Image provided by: University of Oregon Libraries; Eugene, OR
About The Oregon daily journal. (Portland, Or.) 1902-1972 | View This Issue
TH2 OltEGON SUNDAY JOURNAL PORTLAND, SUNDAY KORNING ' NOVEMBERS 18, 1905
TTTTBTrr-rytfT n. intf
so far as yellow fever Is concerned.
Medical science and the United
? . j : States Government have secured a
great triumph in stamping out the dreaded
scourge. '-- , . ; 1 . ''" , '.,
TAw splendid result was accomplished i
: , about a year from the time of American oc
- cupancy of the canal strip.-Jt was not an
-tasy-taskrbutstil '-onr about vhichxlingsa
romance of successful endeavor. ' ; ' ' "- -.
." Native indolence, i lack of , knowledge
among the people regarding sanitary meas
ures, and peculiar, local conditions combined
. to make the work of the health officials pecu- .
liarly difficult."-Tkey -'entered - upon it with
zest, however, and with a grim determine.
:tion that has borne fruit. i
r . Fully jooo men were employed in this
campaign for freedom-from a dread disease,
and they had behind them an appropriation
of $ 2, OOO fOOO. Science and money , working
together, have proved an all-powerful com
. bination. x
'. was absolutely necessary to purify the
canal strip, to banish yellow fever from the
Isthmus, else the value of the canal to the
"world would be seriously impaired. 1 Ships
from all parts of the earth are expected to
use that cut-oft passage, and, through them,
contagion might be spread 'far and wide. ;
:; By stamping out yellouf fever: so soon
th mnd It eomfileted. the American Govern-
, , , - j.t'r- i Li." -f necsary.. th vessels were fumigated and disinfected.
mens not oniy guarantees a ae nuvuauun . p.,,, who Show4 auspicious aymptomi war : 7 ractorrr-eiae tM or 4rva wra
JOr tne many inousanas WOrxmcn neeaea, dsUUne under Observation until tue eisease oeveiopea on xne canal woiua oe aeisjea ana ii wue m"""" found In. them.
an unimpcruca mgnway jor ine com
merce of nations. . ,
r it - a 1 1
beyond bellef-orellow-fever-breedlnf mosquitoes had
favorable conditions for propagation. It was necessary
to a-tre Panama a food cleaning up and to adopt
modern sanitary measures. - -
As a precautionary measure In prerentine; the
Introduction of the disease from outside, effective
quarantine regulations were put in force against South
American porta. Quarantine stations were established
at Panama, Ancon. Cristobal and Colon, and ail vessels
arriving at those ports from southern, countries were
subjected to - the severest Inspection.
- If a contagious disease, was found aboard," vigorous
steps were taken to prevent its further spread. If ;
square feet of . brush .cut and cleared; swamps' filled
In amounted to 17.100 square yards; swamps and ponds
drained, MM1 square yards; grass cut and burned.
1.104,40 square yards; new ditches dug, 122,171 linear
feet;dltches cemented and lined. 12.870 linear feet.
Prom October ). 1104, to September SO, 1105, there
were 17 deaths from yellow fever among the employes
of the Canal Commission, purmg the same months
In 1SS3 and ISB4, wbea the French bad at.wttfk approx
' Imately the same.. number f nun, they . lost from
; yellow fever sixty-six men, or almost twice aa many..
But even this checking of mortality was not satis-
Kip to r v jmSrTW-
a : :.r. au-yiJiki r j'j .
: ; : I I
building went through a thorough process of fumiga
tion. ... . . ,
-These precautions proved so successful, that al
though fire buokets filled with water were allowed to
Efforts of the "stegomyia brigade" for a white
confined to covering all water receptacles with wooden)
covers or wire netting. In order to exclude morcultoeg
..from the surface of the water. . '
-When., the mains from the reservoir which suppUet
AT present, so far as known, there la not a single
- case of yaUowfeTet-Jn.Panania at Jeagy along
the canal strip,TneJst case .reported, ,was isT
More than that, the sanitary authorities do - not
anticipate a recurrence of the dlseaae in the Isthmus.
Should It manifest Itself again. It is not believed that
It would assume grave proportions, s6 well have the'
experts the situation In hand.
