The Oregon daily journal. (Portland, Or.) 1902-1972, January 02, 1904, Page 9, Image 9

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The atory of cremation in Portland,
like the ntory of any sanitary or other
reform, is that of alow progfreas, worm
like progress almost for a certain pe
riod, and then a general and iudden
change In "public opinion that makes the
thing abhorrent yesterday, desired to
morrow. ;
. The first tncineratlon -was made in a
local crematory August 23, 1901, when
a test body waa cremated in the retort
at the plant of the Portland Cremation
association..' The crematory was opened
lor regular work In October -of that
year, but Work, was not -really begun
until the following year. In- 1902" the
association cremated 37 bodies; so far
this year 82 hlive hern cremated, and
the Increase of 120 per cent Is expected
to be equaled next year, the association
anticipating the cremation of at least
US bodies.. '. a -
This record Is simply that of every
other crematory ever built in the coun
try; i The San- Francisco i)lant . - was
atartd In. 1893 and during the first
year cremated 42 bodies, in 1900, 643
bodies were cremated, and the past three
years have shown, as decided an in
crease,, until now more than a thousand
bodies annually are cremated in San
Francisco. ..When the crematory started
there it, had no competition, but drew
from the. entire west; now many of th
California towns have their own crema
tories Mi ..the, work has grown to such
proportions that almost a third of the
city daad'is cremated, instead of burled,
t ifcYanktB. CNbeon, (muniier -and Biijiar
Intendent of ,tho local, crematory, and
who has had 'an experience of 16 yearn
In thtf-work,: having, built th largest
furnaces ;1n 'the country,' and being one
of two-HvfnR -men In the I'nited States
that understands ' the construction of
' rz fA
: The girt who In 1896 was a yea; or so
too young1 ,to take proper advantage of
the customs hallowed by former leap
year sbservancn and who by 1900 was
primed for action, only to discover that
sometimes eight years passed between
leap . years, Is not aware Of the deep
scientific and historical significance of
trte twenty-ninth day In February, nor
is .she especially Intent On the distinc
tion between the solar year and othet
kinds,' such as the' ecclesiastical. She
only knows that she was bright, young,
careless thing , In 189$, that it was a
horrid calendar that refused to bring
leap year rights to the unchosen bachelor
maids In 1900. .
The story "of the calendar would form
A, good'1 historical' romance, : mixed as it
is with the doings of Roman monarch
long since embalmed in the calf cover
of ancleWt.hlBtory. Few busy men know
why leap year refuses to leap always on
the fourth year and about tbe extent tf
the average citizen's information Is that
the years every once in a while get too
long 'and-to fix up the matter so that
Christmas and New Years, won't collide
the extra day Ms thrown Into February.
Many woefllled' children who happen to
be born on - this twenty-ninth day, go
through life without a distinct Idea why
they have only one birthday to other
children's four,' and even th calendar
makers are . sometimes dim and misty
In their explanation of the Innate cause
and moaning of leap year. .
Away back In the days of real salnls
and miracles flourished the noblest Ro
man of them all: Julius Caesar by name.
Caesar found that the popular mind was
somewhat confused on she year Question,
since the pontiffs had the discretionary
power to lengthen or shorten the years
a quarter day when they thought best
and the resulting mess was bothersome.
Julius -decided that after subduing the
earth It would tackle the solar system
a he announced that henceforth the year
such furnaces. In speaking of the change
that had come. In public sentiment dur
ing the past IS years, said:
""There was a time when the ministers
were solidly arrayed against us. , Five
years ago all sorts of antique notlona
were advanced against the change. . To
day the clergy is our firm supporters,
and we have been aided greatly by Its
almost unanimous consent. Physicians
universally favor - the process as the
only sanitary one, and where In the East
the problem of burial in the crowded
districts . has become a vital question
that closely affects the healths of mil
lions of people, the crematory has come
as a real blessing."
The burial notions and customs of any
people are the last ones to be changed.
