter horsepower.
6uccess at last attended his efforts, but
.only after a tremendous loss of time
and energyt Ten or to boilers and as
many blast lamps were made and dis
carded before he secured a combination
" that would keep up a pressure of 120
to 150 pounds of steam for the time
desired. And in the meantime he had
built and thrown aside five machines
before he succeeded in making one suf
ficiently light and yet strong enough to
fly. !
Even after the completion of the
whole machine he had to stop until some
method of launching could be devised.
At last a launching apparatus was con
structed which held the machine on an
overhead track until ready to fly, when,
by the means of springs it was shot
out into the air over the water. The
experimental ground was a small creek
off the Potomac river near Wldewater,
rirst night of Model.
At the end of four years' Incessant
labor, on May 6, 1896, the first of these
models flew. It was a model of a
tandem biplane, with a wing spread of
thirteen feet and a total weight of 80
pounds. The first flight was of a min
ute and 20 seconds' duration, while the
machine covered a distance of 3000 feet,
although In subsequent flights this dis
tance was Increased to three-quarters
of a mile, at a speed of about 30 miles
per hour. No attempt at fliaht wan
made In high winds, but In a wind of
lz miles per hour the model flew well,
circled and rose to a height of over
hundred feet, guided only by its own
mechanism. Thus after a period of
nine years or study and experiment the
meory or mechanical flight was sue
eessfully demonstrr.ted, and demonstrat
ea, as jar. langley stld, in the only
satisfactory way, by a machine really
xif ing.
The government became interested in
air. ljangiey s work earlv in IRnR. wmr
nislng the possibility for the use of
sucn a machine in time of war. Through
mo Doara or ordnance and fortification
resident McKInley asked Secretary
imngiey to nulla a man-carrying fly
lng machine. The secretary agreed to
try, and coming reluctantly from his
scientific parsuits, he commenced the
worn unoer an appropriation from the
government. Many Unforeseen nhatarli..
were encountered as had been the caso
in me construction of the model mach
in. Gasoline had been substituted for
steam as a more practical motor pow
er, una oecretary langley, then at the
age or ez, round It necessary to rfelv.
In the study of gasoline engine con
Seeking- Light Engines.
ne naa no aeslre to build a gasoline
engine nimseir. nut after searching in
vain, both In this country and in Europe,
for an engine builder who could make
him an engine averaging In w eight only
p-r norsepower, ne was
construction In
ways before It got "fairly into the air.
At the time of the launching the en
glne was running smoothly, but as the
machine started down the ways' the
aviator in bis car felt a sudden retarda
tion, due to the fact that one of the
wings came in contact with a part of
the .projecting munching apparatus, and
although tie aviator. Mr. Manly, at
tempted to adjust the balance of the
machine with the rudder, the aeroplane
tipped downward and plunged into tho
river before he could secure conrtol.
Following its recovery and repair al
most Identical events occurred in con
nection with the second launching,
about two months later. As before, it
was conceded by all who saw the flight
that the machine would undoubtedly
have flown had It not been for the de
fective launching apparatus.
Preserving rirst Machine.
Nearly all modern aviators who are
fam'"lar with the type and construction
or tne i.angley machine readily accord
to the pioneer In the science of aero
nautics that his flrRt heavler-than-air
machine would unquestionably have
flown and would fly today if fairly
launched. The Smithsonian authorities,
however, have decided that the rffacnlne
will never be experimented with again,
but win be, preserved as a monument to
the scientist who conducted these orlg
lnal investigations.
The Langley memoir on mechanical
flight, which formR publication 1948 of
Smithsonian Contributions to Knowl
edge, is In two parts, toe first by Pro
fessor Langley himself, dealing with the
preliminary work and experiments up
to tne rirst successful flight of model
No. 5 In 1896. The second part Is by
Mr. Charles M. Manly, Mr. Langley's
assistant in the construction of the
large gasoline motor and the man-carrying
machine and who acted as aviator
at the two attempted flights in 1903
unhappy mm
George Bowen, Once Rich and
a Mason of High Degree,
Dies at Kennewick.
(Special to Tb Journal.)
Kennewick, Wash., Sept. 2. The body
of George Bowen, at one time the head
of a happy family and a man of wealth
and prominence, lies In the morgue of
the Kennewick Undertaking company,
unclaimed by relattves. Bowen died
Monday morning following an Illness of
several days In his little home On the
waterfront In this city, and as yet the
local authorities have been unable to lo
cate any of his relatives. A sister of
the dead man formerly lived at Deef
Park, Wash., while a brother lives In
Texas. His wife and children, from
whom he has been separated for many
years, live in Scotland.