-Thus s7gTeat baniersjUjJhe construction of the:
canal has been lifted. The removal of this difficulty
leaves no hindrance In the way of "making the dirt
fly" on the great 4 Itch that 4s to link the AUaptlo and
Paoiflo Oceana, and which will be uaed In carrying
such a vast amount of the world's commerce.
PEL?0"0?0 thUL-trottlanfarWhtither or not
yellow fever could be banished from the Isthmus
depended not . only success " in building thm present
waterway, but the degree of its usefulness to human-'
lty when finished. .-- r-- -
When the Panama Commission took up the work -to
which it bad been assigned, this disease problem
presented even greater difficulties than those of engi
neering. An army of workmen eould not be maintained there,
and certainly oapable engineers' and overseers would i
mm fc Mutant r.m.ln .hn.ilH prwlnn -
or the period of Incubation had been completed.
But the great work of the crusade resolved Itself
Into exterminating the mosquito carrying the Infection
and In removing the conditions favorable to Its propa
gation. It was also essential to put the Isthmus on a
thoroughly sanitary ' basis.
In the war against the stegomyia fasclata mosquito
tht Mnltry Tr prTi VTlrggteit Hwtr ilfnrti In daatriiylna- " United States.
the Insect and Us places of propagations This species -A rigorous
- can live only where there is standing water, so that
. It was necessary to drain stagnant pools and ponds,
receptacles around houses containing standing water
had to be covered, and every bouse was thoroughly-
Keceialty for this was Impressed by a slight out
break of the fever which occurred later. It was not
as extensive nor as alarming as many that had pre
ceded It tn-the-eArf gone by, but it caused almost a
panlo antdng the 11,000 workmen employed In canal
construction. Many of them left and returned to the
Wet marshes, ' where there is a deep growth of
grass, are also favorable to the growth of the mou
quito. and those had to be cleared away.
Soma Idea of -the atupendoue task It -was to give
Panama a thorough housecleanlng may be gained from
the following statistics, which cover the period from
-Ja4y 1. 1001, to August a. U0& There were .S. 13S-
was' th:n Undertaken by-
Colonel Gorges, consisting of, first, tho prevention of
the propagation of mosquitoes; second, the isolation of
the persona afflicted with the disease in order to pre
vent the spread of the Infection, and, third, the de-.
struction of all mosquitoes capable of transmitting
were - Issued - requiring - that all screens on
.In the Administration Building be closed.
Guards were stationed at the sprlng-hlnged vestibule
doors to prevent them being propped open and to see.
that persons entering end leaving were not allowed
tftl61teronneBltt On each alternate Sunday the-
TeUow-fever-bearlng mosquitoes do not breed In the
open swamps' or larger bodies of water, but require
the protection of buildings, grass or foliage. They .
are incapable of sustained flights' f rjany coni'.derable
distances. The sanitary authorities recognlred thaf
the danger arose from mosquitoes bred In and around .
the houses of the town a The work of preventing the
propagation of these mosquitoes was done by V ste-"
gomyla brigades.'' working underthe he4Ilnofllcerr ofr;
Panama and Colon.
These towns were divided Into districts, and each
district was assigned to an Inspector, who visited .
each house once or twice a week see that ne moe-
quito larvae were breeding on the premises.
" ! In tho past this work was 'exceedingly difficult, ow
ing to the primitive water supply of Panama and
Colon, which compelled the Inhabitants to rely on
water barrels, cisterns and other small and stagnant
tanks for sufficient water for ordinary domestlo use.
These stagnant tanks offered Innumerable breeding
places for moequttoes In everquarter oflhe oil
FEVER BALKED FRANCS
Because of the ravages of yellow fever, work had
to be abandoned on the canal on two separate occa
sions under the regime of the French Government
In October, 1814. when the French company had on
the Isthmus a foroe of 10.214 men. It lost 111. During
- the same month In 1001, however, the Isthmian Canal.
Commission and the Panama Railroad Company, em-'
ploying 11,681 men, lost only 66.
If yellow fever could not be ' banished from the
Isthmus, It seemed probable that the disease - would
: be carried from the canal ports to the porta of the
Philippine Islands, those of south China and other
parts of the Orient as well as the Paclflo Slope.
