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About The Oregon daily journal. (Portland, Or.) 1902-1972 | View This Issue
THE OREGON, SUNDAY JOURNAL. PORTLAND SUNDAY MORNING,, .JUNE 3, j9ZS
' r7?--ft-. T-:
-. . . :',!-.
72 a Qar
rinmil 1 111 11 nufSU lr--ra
0 VAST, yet SO well Systematized, art nouncement rWlt for th Big Show." follweJ by if
i i ' ' , . .. own mm and date. , ., ;
mc aciailS OJ me managemcm OJ q An Important factor In th clrcu ayitem is the rail-
" . t . vr . f r . . rr A MntrantAr. vhA nnnn rmiivlrir tYim rrtntH'riMn Ch
(cnoral agent, arrange from the various terminal for
transportation of the advertising ears and the shew-It-self.
He. toe, must, arrange for sidings' at which to un
load, and frequently plans circus-day excursions, from
the sttrrmmdlng country, -for- which- he-must -make -guarantee
to the railroad company.
A . ' rr it "t -i t. And now the circus conies, to town. Bo thorougn
Secretary I att : recently detailed tWO have the plane been that there Is scarcely ever a hitch.
' - ' . Th. nl . i .Hln. aM .1..... aW 1 1 1 .l.l.
except man ana passenger service, in
transoortatlon boss takes up the work;
pnilrrtMl nnl ro i'tn. lAft n fT
1)loeS of a circus tvilh a view 'irThAntttti -- u superintends the placing of the Pullmans and
ytvjct vj a (ircus. Win a new 10 aopf;jrrflaU nd to the aBd transportation to the
worthy ideas for the army transportation and c!rcu?. Tun5- Already he has taken out the state and
' . J " cuy license for the performance, and has ordered sup-
tommtssary services. piles.
. r T ' . . i j i. During the season he must, among other things. Buy
' rerhapS the SUCCeSSful conduct Of a bit bushels of potatoes. 200.000 loaves of bread, K.OUO
! nw,? tJu l .iZT-'T"'!-. 1JTouha f off,- 150,000 quarts or mlHc,nhousand"ijpoir
., -WnOVlloaay .requires, more . DUSmeSS , ability , thousands of pounds of vegetables, -0.OU pounds of but-
than almost an, other enterprise. ' Xm'
It carries its treasurer cashiers, auditor, "Jr-clrcui d0,, not Ir upon tD. u
- vookkeeper; doctor and detective: tt AajTi ft '-how for a11 xhn ppes thev are shipped daily, in-
m .1 . ' , , , , , , ' . . , , eluding about 3000 pounds of fresh meat, generally from
great circus that: . the United States
Xtovernment condescends, to learn useful les
ons jrom 4hebusiness '6n wheels'!iofjhese
tnterpnsing captains of industry
army officers to studyTthe methods employed
in transporting and feeding the numerous em-hZl$ rLura
-rt72 Off jeer Spotting thz Taraet
TZZle JZoa&sr' erne? -
B. . t , 1 t 1 t lit.. . riuning aooui uu pounds or iresn meat generally irom
VVlCner SttOp. barber Shop, blacksmith Shop,- ChlcHgo. An attempt Is always made to get frevh milk
It. -1 j j. . .' on the spot, but even that Isn't necessary, for several
US tailoring and dressmaking department: ttS cases of condenied milk are received daily. Hay and
mm ntl. J . ' . . t. j.. . grain for the animals are bought along the route. Over
rvA a refreshment car, with canteen service.
' From $$000 to $20,000 a day may be
. taken in by the large circus; there are innu
merable accounts to be kept, a stream of bills
to be paid. Yet so thorough is the system
that no cent goes astray, no want is ever un-
1Utt)lied and the Drnttrirtnrt I tine,, ,.- financial course of the grvat throbbing engine, never ra
.9uppnca, ana me proprietors Know exactly - Uxlng his hand from the throttle. ,
ItOW inetrOUStneSt ltanat rvrrv hnur nt the Jno "gon is aivw imo two companmenis,
" 1 . eitJl! neryWLUlnein the rear one the bookkeeper, bent ever a board'
i.wo.m) pounds of Ice are used In a season.