Bowen was at one time a Mason of
high degree, but never affiliated with
the local order, which is now endeavor
ing to trace his membership te his home
He has made his home in this country
for more than 20 years and at one time
was one of the wealthiest men of the
Columbia river district. Domestic trou
bles, however, precipitated financial re
verses and Bowen died possessed of
but a small remnant of his former for
tune. For the last seven years he has
lived the life of a recluse, taking no
part in the affairs of the communttv
and accepting the friendship of but a
lew men.
forced to undertake it
the Smithsonian shops,
The finished, engine, which was de
signed and constructed by Charles M
Manley. an engineer assisting Mr. Lang.
'ley, was a, .live clylncler one, producing
ot actual Horsepower, and weighing with
raaiaiors, natteries and 20 pounds of
cooling water, only 207 pounds, averag
ing a little less than four pounds per
. uiepuwcr. - i ne memoir gives the de
tails of construction of this engine
which even the builder of modern gaso-'
line engines could study with great
Test of Vraetloal Machine.
"t Jninn' '""illar with the
. termination of the experiments made
with the man-carrying machine. Early
in October, 1903, the aeroplane wai
completed and tried out at the testing
grounds at Wldewater. Virginia. Pro
fessor Langley Insisting that the flight
be made over tne water in order to
afford protection to a..e aviator In land
ing or in the event of an accident ai
though several tests had been made pre
viously on the launching apparatus
, there was some undiscovered flaw, and
' It,. M...UI.. . J . . '
P, R., L & P. MAY STOP .
(Salem Bureau of The Joornal.)
Salem, Or., Sept. 2. Rumors that the
Portland Railway Light 4 Power com
pany in rebuilding the State street line
preparatory to the paving of that street
to the penitentiary. Is planning to run
the new line only to 26th street, 1000
feet from the penitentiary station,
where the cars have heretofore been
stopping, is awakening a protest in of
ficial circles. Officials of the peniten
tiary declare that the existence of the
Institution brings an average of SO vis
itors daily who travel over the car line.
In addition orders are phoned to the
stores of Salem and sent out en the
cars, thus adding to the revenue of the
company. If the company cuts off 1000
reet rrom tne end of the line state vis
ltors will be discommoded.
"I Recommend It Wherever
I Am."
i f
Mrs. John
M. 8 t a b her.
Mill ersburg,
Ind., writes:
"I have
leen cured of
i very bad
ase of ca
arrh of the
ilomach and
c o nstlpatlon,
ind a compil
ation of all-
nents that
lave had for
several years,
. d o c t o r ed
vith thre
loctors, who
1 1 d me not
nuch good,
o I qluit doc-
I bought a
mttle of Pe
una and
o m m e need
aklng it. I
ound I was
retting some
letter, hut
nought j was not doing as well as T
might. So I wrote The Peruna Mimi
cal Department, to see what thrnr
thought about me. They gave me. spe
cial directions and medical advice. To
our sstonlshment I improved and am
today a well woman and weigh as much
as 1 ever did in my life.
... my.frlendsjthat Peruna saved
i recommeriii it whv.. r
Mrs. John M. Stabler.
my life.
" : : . 1 ,:; -- : 'A ''- -" ;: . . "r , ;, , ,
If you are going to have a home at-all, why not 'make it cozy and comfortable? You must spend the, greater part of your Jife in it; and,
after all, it is the only place you can go to for recreation or rest. The surroundings of the home should be cheerful and pleasant; and if they
are not you ought to make them so. YOU DO NOT NEED READY CASH. Maybe some one piece of furniture, -a, new rug, new draplries
or lace curtains is all that is lacking to complete the' comfort of the home. Whatever your needs, great or .small, GADSBYS. are prepared to
supply them. We offer, you the advantage of our CONFIDENTIAL CREDIT ACCOUNT SYSTEM. There is nothing about it that would
cause you any embarrassment pobody hears of the transaction, nor is there any extra charge or interest for this privilege. GADSBYS prices
are NO HIGHER than cash stores', and you can arrange to oav IN SMALL AMOUNTS- either -WEEKLY OR MONTH! Y . ;n mh pWr
article throughout our five spacious floors is marked with a plain figure tag at the lowest possible price; Note the prices on the following, -
650 Different Patterns ot Room Size Rugs
Five racks like picture each carries 125 patterns. Rugs from 12x15 to 6x9 feet on display. Anglo
Persians, Indians, Arabians, Royal Worsteds, Bagdads and Tepracs all here at bottom prices.