. The lifetime of the yellow-fever-bearing mosquito
la about three months, which is ample time for a ship
to reach Asia from the Isthmus of Panama. 'The
- stegomyia faaoleta mosquito abounds In the Orient and patch at the same time by crossing the milkweed
, Allmatla anrl ianllir . nnmtnrv ihn in favorable Tne sirawneiTy pianir-
to the propagation of the disease.. e ww-d.
Once Introduced Into the cities and towne of China. - range, and was In full fruitage when, alaal one
the lose of life
upon commerce disastrous. While the difficulty of
' inducing .the Chinese and other Orientals to adopt
modern sanitary methods of dealing with the scourge
would be very difficult'
.The Panama Canal Commission had one great
- Some Tilings
FORTUNATELY, perhaps, readers are not
always compelled to wade through recitals
of crime, political gossip or reports of the
' proceedings of Congress in order to experi-
"" tri thrills that ffnlivftn life or to learn of TO-
Some seasons of the year, especially, new
"of ten assumes g- sprightlier- garb J men,- animals,'
. birds, fish and even the inanimate forces of nature
contribute to the lighter, brighter side cf news
T STROUDSBURO. Pa., for Instance, two young
men during the last summer saw a bolt of light
ning slip down a telephone pole and electrocute a
duck. Kvery feather in its body was loosened.
"If lightning can do that." they thought, "why won t
an artificial electrical current do the'sume thing?"
Now, It Is said, they have devised a contrivance for
"dry plucking" ducks by electrical voltage, the feather
being loosened without injuring the meat Dry-plucked
ducks bring S cents a pound more than those treated by
the ecaldlng process, it Is asserted.
The genius of invention has aleo gripped Alonao Mur-
hy, of Morrlstowa, N. J. Mr. Murphy has conceived the
dea of producing etrawberrles and cream from the same
cted to Believe
rapid development to handles on eggs. -
Laying eggs that are turned Inside out Is the freak,
specialty of a hen belonging to D. Mnngana, of Delaware,
Ohio. She Inya one egg a day, and all are inverted.
The outsldo covering of the egg is the thin white skin
usually found just under the shell. Next comes the white
of the egg, and then the. regulation shell surrounding the
"'lisi S II M
Last fall he grafted several berry plants- orTthe milk-"
une specimen grew nicely siongsiae tne aitcnen
So etronaiv doee the maternal instinct exist In a hen
belonging to Joseph Kern, of Scheldy'e, Pa., that some
time since she took poseeeelon of seven beagle puppies.
The fowl, it la stated, entered the barn shortly after the
birth of the puppies, scraped acquaintance with the '
mother, and then spread her wings over the new arrivals
and eettled down to shelter them, while the mother dog
walked calmly away.
Since then the hen has endeavored taithfully to Oil
the position of foeter mother to the pups.
A FEW DOO STORIES
7 " Borne good stories about dogs have developed of late,
too. Among the most intelligent of these animals are
those trained by the monks of the famoua hospice of St
Bernard Pass, In the Alps.
Almost human are these faithful dogs In assisting and
rescuing Alpine travelers. The monke have erected refuge
huts In the dangerous places, and Installed telephones .
connected with the hospice.
The ttt Bernard dngs have been taught to run to any
particular but when Its number Is repeated to them.
Mow a dog is faithful In guarding Interest he be
llcvee are committed to his care is Illustrated by the
following story, taken from a newspaper of Lona, Mich.;
"On Tuesday a farmer drove up to Page A Co.'s office
snd snld a sheep pelt and drove away. After he had
gona; Mr. Welch discovered that the farmer a dog . xe-
for him; When telegrams were sent to the place of ship
- ment it was found that ths body had been sent to the
farmer by mistake, while the pig he expected had gone
to the sorrowing relatives of the dead.
Mra MVrgaret Clara, of Baltimore, swore out a war
rant for the arrest of her husband, who had been dead
three years, because he had appeared so vividly to her
" nrem inn n. mmnintn p mint nm snvs
Not knowing that the man bad passed from earthly
scene, the police attempted to tmd John Clark, but, in
stead, ran across' proofs of bis death. When these were
submitted to the widow, she acknowledged that ehe knew
me r ci.
cold "Later he took the Belt to the storehouse srxl luket
would be enormous and the "effect w--wimw m nrs wrni ouc iu inn. mr, uri.nj "."P- A" n came out, tne aog stood oy tne aoor, and
advantage over its predecessor, the French company.