Mo thoroughly does the treasurer know, from dally,
reports, every Item of expense outstanding that, when
he reaches a town, bills are paid off with amaslng speed. '
It Is calculated that by 4 P. M. on the day of arrival
every bill shall be paid and a new score started.
On account of the vast amount of money handled,
the . treasurer's office Is always an Interesting place In
the equipment of this great business on wheels. No
Pullman car for him; but right there In the big red ticket
waff on. cramped In a corner back of the man who deals
out the pasteboards and rakes In the coin, he directs the
fHINK for a moment of the enormous extent of the
i I average large circus enterprise. One of those
J, now on the road has 12S0 people on Its payroll.
. In all, there are twenty-seven tents covering
M area of twelve sere with their apparently num
berless accessories and equipments; eight v-flve cars are
r?, to transport the outfit. Twenty-six of these
re Pullman sleepers the S75 performers must rest as
their journey from place to place. There are (li horses
to be cared for.
. Keeping Irsck of the money receipts andtxpendUures
aone Is a gigantic laak. A typical day s Income from
two performances may be divided as follows: Thirty
thnasand general admlNslons. at 80 and 25 cents. $13,125:
reserved seats and boxes, taW; refreshments, 1H); fans,
f'v?1"'''''. tc' eldKhow sdmisslons, $1200; total.,
fchortly after the last performance Is over these fl
tires are classliled and presented In the form of a com
prehensive statement to the proprietors, together with a
! T numerous Dins paid during the nay
by- tlireyfeet.-, for a deakts poring over. Ms ledger, ready t
to answer any question relative to a bill or contract. -Here,
too, the pay envelopes are made out weekly, Just
as In any large city office, arid the treasurer or his as
sistant, backed by a man with two revolver In his belt,
iwsocs them around.
On Very warm summer days the treasurer and book-'
keeper forsake the stuffy quarter In the ticket wsgon
for the oltlcu tent, which Is pitched a few feet away. ,
Here the press agent has- Ula 4ablr and-here. after each .
porfwmance the tickets are counted and the. figure
checked off with the treasurer's count of cash.
In th? modern c.irctis system reports are mad dally
by every one working in an executive capacity. Past
.are the days when anything, .even the giving Of a pans, -could
be done haphazard. Passe now are given only for '
actual value received, and to know positively that It baa
been received, the treasurer exacts minute reports.
For example, take the "window paper," a small Item
of the $100,000 worth of advertising literature distributed
by a circus In a season. When a merchant permits
poster to be placed In his store window, he is given
whnt he, as a rule, believes to be a pass. Possessing
this, he sometimes tears down the poster when the ad- .
vertlslng car has left town.
Nut he reckon without . mitel voune man whrt rtvnni
QfOME time during the coming summer
Rear Admiral Evans will, command
the most powerful fleet of fighting
vessels ever assembled under the American
Ifiagt JTwelve battleships fivejof them new,
six armorea xrutsert ana sea warriors oj omer
types will compose this mighty modern squad
row. - . : - -,-.--,.--"'::L'::..."r
ZZl-JPhen it is remembered that back of the
guns of this fleet will stand the crack naval r.
shots of the world, gunners whose wonderful '
' absi sm.lm u asb.J. im M m ii.riisssJ ses . L a I A M sat A AO ' nak sasasaai ka . MMfsasSyW1 m WJt MttrMlMaJ ae i4 wKsk thal.
mu,Kmmnmy ,M wyneu ymvwvm iey. ""7 " V . orfir. with th. areat run. had also areatly Increased
alLoverihe globet mayjfejundmtgodjvhy AiriMrtpoh-firt hi
the nation i are anxious to avoid Uncle Sam n admiral DaweVa marksmen nut the BDaniahwar''ould withstand such a terrlflo. bompardmeot of heavy.
in Conflict. ' . ! .
Admiral Farragut once-said that "the best
defense for your own ships is to keep a steady
stream of rapidwell-direcled fire upon the.
enemy." Should the United States Navy
again be called to active service,, reliance will
be more upon the men behind the guns than
. upon heavy armor.
