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About Lincoln County leader. (Toledo, Lincoln County, Or.) 1893-1987 | View This Issue
Notts and Instructions from Agricultural Colleges and Experiment Stations
of Oregon and Washington. Specialty Suitable to Pacific Coast Conditions
Heavy Losses From Poor 8lre.
OREGON AGRICULTURAL COL
LEGE, CorvalllB. ''Reports show that
there are about 60,000 colts produced
annually In Oregon, and that 30,000
of them are from pure bred sires, the
remainder being from grade or scrub
sires. Conservative estimates indi
cate that the average value of colts
from the pure bred sires Is $40 greater
than the value of those sired by
grades or scrubs. Thus It is seen that
the failure fo choose pure bred sires
occasions an annual loss to Oregon
horse growers of $800,000.
"Of course there is a slight saving
of about $3 in the cost of the service
fee for each of these poorly bred colts
and this effects a saving of $60,000
annually. By deducting this sum from
the $800,000 lost a net loss of $740,000
The foregoing statements were giv
en out by Professor E. L. Potter, head
of the Livestock department, Oregon
Agricultural College. Although a por
tion of the enormous loss arises from
the inability of growers in some parts
of the state to secure the services of
pure bred stallions, the greater part
of it is evidently due to a failure to
understand the fact that the practice
of breeding to the non-pure bred stal
lions results in such heavy losses.
The average price for five-year-old
horses that are bred from pure bred
sires Is from $160 to $200, depending
upon quality. There are a good many
exceptional cases In which the prices
run above or below these figures, but
the average Is probably closer to the
$200 figures. The value of the five-year-old
Is from $120 to $160, depend
ing a good deal upon the locality. Un
doubtedly here are a great many of
these horses sold below $120 far
more than the number sold above
Notwithstanding the fact that oc
casionally pure bred sires are not
available, It more frequently happens
that there is not sufficient demand
for the services of those that are. So
it seems that the purchase of more
pure bred stallions is not so impor
tant as that those already owned In
the state be more generally patron
ized. Eliminate Housework Drudgery.
Oregon Agricultural College, Corval
lls. The fact that so much more has
been done to ameliorate the labor con
ditions of man than those of woman,
is cleverly shown by a story in the
Oregon Countryman entitled "Elimin
ate the Drudgery of Housework."
Should our great grandmothers return
they would be perfectly familiar with
women's methods of doing housework.
They could wash and iron by hand
just as they used to wash and iron.
But if our great grandfathers should
return with them they would be com
pletely lost among the thousands of
mechanical devices now used to save
man's time and energy. Men have
-filled their own world' with machin
ery. They realize that nothing is too
great or too small to be done with
machinery, from removing mountains
with electricity to cleaning a straw
"In this day of electricity it should
be considered a misdemeanor to wash
and iron by hand, because washing
and Ironing machines are made cheap
ly enough for the housewife to own
them. Washing by hand is so hard
that no woman should be allowed to
do It whether she be housewife or
servant. Always It is drudgery. In
the winter it Invites pneumonia.
"If the following directions" are ob
served, boiling clothes is not neces
sary when washed with the machine:
Slice five bars of naptha soap into
a two-gallon jar. Cover with water
and let stand one day. Then use an
egg beater to cut the undissolved
slices to pieces. Let them stand for
another day, when the soap solution
will nave become a jelly.
"By using soap thus prepared It Is
necessary to put the clothes into the
cylinder but once before rlnsiner.
which saves time and diminishes the
gas, water or electricity bill."
White Lands Reclamation Quickest
Oregon Agricultural College, Corval
llB. Although much has been done at
great expense to reclaim different
classes of waste land it appears that
the most promising reclamation fields,
the "white lands," have been almost
entirely overlooked. These lands are
near the railway and river transporta
tion lines, close to centers of popula
tion and ready markets, and have
large areas. They are richer in plant
food, more quickly brought Into pro
ductivity and more cheaDlv reclaim
than any other class of semi-waste
lands. But no serious attempts have
ever oeen made to reclaim them.