In dealing with the epldemlo of yellow fever. When
the French Government undertook tho work of digging
a canal, the cause of the disease and how to combat
it were unknown.
Through the dlacnverv of the lata Malnr Walter
lecd. of the United States Army, the causative agent
says, each perry, when examined, was found to contain
a quantity of cream, varying from a few drop to a tea
spoon ful. i . .
Ingenuity certainly has Its Own reward. ' Captain
Sycamore, who sailed Sir Thomas Llpton's Shamrock for
the America's Cup, took part in a plowing match in Eng
land a short time ago. The versatile sailor fastened a,
compass to hi plow beamt and was able to run suoh a
straight furrow that he woo the prise.
The useful domestic hen la resDonslble for many ur-
prising items. .Those of Robert hi. Foster, Jr., of Sussex
county, New Jersey, It Is gravely stated, have been
Her dream had been so real, she said, that aha be
came convinced -her spouse waa alive a gam, and, as she
was afraid of hlm, she wished him arrested.
Perhaps she held about the same opinion of htm that
Mrs. Louisa Swegles, of Detroit, hod of her husband,
William Hwegles, when the troubles of .the couple were
aired in court there.
"For twenty-two years," she asserted I lived with
him, end In all that time t cent waa all he apent on me ,
cent for witch haiei.
"lie never bought me even a handkerchief: never
paid a woman to help me with the housework, and made
me work In the field with the men."
Mrs, Swegle had some property of her own, it was
explained, and from that source was able to meet her
personal oeods. -
Some persons crave newspaper publicity, other are
honest in their opposition to it out here is a cate where
mention of a man' nam tn the paper brought him a
John 8ptre of Sayre, Pa., an engineer on the Lehigh '
Valley Rnllrmd, had a nail blown into his neck at a
Fourth 01 July, celebration twenty -six years ago. The
wound healed, and he did not know the nail was there
untl: some months ago, when harp pain caused him to
submit to medical examination.
'the city of Panama with water w:re sufficiently
tended to permit the partial uef the new hydrants
on the street corners, and free water waa supplied to)
all who came. It became possible to begin the whole-
sale destruction of water barrels, tanks and other house
hold water container and to fill up well and othea
All of these receptacles and breeding place ware
dertroyedt - The only vessel hi which domeatlo wateg
1 now allowed to -trtafid -are the large erthnwar -Jar
and cooler in use by the Inhabitant of the
Isthmus. , , . v 1
To prevent the Infection of mosquitoes and thai
-consequent spread of yellow fever, it waa necessary,
that all patient should be Isolated a soon as thai
dlseaae manifested Itself. For a long time the an!tarj
official war dependent for Information of new case
upon voluntary declaration or upon the report of
laborer of the "stegomyia brigade." . '
As a result of this Imperfect system, however, manyj
ease were never reported and other remained for were
ral day unscreened before they were brought t thai -
notice of the authqrltlea z
T remedy thie condition, eight local physician
were appointed in Panama and Or In Colon to ao
as medical Inspectors and to make a dally hous-to4
house canvas of the two cities, reporting all suspeotej
cases to the authorities. . , ,
PATENTS EFFECTIVELY ISOLATED ;
Every effort waa made to persuade patient prag
senting symptoms of yellow fever to allow then
selves to be taken to hospital. If the patient re
"fused, preferring to remain .at home, hewM-placed
under a mosquito bar, the window of his room wore
screened and a doubl vestibule attached to the dooiy
-which waa locked and guarded by an attendant-la -truoted
to admit only the doctor, nurse and a llmsi
ltd. number of Immune relative or friend. Becau)
of this precaution there ha not been a single case ol '
yellow fever contracted from sufferers. . ' '
In every instance where yellow fever was reported
to the health authorities, the house where the patient
had been staying was thoroughly fumigated, as wag
also the adjacent property, la addition to this, every)
effort waa mad to trace the movement of the patlenf
during th day Immediately preceding the cont(ao4
tlon of th disease, and if It seemed probable that hS)
became Infected In any other house or building; tfe
went through the process of fumigation, ,"
In discussing the manner and methods used In that
fumigation work. Colonel Oorga says:
"Th occupant of th house were given a few!