Not long ago the battleship , squadron
returned from its annual spring gunnery prac-.
tice off Guantanamo, Cuba. Records made
then were forwarded to the Navy Depart-
- men t, and were extremely gratifying to all
concerned. They show that the American gun-
ner can outshoot the world.
; Bay Admiral Dewey's marksmen put the Spanish ward ¬
ships out of commission. Gunnery won the running fight
.'off Santiago; the Don' ship were wpt by such ter
rlflo and accurate hail of missiles that his men could
not etand at their poet. :
When China, became engaged in her war with Japan
she offered tfiOO a month to expert gunner for her 'navy, .
It was then too late. Gunner must be trained long and
carefully, and those capable of responding on equal or
better term to the show of th Japs were UeU up 4ri
their own navies. '.....
Not only 1 the honor of superiority In gunnery highly
priced by the ship crew holding the record, but ex- .
pertnes bring a considerable nnanclal reward. Oun
pointers who make records receive from $3 to $10 a month
In addition to their regular pay.
Almost any man In the navy who 1 abla to shoot
at all well win something, so anxious are the authorities
to encourage marKhmansnip. congress appropriates
about $4J0,U00 to be awarded each year In oasn prises, ana
this money Is distributed as generally as possible to loi
ter friendly rivalry.
armament I divided Into three clases
the toraedo run lha iiri la tha viup Itself: two boat
vy. wntcn inciuae me s-incn ana iiir suns, in- guae at a aistance or about suu feet anart.
termodiate,'.'-those from 4-lnch to- ?-rnch, lnciustvernnd- Irfe to hit th water midway between the
' r. .L..L -.,f -- J a. soon a they go aboard ship th enlisted me
It ts only through careful and persistent lng tenons m handling such guns . .
a. 0 !. - I l. el. m. aa aa a s aa k lawar
training, however, that the crew oj a 13-tnch u.,ch gTn"'cn"K loaded In'a'nred in
gun can score 93 Per cent, of hits, as has been
done from the Alabama, or that every one of
ten shots from a 6-pounder, fired in 33 sec
onds, can be made to count, as the record of
the Jllinois shows. Such results have been
made possible ''through '-the ' gun practice sys
tem now in vogue. (
All Ihn. hiiiliu H-ta tl. ... j . ' , ..'."f
a man to turn his chair around freely space for , ji,t of window posters, goes about the street checking
How much money have vou mrla tnat" .v.. tnem up. i s climax come when th merchant pre-
WietoV -Zt a St " ttu. waS nsKd recemfy P rth1lm" f ' tbe .b.l fn tntranoa with hi paper
- "Kxactly $41W).5." he replied. wenl,'r' --- - - Which Is only a provisional order for a ticket.
it was then but little after midnight, and the circus .N,l' Is1' " " h gate. '
. .k.,.. a,,u circus A man at a table hark nf him mm a limAnnr
N'CLE 8AM I a great believer In rchooL H never
permit hi naval boy to feel that they have
tnntw laarnlne: that there la not another helrht
Of attainment Just beyond to be climbed. Every
'wcandirv.'1 meanlna all anna under 4-Inch. Almost aa
soon as tney go aooara snip tne emisiea men oegin
achievement when a
has tuMtn dnna on tha Alabama. Klv years before that
record waa mad th ofllcial time allowance wn t
minutes.' . . "
This simply mean that the largost gun have become
rapid flrers. There sceni to be little use longer for the
secondary battery, and It may be eliminated from bat
tleship of the future. In fact, plan to equip fighting
vessels with large batteries of 10-inch and 12-inch guns,
cutting out the Intermediate lies, have already met -favorable
consideration. - -w. r-
Contlnuuu gun firing the basis of present-day In -fttructlon
In naval marksmanship. This 1 th art of
keeping a weapon trained on th target under all con
It is only at certain times that shells are fired at tar
gets. Were this done at every practice of a gun crew
the expense would run to prohibitive figures. During
tha hits. The ahip. cleared for action and with ovary)
man at hi station, steam past tha target at a speed
of ten or twelve knot an hour and fir upon them at a
distance of Z000 yard or more. ;
pne such target shows even holes mad in eight
hot from a 13-lnch gun. - During- th winter of 1902-03,
soon after th presont system was adopted, th battle
ship squadron, practicing In th Oulf of Mexico- at tar-
: get of not more than 400 square feet, mad a remarkable
record. " (-;- - -
Tha smallest percentage of lS-mch guns was 40 per
cent of hits, th largost 75 per cent. Th t-lnch gun
averaged $3 per cent, of hits,, and th t-lnch (4 per cent.
