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About The Oregon daily journal. (Portland, Or.) 1902-1972 | View Entire Issue (Jan. 2, 1903)
TITE GBEGttN" uDAlLT JOURNAL, rORTXAyp, , FKTPAY : EVENIXQ, JAyUAKY 2, 1003. -
BONE AND SINEW OF THE RAILROADS OF THE WEST
y4 r ,
PRE PA RING TO DEMAND LARGER SHARE OF EARNINGS
MAY COME SOON
Rent a Home and Engage"' China
man with Sad Results.
a -: i f - - -
The Story of the Movement How the
; Workers Have Planned for a
! Substantial' Victory
uGompers' Visits and Hill's Western Tour and
Their Significance Great Convention at
St Louis May Open the Wan
ST. XrOUXS, Jan. 9. That th rarJ movement of Wtra railroad em
ploye for w advance is rapidly approaching- erlats ia vldenod by
th early arrival of nujr allegata to th national oonferenos to n bald
' hers early is th coming weak, at which committee report will b received
ana acted npon. It la declared that the conference will ropraaent fully
1T5,000 railroad omployaa and will ba parUolpatad In by th national broth
erhoods of tha engiaeers, firemen, trainman and conductors. It ia tha cul-
' mutation of efforts which have "been making for mora than nve yaara to
lndno th four big organisations to "rat torathar for thalr mutual bene
fit. Whil it la difficult to learn tha axact natur of tha raporta to ba sub
mitted, by tha eommittaaa, It ia aaid on rood authority that tha achadula
which will probably bo ax ad upon will call for aa adranoo of 13 par cant.
Tha railroad ara to b (It an oaa month to mat tha demand.
(Journal Special Service.) '
i SEATTLE, Jan. I. For many month
. tha Various brotherhoods of railway
( worker hsv fceen active In the formula
j tlon of plans for the amelioration of the
i( v ae conditions of the thousands of em
, I'loyea of the (Teat sisterhood of trans
j continental railroads which have their
' terminals in tha Northwest. Full power
'Jot- waging the war against the powerful
Corporations has been vested In a 11 m-
ted number of committees. Mast experl
. ence. has shown the railway orders that
' the efforts of each branch to secure re-
suits od its own responsibility have been
j unsatisfactory. The present centralisa
i tlon. of executive authority presages suc
' cesSjtfiJ'Tias made it possible to push
, the work With secrecy until it has reach
ed such a stage of perfection that no
move of the enemy can block It. From
the developments '-of the past' few' days
the attitude of the railway orders and
their contemplated action Is no longer
a matter of secrecy. Publicity has been
; given the negotiations of the O. "R. & N.
telegrapher with lYesldnt Mohler :it
Portland; the demands of the switchmen
, of the Southern Pacific from Manager
Koehler of that read; the stormy confer
: ence of the Canadian Pacific trainman
with the officials at Vancouver, B. C, anil
the effort of committees now here and
ft Tu coma trying to arbitrate the differ
. .ence with the Great Northern and North
ern Pacltio management. The represen
tatives of the railroad men are determin
ed ,nd confident, while the corporation
oincials are apprehensive and are using
their brain and money to the best ad
vantage t forestall the enrronchinents
cf. their employes upon the net earnings.
Early last summer preparaJtojis for the
adjustment of the wage scale were be
gun. The organisation was complete and
every contingency was provided for that
Intelligence and experience suggested.
. The plana were presented to President
Com per of the American Federation of
Labor, and during a consultation were
taken up in the most minute dotall. and
were heartily sanctioned by htm and
other labor leaders of national proml
recce. TO gain more comprehensive In
formation of the situation, last Septem
ber President Gompers took a trip to the
Coast and made a personal Investigation.
His trip was given out as one -of pleas
tire, and to the casual observt-r appeared
es such. In view of recent happenings,
his visiting of all of the principal rail
road centers of the Coast, and the ar
rangement of, his route to include travel
ing on' most of the roads of the West. Is
now slmilHeant. He visited San Fran
cisco, Sacramento, Portland. Tacoma, Se
attle, Spokane and a number of other
poults In the Northwest. While In his
. speeches he gave no inkling that his trip
.. was in the Interests of the railroad men,
ha covered the ground thoroughly by ex-
i plaining the great benelits obtained
through unionism, mid enumerated vhe. ,
) many advantages of the consolidation of
: the minor branches of labor.