The human race clings to the old when
it touches their forefathers and the dis
position of their own bodies, and the
sanitary aspect of the cremation treat
ment is one that chiefly appeals to
broad-minded scientists and not to the
people, but the crematory : has other
advantages that are popularizing It, and
one of these is economy.
The average funeral costs between
S4Q0 and $500; it is the heaviest drain
the widow has (o face, and in her new
found wealth with : perhaps 11,000 in
surance' money, she feels it almost In
cumbent on her to choose an expensive
coffin, buy a fine cemetery lot, employ
an undertaker to do the best in his
power and further provide for the per
petual oare of the spot where her loved
one rests. This Is -touching and beau
tiful, but the burled husband probably
would feel easier If he knew hia wife
had the 11,000 to aid her in her battle
with the world than' to know that aha
had divided this and placed half in the
grave with .him.
m . '-I'm
would be 385 .days lang.axcept every
fourth year, which woull be 368 day in
length. This Julian year,, which also
had two new months added, began on
January 1 of the 46th year before the
birth of Christ and 701 year after the
founding of Rome. !
Julius ordered that the first, third,
fifth, seventh, ninth and eleventh months
should have 31 days and that the other
monUis should have 80, except February,
which should have 29 days in ordinary
years but 30 every fourth year. '
Then came Augustus Caesar. Now
Augustus, so history relates, waa a
proud man and he objected to seeing
July, named after his brother, bearing
31 days, whtle his month,' August, had
only 30. So forth went another edict
giving August also tl days. To make
the totals com out even a day was taken
from February, which happened to have
no Caesars' to support its cause, and
given to August Then Augustus faced
the problem of three months coming to
gether each with 31 days. Into executive-
seslon went Augustus and finally it
was announced that September and No
vember should have each 30 days an?
October and December should have 31.
Then since February waa shorn of a day
by the caprlc of.Augustus every fourth
yearrth extra day was added to Its
score, but this year was inserted between
the 24th and 25th. this practice is still
followed in the ecclesiastical calendar.
But Augustus failed to make th pon
tiffs, who actively regulated the calendar
and kept tally on the sun's movements,
understand what, his changes had been:
so these august potentates put In a leap
year every third year Instead of every
fourth and by the. time 36 years had
rolled by the earth was three day ahead
of Itself. . Augustus discovered the mis.
take, went into another executive session
and ordered that for the next 11 years
no leap years should be marked down
on the official score cards and by the
time the 48th year was reached all was
right again. In general usage a is con-
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By the process of cremation the ne
cessity for an expensive coffin Is saved,
as a plain casket Is the beat for the
work.. The ashes are placed in a elmpH
urn, which may be buried In a cemeter;
lot or left in a niche at the cremator ,
until the final abiding place of the wife
or mother is decided on. One of "the
most unpleasant features of body burial
Is the removal that Is often made.
Years may have passed , and the body,
unless in the most expensive of coffins
Is at best a mass mingled with clay and
rotttng boards deep In a pit. In the
funeral urn the ashes remain forever
Intact, countless generations can do
honor to them in the family vault, as
did the ancient Egyptians, and any
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sldered that this see-sawing and regal
monkey business never happened ; and
that all went smoothly from th time
Augustus entered the arena. ,,
Though the Caesarian method of add
ing a day every four yeara is about right
and several generations could depart
front th -earth before any marked fault
was discovered, still the method sup
poses the year to be 11 minutes and 14
seconds too long. 1 This amounts to a
day in 128 years and some system was
necessary to perpetually correct the
error. ,.. , .. . . . ... -'v ;
Th error waa discovered" in 1581,: or
was corrected then, when Jt was found
thtt the equinox that had fallen on th
21st of March in 325 had dropped down
to the 11th, The council of Nice devised
a plan to preserve this essential feature
of the almanao from getting back Into
the holiday season and. Pope Gregory,
discovering that th error amounted to
three days in 400 years, ordered that leap
years b omitted on all century yeara,
excepting those that are multiples ot 460.