Six-pounders of on ship mad over 62 per cent.
Later, a turret crew of th Alabama made fifteen hits .
In sixteen shot, an average of over W per cent Rapidity,
mlSSllC. ! :
Remembering that these targets are much smaller
than a fighting vessel, th effectiveness of such good aim
can be appreciated. In war many of th shots that do not
count in practice would strike home.
Instruction In gunnery are not confined to the large 4
vessels and to th men handling th big gun alone.
Cruisers, gunboats knd torpedo craft also engage In tar
get practice. . '
- In practice such a i that at Guantanamo there are
usually tlx torpedo boats, the flotilla of th recent man
oeuvre consisting of th Lawrence, the winning boat,
th Hopklrs, the McDonough, th Truxtun, th Worden
and tha Stewart. - ' ;
Thro kinds of guns ar employed the torpedo gun,
th three-Inch and th six-pounder.
The target for the three-Inch and six-pounder con
sist of a sheet of canvaa on a raft towed by a tug. For
and th gunnefl
tell so accurately?' '
"Beeauae " was the reply. "I have received my re
porta ff the lay business from my ticket seller pra
nut and candy sellers, fan and programme dispensers
and lemonade stands; my auditor and bookkeeper have
ehecked them up and deducted the running expenses
calculated on the average day's disbursements for food
salaries, advertising, license and the other outlays, and
tha net-profit ha been reported to me, aa 1 don every
Uy we ehow.'- .
The general agent, who goes ahead to survey the
mute for a tour that has already been planned. Is the
advance agent of a show s prosperity. fh(, wor, don.
he must hurry back to axamme every Item sent In by
the eontractlog aaenta. Few men In any business han
dle aa much work thl general agent while he Is
hastening from place to place. .-.
- But he must be quiet about It. or otherwise the field
he ha worked so carefully .may receive a hurry-up visit
from the "free lane car" of an opposition circus, which '
yrlU "underbill" hi poster with some such glaring an-
port tell him that "t" waa torn down. There are tiro-
tests, sometimes offer to fight, but out th merchant
goes on to the greensward, where he has space and tlm
to think over how and why It happened.
The special men who are on the: ground on show day
make report on every phase ef the work, from that of
the cook wagon to the task of doctoring consumptive
Th barber ha set tip hop near the horse tent! th
blacksmith's forge Is working merrily. Th clrcua doc
tor, paid by th week. Is making hi rounds. The circu
detective ie on the alert. .
A canteen service, similar to that in the United
Mate Army, I maintained by th big clrcu. for It Is
calculated that a certain amount of liquor given to each
man dally conduces to -better results than tf men found
. It necessary to make skirmish to nearby saloons. The
refreshments are kept on a Pullman car, which I con
stantly guarded. ,
,A .While en route and during th performance repair
to costume of actor and snlmals ar required, and so
a number of, seamstresses are kept constantly busy."
prlng, therefore, he give ohTcera aHoTeHIIMea men uk
a thorough examination In practical work.
In th fall there Is another axamlnaUon. but It I io
test ships. Advancement mad by th personnel of th
service is considered In th. prlng trials.
t era -during th prii
the spring practice off Ouantanamo shenls are used, but
in most or tne practice auring tne remainaer or tne year
; MARKER .JOATS HIT ;
' On more than one occasfem a marker boat has fcm
. hit. and th observers, standing there with their field
glasses, have been obliged to take to life preservers.
Lxceptlng for th abseno of a warhead, the torpedo
employed In practico. la th samo a that which deals
death In battle, In th case of th other gun th ahall
ar tha same a r used In action.
i Imagine th deck cleared for action, th man stand
ing at th gun, th commanding ortlcer on deck with hi
glass, a man with a mega phono at hi aide, the whit
-target bobbing up and down over toward th hortson.