) ": . GOMPKRS AX1 CONGRESS.
j. resment iiorn!crs ami a number or l
leaders of the American Federation jf
1-abor ,are now -it tin- National ;p:tal i
end will remain to conduct the war with I
I Congress when it mes tc. a show down. J
'.'lie. will Insist that a !..,;, r.i of arbitration I
ba appointed by President -Roosevelt, and
the controversy fettled on the su m
lines, as that of the s:ril:i!-K miners. Hi
; ha Just visited the ,' li-jds, hero
' fre has conferred vi;h li.-eh.it Mitch-!
: II tf the Mine "Workers, h li.l ftntes ho'
' is satisfied that th - methods adopted in i
1 this connection were m.- proper remedy!
1 for overcoming lab-.- erievane.-s. Follow I
, lljtg a'ons these li:ie-. he i l U't-'e ii)ioii
Vongress to pan a bill making- it ol.li- '
gatory for th" I'to.dent ,n- tne . x. cu- j
tlve offleern of the varinsui k' -i to np
- point. boards of artiiti atie!i ivii-:v ex-
atiotia labor problems arts- for
; menf.,. Other lecisiutioti a't- rai
' le the tiasmge of an anti-li:j-it:
i u-.u !
, which will overcome tie- int. i -f, ivn--
the courts at critical jx-riods ,i, i lal
; EVERYTHING IS FAVOIi.WU.E.
; The labor leaders, in ti.eir d-Miand lor
. fin Increase of wages", act on tl,.- .suic.h.
rttlon that the lime is ripe t stt ike
I the Mow, and that if success c m. not le
accomplished under existing cudit mux
the tutlook for organized labor is
trloomy.'-;The first thitiK taken into cor
Klderation la the universal pt usper ity of
the country, and the commensurate in-
: crease in the earnings of "the great
transportation companies. The teiri-
( tory alongithe lines 'has undergone re
markable development, and where a
1 few. - year ago the roads were losing
proposition they are now paying enor- j
. lucus tiivldends,. Besides t he feature of
i growth, rolling stock -la been improved
: upon and devices substituted which are
' matter" of great economy in .he ex-'
: pease f operation. - Greater nsponsl
billtle and more experience and intelli
iceno . are tso demanded of" the em
ploye. With th ".growth of the busi
ness of th roads and the more difficult
qualification tor service, the railroad
men say they can see no reason why
their revenues should not be more than
under the old conditions of Income and
Thp predominating Influence in the
movement Is the favorable attitude of
President Roosevelt to the welfare of
the "Man With the Hoe." The head of
the Administration has demonstrated
open hostility to the wealthy trusts and
corporations and their methods of op
pression practiced upon labor. The rail
road workers take his past actions us a
criterion of his future policy in this
connection. They believe that in any
Issue wnere he may have a hand they
will have fair play, and he will advo
cate the solution of any problem in a
Just and logical manner. It Is. further
believed that the time Is past when the
commercial interests of . the country an?
jHaceti "-In'jTOpsrdy. and that a tte-np
will result from a demand for the short
ening of hours of work, or the Increase
of wages. In the great strike of 'SM
the business of th'owntry was paru
lyxed and great distress und loas re
sulted. In-the coal strike the black dia
mond barons were Inclined to be Inde
pendent and close down the collieries
and work a universal hardship. This
action was not tolerated by the arbitra
tion board, which demanded that coal
be dug and the difficulties settled later.
It Is thought that the roads will never
again be tied up over a matter of
wages, as the Interests of the country
are paramount to those of a few corpor
JIM HILLS GOLD BRICK.
Jim Hill, of the Great Northern. Is
cognizant of the intentions of his men.'
His flying trip to the Coast last week
was made to slxe up the situation and
see If In any manner he could block the
plans or the rallroadrm-n. Wlille in
Seattle he had a star chamber session
with Western Manager O'Farrel and
Judge Burke, the counsel for the road.
The strike problem was discussed in de
tail, as after one of these meetings the
head of one of the departments who
was authorized to make terms with a
committee from one of the railway
unions, asked for time to give a decision
and tacitly promised that there 'would
be some concessions. The word also went
forth from the astute Jim that he had
all kinds of plans for the well being of
his help In the future. Ho gave out the
Inference that he had p. pension system
up his sleeve which In connection with a
profit sharing system would put every,,
one of his employes on "easy street."