On the other hand, the federal anil
the state governments, many societies
and Individuals, have expended large
sums In redeeming the desert, reclaim
ing the seml-arld sands, clearing log-
gea-oir tanas ana draining the swamps
That these lands are not nearly so
rich in potential fertility as the white
lands has been shown by studies and
tests made by Professor H.-D. Scud
der, agronomist of the Oregon agrlcul
As explained by Professor Scudder,
the nrru-esB of raclnimlnir tha "whita
lands" Is relatively simple and inex
pensive. A system of under drainage
is the first step, and should be ac
complished at $25 to $40 per acre,
depending upon the outlet for the tile
water. As soon as the free water is
removed, and before the soil dries out
to hardness, it should be stirred deep
ly to admit air and prepare a seed
bed. It is then seeded to some of
the hardier "wet land" crops that will
put humus in the soil, such as vetch
or alsike clover, the crop being later
turned under. Liming is necessary
and should be attended to before the
crop is sown.
As soon as the acidity has been
removed, the land should be put Into
leguminous crops inoculated with the
nitrogen gathering bacteria. As the
roots enter the hard subsoil they form
air channels, and when they decay
they leave improved aeration condi
tions and combined nitrogen in the
cavities. The application of well rot
ted stable manure to the cultivated
row crops that follow will hasten the
process of supplying humus. The
soil loses Its toughness within a few
years by this treatment.
The work of drainage is the only
expensive feature of "white lands"
reclamation and the expense can be
greatly reduced by cooperation.
New Leaf Rolling Pest.
Oregon Agricultural College, Corval
11s. As though there were not already
enough pests to plague the Oregon
fruit grower, a new species of harm
ful Insects has been recorded by Pro
fessor H. F. Wilson, entomologist of
the Oregon agricultural college. It is
the leaf roller that is known to scient
ists as Archips argysophilia. The
larvae was first observed by Profes
sor Wilson In 1911, but not until the
present season were all the stages
studied and connected.
"The insect has undoubtedly been
in Oregon for a long period of years,"
says Professor Wilson, "and is now
found in various parts of the Willam
ette valley, and in the fruit growing
sections surrounding Hood River, The
Dalles and Mosler. This preliminary
report is made in order to meet the
demands for information concerning a
small, greenish 'worm that causes
serious injury by eating out small sec
tions of young fruit.'
"In Oregon the injury has not been
so extensive as in Colorado and New
York. I have observed the larvae
feeding on the inside of the bud, often
destroying the tip of a shoot As the
leaves unfold, each larva confines it
self to a single leaf, one side of which
it rolls and fastens down with silken
threads. This serves as a nest. We
have not observed them feeding on
the fruit, but from the reports of grow
ers there seems little doubt that they
cause most of such fruit injury in
"Eggs are deposited anywhere on
the bark In masses about one-fifth
inch square, which are then smeared
over with a dark-colored substance
that blends them with the bark, mak
ing them almost indistinguishable.
The masses vary in number from
20 to over 150, and the egg stage lasts
from June, when they are deposited,
until April or May of the following
The larvae mature In the shells
sometime before they emerge, which
is generally during the first warm
weather after the buds begin to open.
At the time of hatching they measure
about one-twentieth of an inch in
length and are of a dirty yellow color,
except the head, which is black. They
are quite active from the first, and if
their nest is opened they quickly
wriggle out and hang suspended by a
siiKen tnread. ,.
"The mature larvae are about an
Inch in length. The head is shlnlns:
black, with the first segment back of
it naving a light green border. The
adjoining two-thirds of the body Is
dark green, the remainder yellowish
green. The feet are glistening black.
The last pro-legs and the last body
segment are yellow.
In the pupa stage the insect meas
ures from three-eighths to one-half
Inch in length, and is light brown, the
under side shaded with green. The
top of each abdominal segment Is fit
ted with two rows of saw-like spines
that point backward. The middle
spines are quite prominent while the
terminal ones are not so well devel-
The adult moth is a dark nmtv rod
variegated with obscure sllverv
patches, each front wing bearing two
bright spots. Some are darker than
others, and two adults that emerge
from the same egg-cluster may not
resemble each other in color at all.