days' previous notice, and then at th appointed time
a brigadeTTri "charge of ti Inspector, would make the '
place ae nearly smokeproot as possible. All cracks
ana openings in tne ouuuing were sealea witn stripe
Wednesday morning wa etilt there, as though faithfully-1--- At th hospital the nail wa flincovere and removed. or sheets of paper- of su8icient-lse,-ttBcUe4-wita
In the tranmisslonot yellow fever Is bow known to.1"41 .? lai-f with-handle- to thra-uppoedIy,
. i. i , i , . . . . . . . . .. - , . ti r f m i r
the world, As a result of hi sctenttflo researches I
Havana In ItliO. he demonstrated scientifically the
theory that yellow fever, is transmitted from one
person te another through the bite . of the female
mosquito, etegomyla fasclata. He also showed how
, v the peat could be fought and the djaease eliminated.
A BIO MAN FOR A BIO TASK
Credit for having Tld Panama of yellow fever
belong to-Ool.- W 43. Gorge. -of th Medical Depart
ment erf the United State Army. When President
Roosevelt cast about to find a man to make the
Isthmue a fit place in. which to live, be selected Ir.
Oorgae as the chief sanitary officer of the canal son.
The officer had already demonstrated bl Otnesa for the
big teak by sucoeesfully stamping out yellow fever
epidemics in the Southern States and In Cuba.
. It was a termendous proposition, however, that
confronted Colonel Oorga s one that seemed to justify
. tho aprroprlntlon of t2.0do.tM) and the employment of Wrr
men. The work was lo be something on a lamer scale
than had ever been attempted before In the history of '
sanitation or medicine. - i
When American authorities took charge of the
canal son, they found It tn a condition of filth almost
of cf unfa, for convenience In eating.
. Tlds result w not an accident but, rather, the re
sult nf sug et Inn. Some time ago, when breaking an
eg at the breakfaat table, Mr. Foster conceived the idea
that an eggshell with a handle, whh h would form Its
own rup, would not only aa've a lot of dishwashing, but
would be- at once a culinary and a scientific tflumph.-
Arcordlngly, he bad the interior of the henhouse'
painted white. Food waa conveyed. to the fowls in large
whit vessels, each having one handle. Water was pro
vided In similar, but smaller, veeaels.
Aeroae tne single wuiunw teacup were auspenoea on
guarding a companion. . Th dog la atlll round the ware
house, refusing to leave."
Bnch Incidents tend to Increase the kindly feeling man
has for hi faithful dumn friend. Not so, however, th
experience of Special Officer Eire Warner, of Scheneo
tdy, N. V.
While eating frankfurter Mr. Warner knife struck
something hard, and, upon Inveetlrutlng, he unearthed a
dog tag bearing the legend; "dehemectady dog tax,
Sjf." Just how the tag got Into the su usage ha not
been explained, but Warner, It I said, has tfisoontinuad
-the eonemptin-tf frankfurters. ' -
Sidelights llluminstlnK human nature constantly crop
out In news items from various parts of the world. Take,
for example, the case of Joeeph Schwarta, an innkeeper
at Iutschau, Hungary.
liavlng died, appurently, the man was laid out "for
burial. He waayonly In a state of suspended animation,
however, and, regaining consciousness, found himself In
an open coffin, surrounded by flowers and six lighted
Now Schwart had always been a frugal man. and.
through frugality, had accumulated some mesne it
annoyed him to see so many candlea burning about hta
The case was mentioned In the newspaers, and finally
came under the eye of a London lawyer, who bad been
searching for Spires two years.
The lawyer wrote to the engineer, who established his
Identity satisfactorily, and was Informed that a legacy
of t.imo, lett him by an emit In England, wa at hi
. disposal. N . ,,
Only two other Instance of curiosities that crop out
In the dirty flotsam and jetsam of news may be men
licneu. One is the case of a baby at Pee Molnee, Iowa,
wl ich changes color three time each twenty-four hour
nd la a purile to medical men. - -
The child is the son of a Hindoo, who married an,
American girl. When it awaken at sunrise it le a pretty -pink,
falr-complexloned boy. By noon he has changed
to the dark ginger color of hla oriental ancestors, and at
night becomes white again. Mixture of bloods is thought
to be accountable for the strange phenomenon.