The rallrdad men are of tire opinion that
the promises are a gold brick by which
be hopes to gain time in order to pre
pare for the trouble.
They take no stock In bis alleged Inter
est in the laboring man, and cite as an
example his importation of hordes of
Japanese to take the places of white
laborers on his road. Mr. Hill in ex
oneration of his hiring of cheap foreign
labor Issued a proclamation to the effect
that his object in bringing Japs to
the country was for the sole purpose of
Oriental assimilation, to bring the Ori
ent In closer touch and stimulate the
commerce between the far East and the
West. The railroaders, however, have
done a little figuring "on their own
book" in this respect and find that the
Japs only receive about naif the wages
that hte white section men .and graders
were paid, and as many thousand of
them are employed, it means millions
of dollars in Jim's pockets. This whole
sale crowding out of white labor doe.,
not enthuse the men as to his sincerity
in t lie promises of better conditions.
Again they had a taste of Hill's love for
Ins men in !iS and hac no reason to be
lieve that he has uncergone any great
change of heart since then.
CAVE THE DOUBLE CROSS.
In 1!4 the Great Northern employes In
the train operating service of the road
made a demand for an Increase of wages.
Jim Hill was consulted by the heads of
d, partments. and gave out the Impres
sion that nothing would suit him better
than to raise wages. All he required was
time to arrange the various schedules,
when he would confer with the commit
tees and fix a more satisfactory scale.
The time was set for six weeks ahead.
nnYl the railroaders went back to their
ilutie, congratulating themselves on their
good fortune. The astute James lost no
time in this emergency, and went to Wil
liam Pinkerton and left an order with
that agency to hire enough railroad men
to operate his. system, and if necessary,
put them to work and protect them and
the property from Injury. Agencies were
at once established in all of the. principal
cities in the 1'nlted States, and railroad
ers were hired by the hundred. They wen
pa Id wages and held In readiness. When
the time arrived for the presenting of the
demands by the workers, the committees
were told that they would not pay 1 cent
more than they were getting at that
time. They were -told If they did not
like it to call for their time. Many of
those who had beeni the prime movers"
in the effort to secure, better wages were
Vf,v'tfS t -
& -1 I t '
ONE OF THE GREAT
LEADERS OF LABOR
AND HIS FAMILY
discharged, and in some lines wages were
actually cut down and the hours made
KICK ON THE PENSION SYSTEM.
All the railroad men ure not enthusias
tic over the system of pensioning. They
state that they want all they earn as
they go along, and are as capable of tak
ing care of it as is the company. That It
may he a gocVd thing to be taken care of
after on has outlived his usefulness, yet
If a person gets the wages he Is entitled
to he can save eniuh to take care of
himself. It Is looked upon as an Induce
ment for n man to remain in the service
at low wages with the reward of being
fed and clothed when old. Some size It
up to the effect that It amounts to noth
ing more nor less than to give one's serv
ices for life to a company for the op
pnrtunlty to exist,' and that the system
Is wrong on the face of it, for if the cor
porations can "afford to go to this ex
penditure they Can also afford to pay out
more money as the men earn it.
'.WIPE OUT THE TRUSTS."
NEW, YORK. Jan. 2. The beginning
of the new year witnesses more active
steps In the warfare against the tobacco
trust than heretofore taken. Visits to
the stores of the Independent cigar deal
ers disclose the fact that the familiar
goods of the various firm allied With
the trust have been removed from show
cases and windows and .cards and signs
advertising the trust wares are also con
splcuotis by their absence- It has taken
the Retail Cigar and Tobacco Dealers'
Association several months to perfect
their .organization, but now. with a mem
bership of nearly l.OOU dealers, the asso
ciation seems to be In a fair way to
make the combine feel Its claws. At a
meeting of the association tonight dele
gates will be named to attend the con
vention of the National Retail Cigar and
Tobaccb Healers' Association to be held
in Chicago two weeks hence. At this
convention a working plan will be for
mulated to bring the Independent' deal
ers in New York. Chicago. Indianapolis.
Detroit and other cities where organiza
tions have been formed into active co
operation for the, fight against the trust.
CIIY PARK POULTRY.