Each boat 1 given a time allowance of forty-five
minutes, and the teat I to fir th greatest number of
, shots and make th greatest number of hit In that time.
Both the boat and the target ar under way, which
necessitates a constant changing of sights and keeps tha
gunner on the alert.
While to the gunner I given most of the credit for
hi task -of aiming th gun at the target and
f lading "d ""cn oepenasuiwp every marucyen aqUi jogaer .an,
trigger 1 by no means sufficient In Itself,
nds upon every, man- even lQlha loader
month by no man mark th limits of tha school term.
That term extend from enlistment In the service to re
tirement, but the annual examinations show th stand
ing of th pupil and indirat the efficacy of the system.
More than anything else Uncle Bam la anxious thst
his sailor boy shall develop Into expert marksmen with
both big and llttlo guns. Almost any body of men would
look wtll In nlc nw uniform, standing upon well-pol-Ixhed
deck, but now and then a navy Is called upon to
fight. In such a contingency It la th expert gunner
whose work tells.
American sailor have every reason to b proud of
th record mad by th navy In war. Th. bloody deck
ef the Ouerrlere, th Macedonia, th Java, th Peacock
and other of th enemy's craft attested to the gunnery
of united States seamen In the War of 1AH.
by th same token, credit reflects upon th crew of
th British frigate Shannon, .which overwhelmed th
Chesapeake In Boston Bay. 'Captain Brook, of the Shan
non, was on of th few English commander who com
pelled gun practice. Against their xperienco and ax-
Expertness In "dummy" firing, however, enable a
gunner to make many hits in actual work. - "Continuous- -
aim" practice Is helped along by a "dotter," a mechanl-
cal device which causes a small target to move across
r Tape oT th ggnwitn a combined -vatttcat and hor -
Isontal motion, - ''
The pointer must make tha gun follow th target.
When the sights rest on the bull's eye he presses a but
ton. This causes a pencil to dot the target and constitute--
"shot." In th Morris tub system, also employed
In the navy, a small shooting gallery rifle I fitted on
the big gun, and It dc the work of the pencil.
Such exercise ar for training In gun pointing when
, no actual shots ar fired. In addition, th men ar given
practice with the loading machinea, aa, next to accuracy
of almr-nukkness of firing I essential in battta
In sea practice, when shells ar fired, two kind of
target sr used, or, rather, similar target ar used In
two ways, ' In on cas the target is stationary, anchored
about ItOOO yard away, and th gunner aim at it whil
th ship I moving. In th other cas ship and target ar
moving In opposlt pireotlona, the target being towed by
Theaa target sr usually tquara piece of sailcloth
htmg upright upon raft. A black bull' eye In th centre
and squar bordered by black 11 nee-mark tha value of
His y to tha telescope, th gunner watchea the tar
get, swerving the gun to right or left, up or down, as
occasion necessitates. On the glass are two line Inter4
ectlng at right angle In th centre, and It I the gun.
ner's object to 'keep that Intersection on th target.
.When he think he ha It there he fire. ...
Glass to eye,' the commanding officer Observes wher
the shell strike, whether on th target or th water.
He make rapid deduction. , -
Perhaps a rising wind has deflected th shell, or a
change of distance between the bost and target may
have affected tha shot. Quickly determining the cause
if th shell hss missed, the officer decides whether tha
sights should be lowered or raised for the next shot.
He communicate his decision to th sailor Immediately;
behind him, who In turn promptly repeats It through hi
megaphone to th gun crew.
The eight-setter, standing to th right of th gunner,
take th order and adjusts the sight. If th order ha
been correct. If th sight-setter has accomplished hi
work properly. If th loader has not bungled, th gunner
hauld, with the next shot, hit the target
In th recent practice at Ouantanamo, Plrst-clnaa
Gunner's Mat C. It, Olsan. who proved the best mark-
man of th crew of th Lawrence, th winning boat,
mad eleven hits out ef twenty-one shot in 45 second.
Th average for th crew was from eight to nine hits
per mlnuU, a vry high record with a six-pound gun.