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"He also suppressed 10 days from th
calendar to allow tho equinox time to
catch up with its original position on
the monthly schedule. ' .
'"According to the Oregorglan rule then
all years In which the number Is divisi
ble by four without a remainder is a
leap year, except the century years,
which are only leap years when divisible
byi four after omitting the two ciphers.
Thus 1600 was a leap year but 1700, 1800
and 1900 were common years, 2000 will
be a leap year and 2400 will be the next
century year with 29 days in February.
All Christian countries except Russia
have adopted . the JullanSmethod of in
terc&lculatlon as the Insertion 'of ari ad
ditional day is termed.' Russia still ad
heres to the Gregorglan method of reck
oning, i , :
' The Julian method is to put 29 days In
February, except oi the fourth year,
when the month has 30; his method also
being to give January and each alter
nate month, except February, 31 days
and other months SO. . .
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(Journal Special Servlre.)
St Louis, Jan. 3 plans lor the build
ing to, be erected by.- Russia at the
Louisiana purchase exposition have Jusf
been received by Dl'rsctor-of-Works Tay
lor.' The Russian pavilion will starnl
directly - opposite the ' Chinese pagodas
and east1 of the , hipped-roof ..structure
erected by Sweden, and, the plans and
drawings, show, that It will add much
to -the picturesquenens of the section of
foreign buildings. " The ' pavilion . Is t
be of distinctive' Russian architecture
and will covef an.area. of, nearly 80.00Q
square feet. . Tliere will be no less than
three, towers i:.,or spires of jpecuilar
Bysanttn . design. ' the tallest rising td
a height, of 123 feet above - the -grounrt.
The building is rambling In design. It
will comprise the maiir structuro and
a number of mlBor structures connected
by an arcaded walk. Each of tho tow
ers will be. of . different design, y The
highest one, ' surmounting the main
. .
t f
needed change of ' burial can be made
easily. - ' ' -'
One of , the horrors of burial, the fea?
of ghouls imd their practices, la takeu
away entirely by the cremation of tho
body, for ashes bear no attraction to
either the medical student or the rob-
ber, and countless despoiled 1 graves
might have been kept Inviolate bad their
masters t not been adverse to stepping'
out of the old path of burial, r ;
The popular Idea that the entire body
la consumed by direct contact with the
flames Is entirely wrong. - The process
Is one of distillation, cot of consump
tion. Th coffin Is placed In a big retort
heated to a temperature of 8.000 de
grees Fahrenheit. This intense heat
first makes charcoal of the coffin, which
falls away and, dropping through thi
grate, Jaavoa the body, which-is gradu
ally evaporated. The gases pass up
through the hot blast and finally the en
tire body crumbles into an ash, the
. bones last- integrating, A strong blast
of air forces the body ashes to. a pocket,
near the door, and these are removed and'
'laced in the funeral urn after the Iron
.vfel. m1.-. ,
s2 , H Ziuiuiiiiiiiii . '
'(Jotirnir Special Bertie.
Spokane. Jan. 2. Building operations
started in Bpokane, during the year ;1903
a estimated by' the building permits is
sued by the city amounted to. a. total, ef
2I10,94'J.' This'is' a gHln of 100 'pet
cent over the- previous year. "The"' per
mits" Issued1 the' prcrvious'yeal! amounted
to, 11,324,74. . Bylldlng operations that
I are already, planned amount to oVer a
million; an a, half, fpr the coming year
without counting any building costing
less tlmn I20.000... A-few of the larger
buildings-, which y-wlll be .constructed
are; ' Government postottlce, 1400,000;
street railway denot, $200,000; suhool
bulldlnns.' I16Q.0IW; theatre, $60,000;
Masonic temple,. $i0,000: ,Fort Wright,
$65,000; . Norwegian .college, $25,0001
Holly, Mason, Marks & Co., wholesale
house,'. $125,000; .office building of Porf
tee Brothers. , $100,000; and fivev otbef
store and offlc buildlnga. ranging -front
$20,000 to $60,000., The number of
building permits lasuqd the . past , year
has not Increased, so , much, as' the valu
of the'.lmprovenienta made., ? ;
The real estate transfers for Spokane
also sfraw a big Increase. In 1902 prop
erty to the value Of $7,941,601 changed
hands, while this past, year the transfer
amounted to $9,399,181,- aa shown by the
publlo,.records. ,, j...