In the wire-netting tnrtowure af" the
City Park, where the eagles are con
fined, the Inner space has been divided
into sections. In each of these are con
fined different breeds of choice poultry,
ptovlded by Colonel Hawkins. It is the
intention to make of thusp a permanent
Ei.iwupiij i jiiiiii inn i i i a ii)iinmi..iw.i. mi nm in m i niimnsi
I v J ' , i i- . . a j lrt
I - l i"- " -"mule-
I- 9 1 '.-,. ' - ..-' T,... .
r 4 ,,vwf "Wjfw.
Tie splendid new traightlins Xo press that is building at th Em factory in JTew York for Th Journal 1 almost rea f or tklpment. A. delay
of about one week is th taming out of the big- machine wiu render it Impossible to Install th nw plant for this paper before th mlddl of Karon,
but in th meantime a number of ohang-e will be made in the paper, including' a change of typographical drisi and an improvement of tlsgrmph servio.
With th press arriri and li rt up Th JTonmal wHl be ia position to meet th requlrementa of a first-olasi evening newspaper t-1 Portland will
tak one more step forward. ;"'
j t , ' afCVir
THE MITCHELL CHILDREN
The Northern- Pacific
Watches It 'Askance
Mellen Believes the 0. R. & N. Is
Behind the Lyle-Go'den-dale
Who is behind the Columbia River &
Northern, better known as the Lyle
This is a question current in railroad
circles. There have been prophets who
forecasted that when the line was com
pleted It would be in the Interests of the
Northern Pacific, but President Mellen.
of the latter road, holds an opposite
On the occasion of bis recent .visit to
Portland it is claimed lie declaimed In
positive language thut the Columbia
River Northern was really the prop
erty of the O. R. it X. Company, and
that It was being ouilt in open violation
of an agreement entered into. The ob
jects of the rond were to get ahead of
the Northern In Southern Washington
and prevent the Hill syndicate from
building down the north bank of the
Columbia, which step is well known to
be in contemplation. The Columbia
River & Northern, operated in the In
terests of the o. R. .v Xv might. moke
the Paul Jrlohr property, now in the
hands of the Northern, dwindle Into In
significance. Trniihlc !,i ought about over
the Lyle-Ooldemlale road' is claimed to
be responsible for the delay In con.
structlon of the partnership extension
up the Snake River V;tlley from Rl
parla. Wash., to I.ewlston, Idaho, which
THE JOURNAL'S NEW PRESS
mm. i At
was announced to be used by the Hill
and Harrlman lines Jointly.
THE N. P. WILL Bt'ILD.
"That road isifoontrolled by the O. R.
N.. but I will parallel it with the
tracks of the Northern Pacific!"
Preslifent Mellen Is alleged to have
made that statement when In this city
a few weeks ago. This Is taken to
mean that, no matter what steps may be
taken to defeat them, the Hill interests
will utilize the Paul Mohr privileges and
build Into the rich country which would
be tributary to a line along the north
bank of the Columbia.
Further than this. It Is claimed, the
Northern Pacific high officials are bitter
ly Incensed at what they claim to have
been a severe breach of faith on the
part of their transcontinental rivals. It
is alleged that at the time tlie Snnife
Itiver Valley extension Was proposed'
(the companies made a .division of terri
tory, whereby the Northern was to be
permitted to move unhindered In South
LYLE ROAD'S REAL STATI'S.
The Columbia River & Northern,
known as the Lyle-Gnldemlale road. Is
being built by Portland capital. H. W.
Corbctt is line of the principal stock
holders. Reports from the scene of
operations tell of work progressing rap
idly. It is the announced policy of the
company to make the" Southern Wash
ington country tributary to Portland by
hauling to the river on cars and then
shipping Into this city by boat.
Even those who profess to see the
hand of th"e Harrlman lines in the work
do not question thHT The plan wilt be
carried forward as announced. It would
be an open declaration of the company's
intentions to make connection with th
). R. it N.. and there is no expectation
that this course wHl lie pursued.
The recent semi-otHclal announcement
that the Southern Pacinc would build In
to Seattle has added fuel to the flame
that is rapidly burning away nil ties
between the two big rystems and leav
ing open war the only possible course.