They emerge during June, the egg
masses Deing produced soon after
"An important control measure In
Oregon is winter pruning, as most of
the egg masses are formed on the
smaller branches and twigs. Enough
may remain to cause great damage,
and spraying may become necessary.
Arsenical sprays are less valuable for
this than for most leaf-eating insects
ana me treatment of Professor C P.
Gillette, for Colorado conditions. Is
recommended: Make a sDravlnar nn.
plication of a good soluble oil shortly
before the eggs hatch. Should this
fail to kill the eggs, make two appll-
uuuons oi an arsenical or a Black
L.eai-1 u spray."
YELLOW SKIN OF GUERNSEY
Much 8erlou Discussion Among
Breeder as to Best Means of Keep
tnp Up This Desirable Feature.
As is well known the Guernsey
breed of cattle give milk and butter
of the highest yellow color of any
breed. Next comes the Jersey, a sis
ter breed on a neighboring Island. The
Guernsey people set great store by
this feature of high color and they
have a perfect right to do so. But
much serious discussion is had among
the Guernsey breeders as to the best
means of keeping up this desirable
In a blind, general way they are told
to "breed for it" But that la not
enough. It will be useless to breed
for a thing If afterward the thing Is
wasted and through wrong environ
ment and wrong ideas of feeding that
which went In with the breeding goes
out because of wrong conditions. We
undertake to say that not one winter
Pure-Bred Guernsey Bull.
stable In a thousand is light enough
to enable the cow to keep up the yel
low color of her milk.
What are the causes of the yellow
color in mllkT 1) The yellow pig
ment In the cow herself. If she has
it the milk will show it
(2) The greatest abundance possible
of light In summer all cows show
more color In their milk than in win
ter, for the reason, partially, that they
are exposed to more sunlight than In
winter. The sun is the source of all
(8) The greenness of the food con
sumed. In winter the cow consumes
food the color of which Is bleached
out In summer the grass is of the
deepest green. The Inference is easy,
that if the farmer wants his cowa to
give yellow milk he should keep them
In a thoroughly well lighted stable and
feed forage of a green color.
In London the butchers require that
all veals shall be fattened In the dark
In order that their tallow ehall be
white. Many a farmer has bleached
out his cows in the same manner by
keeping them in a dark stable.
ONE RECIPE FOR WHITEWASH
Government Formula for Liquid Com
position Used on Lighthouses and
Other Exposed Places.
This is the recipe1 the government
oses for whitewash used on Its Ilghfe
houses and other places exposed to the
weather, and it does not peel oft:
One halt a bushel of lime slaked
with boiling water. Keep covered
while slaking, to keep the steam In.
Mix all together and then pour five
gallons of hot water over it After It
Is thoroughly stirred, allow It to stand
for 48 hours. Applied hot
Strain the mixture and add a peck
of salt dissolved In warm water, one
half a pound of Spanish whiting, and
one pound of flue, previously melted
over a fire, and three pounds of
ground rice, boiled to a thin paste.
At the Maine experiment station, they
select the good layers by picking up
the pullets which soonest show red
combs and begin to sing, as pullets do
when getting ready to lay, and put
ting them In a flock by themselves.
By picking out these early layers they
got a flock which averaged 180 eggs
during their first laying year and a
flock of that kind Is good enough for
anyone. "" .
Keeping Sheep In Condition.
Doctoring sheep is expensive ana
often unsatisfactory, unless the symp
toms of the disease are clearly under
stood. If the sheep are not exposed
to bad weather in the late fall and
are given proper care and feed there
la not much show for disease, unless
brought In from other flocks. With
sheep aa ounce of prevention is worth
much more than a pound of cure.
8ave the Seed.
By keeping the mangers seed-tight
wlhle the feeding is heavy, one can
clean them out when spring cornea,
running the rufse through the fan
ning mill. The clover and timothy
seeds thus secured will retrun you
a handsome sum, as these will be
high this season.
Time Wasted. : , , ,
How. many ever atop to figure up
how much of your time, trouble and
teed goes to lice and mites and para
sites? Starting In 8heep.
This is the right time of year for
starting in sheep.