Th records show increases right along
th line. In 1902, 900 couples took outf
marriage licensee, 'while this past ya
building, will consist of n , overhang
ing .battlemented comic .Capped by 'a
hexagonal, tower. 'jvn'r'- - :.'f1.'1,
, (Journal Sppclul gervlce. ) -.; . J j
. Amos,' Iowa,- Jan. 2. The dpartm?nt
of . agrrtiomy of ' th I6wa .stato ;col
lege has- completed arrangements for
the opening of the annual corn Judging
school next Monday.- The school will
last 10 davs and will he attended hy a
large number of farmers desirous of
and steel articles, Such a buttons, hal
pins and the like, have been removed by
a magnet. The urn la hermetically
sealed and will preserve the ashes until
the end of time.
The plant of the Portland Cremation
association at present consists of an
artlstio chapel, receiving vault and cre
matorium. - There are two. retorts of thei
latest pattern. - The time required for
th Incineration of a body averages
about an hour,, the time ranging : from
three-quarters to an hour and a, half.
The grounds - surrounding the cremato
rium comprise six acres, which will be
devoted to park purposes and platted
for a cemetery under the lawn plan, In
eluding, perpetual care, and sold for
the burial of the ashes. The grounds
overlook" the ' Willamette river from a
high bluff and are picturesque. 1 ?- - -
The officers of the association are:
President, C. B. Bellinger, Vice-president,
E.. B. Williams; secretary and treasurer,
Julius L.-Meier; manager and superinten
dent. Frank . B. Glbsoni executive oom
mlttee, W. P. Olds, Isom White, Will
iam' C. Bristol Vv :; ;' ;-.;-:. Kv- .. '
the number was nearly J6d greater, or
1.042.- Tbe postofflce receipts of the
city increased from $124,884.86 in 190J
to $150,881.77 in 1903. The increase in
the number of the. children born In th
city the past year was 203. ' ' k. '
In the matter of bank clearings th
records are the highest ever reached in
the history. 'of Spokane. For 1902,.they
amounted to $88,571,242. The past year
they Increased this by 30 per cent, reach
ing the total of tlU'.?S5,820, The Spo
kane chamber pf cpmmercey ls makings
arrangements tohave, the figures show
ing the big growth put in pamphlet form
and 'sent eat foe the purpose of 'ttdver
,tislng the clt'-.J -f.J)
., Z. ',' V. Th Bed tight Sistriot, .;,f! :
Mayor, Frank L. Boyd haS revoked the
order regulating the immoral women of
the oity that was made by him several
'months ago and has instructed, the chief
of police to take such methods of regu
lating the social, evil as fa' shall deem
best.--Under the-m&yor's order the. wo
men were confined to specified portion
of tire, city and 'a. fine of $15 monthly has
been collocted from them. The burnt
district' has been located In 'the centr
Oft the business portion nf the Vity ttmt
recently an agttatlfwi- was started -hav-
district to some section much farther
away. The revocation now made Is wltn
this purpose In- view, ' Thsi majror- sn l
hChlet of police have not announced wIjpi
they will attempt, trt send the women.
studying h,e many "points which have
to do with the breeding, selection an I
storing of Seed corn., .Hundrv)! "... of
samples of the leading varletl" of cmn
from, sill flctlona of the state huvn been
giitheri-d' by the collio and will V
uicd Ji the ork of Judging. A num
ber of prominent. speakers, will -1 itvf
lectures en the best rrwtlwdB of it l.
Ing seed corn, and piethod of hurvt v
ing and storing the crop.
Preferred Etook Csnned OooO.
AUn it Lewi' Ueutt I;rnd.