Special Bargains
TONS, 9x12 tD.l7.0U,
MINSTER, 9x12. tDa-O.UU
tffSTERS, 9x12 .... OiiO.UU
SAXONY AX- 1 Q rft
a SUSSEX VEL- flflrT rft
k VETS, 9x12 PX I OV
SELS, 9x12 M.,OU
High Grade Dining Set for $58.00
Like . Cut
Remember, that furniture
buying is an investment
not a mere expense, and that
ffie better the grade the bet
ter and more permanent the
investment. Here's a set off!
solid quartered oak in a
handsome design.
THE TABLE is pedestal
style, 6-foot extension, nice
ly finished.
BUFFET, with large mir
ror, handsome design, solid
.quartered oak. Off ftft
Special at ... 54tleUU
match; low price
THE ENTIRE set priced
for this sale $58.00
Xwt u 111 . s J I
Oadsbys' Great Sale of Handsome,
Bedroom Outfits at
$26 M
A Dresser Bargain
Only $7.50
This Dresser, flnlshert In a rich
golden oak color, with French
beveled plate mirror. Retail val
ue $10. Gadsbys' price $7.50
A Sale ot Fine
The bed nay be had in several fin
ishes, just like cut. with continuous
posts, large size tubing, a handsome
yet plain design. The spe.- (Prr rft
cial price alone VI OU
in oak or maple tpxuDl
THE WASHSTAND, also fi ftft
in oak or maple, special at vOaUU
THE BED may b'e had in the cream
finish to v match .maple dresser and
We have metal beds in all sizes, and
all colors of enamel. We're famous.
tor tne values we give, " O ft A
$195 to JHO.UU
Automatic Davenport Bed Special at
Upholstered in Chase leather, full
spring seat and back, oak frame;
oo values, liadsbys JQ CTA
wmoMMmMMmMMmmMwmMwmwmrm nil
special lowrice is ..
Other Davenports in
velour, special
Coach Special. $7. 85
Couch is upholstered in two-tone velours; beautiful greens, rT QE
reds and browns; Gadsbys' price p OD
$30.00 SOLID OAK fl00 Cft
$25.00 SOLID OAK
$20.00 SOLID OAK 1 A rft
BOOKCASE, now.. M4l.pU
$18.00 BOOKCASE, (P1Q rft
now OLOtUU
Qthers'as low as ........ 3,50
" -ft -. -
China Closet $tl. 50
We are offering special price this
week on solid Oak China Closets,
all reduced. Our rj rft
spicial j)A I .01
Ch ina Closet is a bargain.
Solid Oak Buffet
Solid Oak Buffet, fumed, early.
English or golden oak finish;
regular price $35. " Q ftft
Special this week tDLO.UU
Biggest Value Ever Offered
Rocker Bargains Beat These if You Can for the Mnnn
Three styles of Rockers take your choice oak or mahog- Q ftft
any finish. Extra special VaUvi
Special Sale of Iron Beds
$3.50 Iron Beds. . . .$1.95
$4.50 Iron Beds $3.50
$5.00 Iron Beds. . . .$3.75
$7.00 Iron Beds! . . .$5.75
$20 Brass Beds. . .$14.50
$25 Brass Beds. . .$18.00
$h0 Leader
All Steel Range
$16 Dresser $11. 50
Equal to any $40.00 Rantre in the
market, oven 20x16 inches, asbes
tos lined throughout. You can
not break the lids. Or7 rft
Special at ipii.tjj
mw . ' tsBBBBBsamavr mafjif 1 sw -r w
"vttrhi V!. ,-
No Hatter What You Want in FurnitupA
eils at -ir lLeso' 5
Princess Dresner, , with oval or.
shaped French bevel mirror, fin
ishld golden; regular $16 values.
Special this week for
Sale Dining Tables
??nli1 naif: nxHootl Tv,1 u
ok, polished finish;, extends 6
f- Inrtrr 17-irW . 1 .
.V..B, nriuvu uravy pea-
estal ' base ' triv'tner t-,ki- -... 1
. - , n a1, wit o l i rn m fl.
anq aesign; uaasDys , CJa ft ftft
special price ... . . . :. 'ipxUaUU
" 1 '!'..'' ' ' ' ' ?t -4 ' I