VARIETIES OF MUTTON
MEAT NEED NEVER BECOME AN
So Many Ways of Serving It That
Will Always Be Appetizing Some
of These Recipes May Bo
5 Appreciated. -,
Haricot of Mutton Two tablespoons
butter or drippings, two tablespoons
chopped onion, ltt pounds lean mut
ton cut into two-inch pieces, two cups
water, salt and pepper, lima beans,
Fry the onion in the butter, remove
the onion, add the meat and brown;
cover with water and cook until the
meat Is tender. Serve with a border
of lima beane, seasoned with salt pep
per, butter and a little chopped pars
ley. Fresh, canned, dried or evapo
rated lima beans may be used in mak
ing this dish. -
Stewed Sheep's Hearts Two sheep's
hearts, two ounces fat salt pork, two
tablespoons minced onion, two table
spoons flour, - one-quarter teaspoon
pepper, 1 pints boiling water, salt
Split and wash the hearts, season
them with the salt and pepper, and
roll them in the flour. Fry out the
pork and add the onion to the pork
fat and cook them ten minutes. At
the end of that time remove the pork
and onion to a stewpan and fry the
hearts In the fat Transfer hearts to
the stewpan. Rinse the frying pan
with the water, which should then be
poured over the hearts. Use the flour
that remains after the hearts are
rolled to thicken the broth.
Boiled Mutton With Oyster Four
pounds mutton from the shoulder, one
onion, one pint oysters, salt
Bone the mutton and stuff with half
the oysters, or make a gash In the
meat near the bone and Insert half the
oysters and tie into shape. Half cover
the meat with water and cook in a
closely covered dish for two hours.
With the remaining oysters make the
Oyster Sauce Two tablespoons but
ter or mutton fat, one tablespoon flour,
one-half pint oysters, one-half of the
liquid in which the mutton has been
Drain the oysters and . heat and
strain the liquor. Wash the oysters,
add them to the hot oyster liquor and
cook until they are plump. Remove
the oysters and keep warm while mak
ing a sauce of the butter, flour, oyster
liquor, and season with salt and pep
Steamed Mutton Small pieces of
mutton may be very satisfactorily
prepared by covering the surface with
powdered or finely chopped season
ings, as suggested In the foregoing
recipe, and steaming It, or It may be
steamed without seasonings.
When creaming potatoes, cut them
cold boiled, then sprinkle generously
with flour and mix all together. Add
the amount of cold milk desired and
put all on the fire to cook. As it
heats, stir gently. It will thicken
without lumps and be smooth and
creamy. This does away with the dis
agreeable task of making thickening,
and the whole Is completed In half the
time and with half the work. The
same method may be used when friz
zling beef or creaming turkey, chick
en or codfish. It Is not necessary to
melt cocoa before adding it to the
milk If you' put the Ingredients to-
getner before heating.
A housewife who turns off tasty lit-
tie breakfast omelets has one that is
her own invention. She cuts a nnar.
ter of a red pepper and a quarter of
a green pepper into dice and mixes
them and two or three tablespoonfuls
of minced boiled ham with five slieht.
ly beaten eggs and then bakes it In
me omelet pan as usual For every
egg she uses a tablespoon ful of hot
water in me mixture.
Unbaked Fruit Cake.
Take equal parts by weight, Eng
lish walnuts, Brazil nuts or a mi,
ture:- Dates and figs (if preferred
suDstitute .raisins for figs). Put
through the food chopper. Grease
bowl or square cornered eranita
with butter, press this mixture down
hard and let stand over night then
turn out and slice cake.
Also: Two cups of stoned and
chopped dates, one cun channait v.-.
lUh walnuts, mix thoroughly, and
press in same way. ir liked add one-
nail cup chopped raisins.
8teamed Brown Bread.
One cup aweet milk, one cnn mn.
milk, one teaspoon soda, one and one
half cup molasses, one-half cup flour,
pincn oi sail, one-nan cup raisins
desired. Steam three hours. This
delicious either hot or cold. .