On Sunday. January 4. services to the
memory of the late Solomon Hirsch will
be held at Temple Reth Israel. Twelfth
od .ilaia .atrts, Rv. ir.X, l- Eliot
will deliver the opening prayer, and ad
dresses will be given by Mayor Will
iams and Rabbi AVise.
There will be no personal Invitations
Issued, and there will also be no re
quirement of admission cards. The
many friends of the late Mr. Hirsch are
expected to be present at the services.
TO LEAVE FACTORY
W-t Avr ' s r t rtr if
The Smiths recently arrived In Port
land, rented a small furnished house
and engaged a Chinese man-of -all-work.
The house is well situated und taste
fully furnished, and Wing Lee proved
to be a good cook, clean and respect
ful. A soon as the Smiths were set
tled, the neighbors began to call, and
it was then that the fact was discov
ered that Wing was absolutely devoid
of any ideas as to the ushering in or
out of guests.
One morning the ladles determined to
Instruct blm. Providing him with a
tray, Hiss Smith went out, rarg the
bell, was shown into the parlor, and
waited while the calm Chinaman car
ried her card to Mrs. Smith. This was
repeated several times, until the ladles
were oulte satisfied that Wing was
perfect in his role.
That evening at- 8:S0 the bell rang.
Wing shuffled majestically to the door,
while mother and daughter hung breath
lessly, over the banisters to watch the
result of their teaching.
They heard a gentleman's voice psk
If the ladles were at home. They saw
Wing present hi tray and receive a card
wlih an air which made them mentally
pat each other on the back, and then
they saw him draw a card from his
sleeve. "Mtnel" gasped Miss Smith;
"the one w used for the lessons!"
Wing compared the two carefully and
returning the one which the caller had
just hinded him. he remarked blandly:
"Tlckee no good. No can come." and
calmly shut the door In the face of the
A Mixup of Chinaman, White Han
and Gale of Wind.
Rain, when accompanied by wind.
presents anything but a convenient com
bination. Not only do umbrellas, un
der these circumstances, develop re
markable characteristics as contortion
ists, hut prove a constant source !t em-
tarrassment. To have one's umbrella
"do a turnf Is quite the thing. More
than one man yesterday had his umbrel
la suddenly assume n condition not un
like a bowl, balanced on --the-end -ot a
ck. At Siecaud, and. A.ltfr a diminutive
ClrVnaman with an immense umbrella
eneolinterpfl it" huge puff of wind. While
strlvjlng to hold to the handle he col
lided with a w.iite man. There was a
sudden rebound, and the Celestial went
to earth. One of the rib's of the lat
ter's umbrella found Its way up one of
the legs of the white man's trousers.
The victims of the mishap, with the
aid 01 a passing hobo, were soon re
leased from the wreckage, and the inci
dent became a closed one. ' "
DIDN'T LICK THE EDITOR.
SIOCX FALL8. S. D., Jan 2. Another
man who started to "tick the editor"-has
come to grief. The newspaper man who,
in this latest Instance, has maintained
the' reputation of his brethren of never
leing "put to sleep" is the editor of the
FulUm'Advocate. He tells of the Incident
In this fashion:
"Monday a fellow came into our place
and started to run the ranch. He felt so
sure of victory that he jumped us for a
fight. The fellow took a train out of town
as soon as he was able, and we are of
the opinion that he thinks a mad "editor
is bad stuff. Before going he told one
of our friends that we used the Job press
with one hand and the paper cutter with
the other. We expect he felt that way."
LESS THAN THREE DAYS.
Time, Portland to Chicago, via O.
N., la Seventy Hours.
The popular O. R. & N. "Chicago-Portland
Special," leaving Portland every
morning at 9 o'clock, makes the trip to
Chicago in 70 hours. You can save a
working day by this route. Inquire O.
R. & N. ticket office. Third and Wash
3? i4 f
Average American Is a
He Characterizes Newport as the
Most Vulgar Spot on
A Scotch journalist, who came to th
United States recently to Investigate men
and conditions for a newspaper In Glas
gow, recently passed through this city
and has most Interestingly described th
American business man and condition
in this country. In his talk he made th
statement that In all his observation
he has found one main feature of th
American, and that is his desire for mak
"The American money maker," say
the Highlander, "does not read books.
He has only time to glance at the news
papers. The American business man Is
confident that no man on earth Is as good
as himself. He will tell you confidently
that America Invented everything. If
you tell him that America invented neith
er the railway engine nor the steamship,
you stagger him; he didn't know It."