At New burg. N. T., sympathetic Ate of nervous ori
gin attacked six members of a family of twelve children.
One of the boye had manifested dread of a kicking
mule, and, it la said, th driver of the animal, thinking
to cure the boy, locked him. in the stable with the mule,
WiHri him In f Km lark.
string, comprising th only ornamentation upon which blerr lt temed te hlnv. ha sail afterward. a ttrrlblei, Crle of th lad attracted attention, and he ws re-
the hen could gae. Nightly the fowls were sung to
sloop to tne tune n rollicking orinKing songs.
Such persistent and sclentlrlo treatment had it effect.
It 1 solemnly declared. Within ten day egg began to
appear bearing alight excresencee on one end, and, after
twoweeka, the new eggs had well-formed handle.
That suggestion brought about such a useful result la
Mr. Foster's belief. During th experiment a rooster es
caped from his yard Into that of a neighbor. Ths neigh
bor's small boy chased the rooster home, and, during the
proceedings, threw at It part of a broken white pitcher
that bore a large and conspicuous handle.
The incident greatly frightened the rooeter, and waa
witnessed by th nana. From that time there was a
So, climbing out of his coffin, h proceeded to extin
guish the candles, to save aa much of them poeslbl.
Then he appeared before hi frightened family, clad in
bin shroud, to expoetulat against th funeral extrava
gance. The amaanment of Schwartx's family was probably
equaled by that of Wllllnm Archer, a farmer, of Crom
well, Ind., who went to the railroad station expecting to
receive by express a prise pig, which he had purchased
and ordered shipped to him. Instead of receiving the
flg, a coflia eontaming a body waa delivered to him. a
t bore hi address.
Archer vigorously protested that the eorpe wag nog
cued In a state of Collapse. H was taken to a hospital.'
treated for nervous disorder, and went into convulsions,
which continued dally for some time.
The strange thing wa that five other member of th
family,, all xoungcr than lb boy, became smitten with
the same trouble, They had what the phyaiclan .termed -ympathetlo
When on went Into convulsion, other followed; at
time all six. Including th trlglnal euftersr, were r. fit
at tho ainie time. ,
In 'order to reator the tympathetlo sufferer it wa
necessary to separata them and keep them away from
each other, with new and cheerful surroundings, for v
ral week. -
"Iron pot or briok supports containing pyrethr'unt
powder of sulphur were placed In each room, igulied,
and left to smoulder from two to four hours. Tha
doors and windows were then opened, and a soon,
as the smoke bad cleared Sufficiently for the laborer
to remain in the house, the tloors were swept and the
sweepings, containing the dead and stunnod mosqul
toes, were taken Into the etreet and burned.
"It became apparent lp June that tie fumigation
of only those house In Which case of fever had ben
found, or to whlcbr they had been traced, would not .
be sufficient to check tile epidemic It wae therefor
determined to fumigate the entire city of Panama
within the ahortest possible space of time,
TWO WHOLE CITIES FUMIGATED '1
"Sine twelve days must elapse after the stegomyfsj
ha bitten a fever patient before It can transmit tha
disease. It was desired to complete the work wlthli
that, period, but this proved Impossible The sciual
time consumed" wie forty-four days,-or from July I
to August II. The entire city of Colon waa theoj
"fumigated in like manner. , r :r.
"Ihe people of Panama, themselves Immune from yU
low fever, hava-submitted patiently and nimiiin
Ingly to the annoyance and Inconvenience of IuihIum
tlon. The few complaints which have been made
related rather to the time of fumigation than to l
faot of the fumigation Itself. Few claim have b
filed for compensation for damages resulting from I
fumigating work, and almost every one of them I
had some baale of merit" . fc
The great object ef the work, however, ha t
accomplished. YeHow fever has been banish.. I f
Panama, and It le believed that the dread acuurg t
never again ur a foothold there.