Two cups hot mashed potatoes, but
ter size of an egg, two eggs, four ta
blespoons of chicken or other stock,
three tablespoons of sweet milk; add
a pinch st salt beat wll and add
enough flour to stirrer
WAS AMERICAN BABY
"LITTLE MOTHER" PROUD OF THB
CHILD 8HE HELD.
8mall Girl, But With High Ideals,
Hannllv Mot With hw a Writer
r I J - ...... -j
0 Who Deacrlbea Her In the
A small girl In a blue frock was
carrying a baby with rings In Its
ears. The girl was a skinny littls
tacker, with a dark face mostly eyes
and her crooning voice as she cud
dled the baby somehow suggested
olives, Vesuvius, wayside shrines and
banana carta. But there was nothing
Latin about the fat bald-headed baby
except the gold wire in Its ears.
The small girl's street isn't what
you could reliably call a pleasant
place. There Is a leathery smell -for
ever rivaling the woolly assertlveness
of misfit hand-me-downs.
So the small girl toted the baby to
a quiet street where the sun lay like
a warm yellow blanket on the bricks
and where the leaves swirled down
from the trees as If dying were a gay
sort of dance.
Then she sat down on a carriage
step that she seemed to be acquaint
ed with, and kissed the baby on lti
baldest spot, where the fuzz had
rubbed off from lying down. And the
baby, to show its satisfaction, gurgled
out that Inscrutable symphony of In
fancy which Eve's little Cain was the
first to voice, and which we try to
speel out "da, da, da."
A woman whose way had led from
the small girl's street to the quiet
one, stopped at the carriage step and
offered the baby an apple from s
Dag. it was a sniny red appie, ana
the baby smiled at it coquettlshly be
fore hiding its face in the small girl's
neck. The girl herself, wise enough
to recognize friendliness when she
saw it, took the apple and lifted the
"Thank the la-dee, Maggee."
The baby .waved its arms and
kicked out two pink socks one heel
and a bunch of toes outside showing
pinker than the wool.
"She Is American baby," explained
the small girl, with a pride that was
downright beautiful. "She is not no
dago. She have rings in her ears be
cause my mother she will it have so,
and her saint name is Magdalena, but
my father he say it Is Maggee foi
American, and if she was a boy she
might be president maybe."
"Whv thof la flno An I.
"My name Is Maree-ah, after the
Mother of God. My mother gave me
to her. I wear blue all time while 1
am child. When I a woman I have a
pick ribbon bow in my hair. And a
green- dress. Yes, it is at the cathe
dral at Milan that I am given to the
blessed mother. But the bambino-
no, tne oaoy, came when we get to
America. No boy shall call her dago.
I will fight him. I will keel him If he
say she dago "'
And as the woman went her way
she wondered what America will hold
for Maggie, whose saint name Is Mag
dalena, when she is no longer a
bald-headed baby with rings in her
And for Dago Maria, when the time
comes for her to wear pink ribbons
and a green dress?
Quien sabe! Washington Star.
Breaking a Bad Habit.
"I see you have brought your dear
old-fashioned father to the Catskllls
again this season. Miss Slick."
"Oh, yes, Miss Peck, we could hard
ly get along without pap, even If hla
manners are horrid." "
"But I note a great Improvement in
his style of eating."
"In what way?"
"Why, now he Invariably uses his
"Yes, yes. You see, we bribe the
waiter to put soap on papa's knife."
While traveling through the rural
districts, a book salesman approached
a farmer, and stood for several min
utes importuning him to buy the book
ae was selling. Presently the farmer
blinked his eyes and said: "No, it
ain't no use. I can't read."
The salesman paused a moment and
then said, "But you must have some
one In your home that can read. Your
wife, your children I know" they
would be interested."
"Yes, my daughter can read," he re
plied, "but she's got a book."
Cooper I say, Hooper, was Doctor
Blinker guilty of a joke in his prayer
for our publio officials this mornlni-r
Hooper How? ,
Cooper Didn't you notice that he
prayed for the blessing of the Lord
upon those who guyed the people?
? Properly Done.
A drop of ink can still make mil
X t ha. to be turned
Into live-wire language and printed
on the better kind of paper to do It