This Scotchman devoted much time to
the American business man. "He knows
that, money-can give him a special car
on the railroads; It puts his picture In
the 1-cent yellow press: it provides his
wife and daughters with the means to
give costlier entertainments than their
neighbors; it gives him power to crush
Is this true? ,
"Of the sweetness of home life, such
as Englishmen have, the American knows
little," continues the Scotchman, "Yet
he loves his family. His women folk he
places on a pedestal: and they are worthy
of It. He would rather have a family of
girls than boys. , Girls give him a peep
into the paradise of refinement. His per
sonal Idea of comfort is a garish hotel,
with a marble hall and an express ele
vator. "That it is possible to be more com
fortable In a small hotel than a hlg one
Is beyond his range of comprehension.
If he could load his wife and daughters
with Jewels, give them what is called 'a
cottage in - Newport," let them outshine
everybody else ln . burning dollars, to
adopt the current phrase, by giving enter-""
talnments which cost money, by having
the price of his wines mentioned In the
newspapers he Is not far from the acme
of his ambition. Newport Is .the most
vulgar gpet on earth. To the American
money maker it Is Eden."
Regarding "personal honor, the Scotch
man saysj "In no country In the world 1
there go much talk about freedom, the
brotherhood of man, the rights of the In
dividual; yet In no other country Is per
sonal honor at a lower level. Such a
thing as a man doing anything from a
disinterested public motive- the money
maker cannot believe In."
OITE SECBET OP PLATT'S POWEX.
Once, before Tom Piatt of New York
was United States Senator, or In the in
terim between his first service and his
present one. during that period when he
was head of the great state machine, and
ruled with the authority of an autocrat,
there was a gathering of 30 or more of
the most Influential politicians of tha
state at his Summer home by the sea.
They had most of them arrived on tha
evening train and had spent the hour
after dinner talking with the big boss.
Suddenly Piatt took out his big gold
watch, and noting that It was 9 o'clock
turned his back on his callers and with a
curt "good-night," stalked off to bed. A
friend who was present looked on won.
derlng. He continued to wonder and to
speculate on the power of a man who
could afford to treat his most powerful
adherents In this fashion, and who could
continue to hold his influence over them.
In the end, and when the occasion was
favorable, the friend recalled the Incident
to Piatt and asked him how ha could
do tt. "They weren't there for my bene
jUt." was the laconic reply.
That was the secret of Piatt's Influ
ence. For years he refused all office for
himself. He could not be persuaded to
take anything, not even the nomination
for governor. He gave his advice abl
his services as a party organizer. m,d
all who came to see him came hecausu
they wanted something from h'ni. He
alone was Independent. lie could uff d
WILL LENS CREDIT NOT CASH.
(New York Evening Pust. )
Yesterday afternoon's announcement
that the banks of this city were-holdinK
themselves, in readiness to contribute
J00.0o0.00U additional credits to tlie;
mQney market, in case of grave emerg
ency, may easily be misunderstood. It
should not be taken to mean that the
banks have on hand t50.0uu.0UO In money
which has been withheld from the mar
ket, nor does it mean that 'Mock exchange
speculation is likely to receive the least
encouragement. It simply amounts to
notification by the banks that, in case
of a serious money market crisis, tiiey
are willing to overstep the line which
they usually draw in expansion of
credits, and to provide for the market's
urgent needs.- ne banks do not. In fact,
even pledge themselves to Increase their
loans at all; they merely say that la
case of necessity they have the means of
doing so. This is "simply stating a fact
which was perfectly well known to all
experienced business- men. A bank re
serve Is established for the express pur
pose or Deing usea in case or emergency,
and If the, New York banks, confronted
with a serious crisis, were to go down
Into their -reserve, they would merely
do what they have done on previous oc
casions of yhe kind. 4n 1893 the strain
or panic forced the banks to allow their
reserves to fall $16,000 below th legal
Seventy hours Is the time ot the O. R.
& N. "Chicago-Portland Special." from
Portland to Chicago, leaving every morn
ing at o'clock. Inquire city ticket office.
Third and Washington. -
Two million Americans suffer the tor--turlng
pangs of dyspepsia. No need to.
Burdock Blood Bitter cure. At any
.;. I, '. --.'