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About Lincoln County leader. (Toledo, Lincoln County, Or.) 1893-1987 | View This Issue
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Lincoln County Leader.
J. F. STEWAKT, Publisher.
Earl; Medical Education.
In a certain country part of Russia tha
art of medicine was not much advanced
twen'T-nve vears ago. At that time the
,on of the local doctor, who hail spent a
winter In St. Petersburg, asked his father
for means to fro take a course of study at
Paris. If tue truth must told' ue waa
more anxious to see the charms of the gay
city than to secure a physician's diploma.
"Nonsense," said the old man sternly,
"I never graduated, aud yet I do fairly
well. Follow my practice and advice and
let Paris go." '
The Ud sighed at this rude dispelling of
"All that is necessary," resumed the
parent, "is to look thoughtful, and when
jou are called iu to attend a case feel the
patient's pulse with a grave air and mean
while throw your eyes at the kitchen
hearth. As a rule you will see there a lot
of swept up turnip peel, end of encumber,
cabbage stalk or something of that kind.
Having noted this, tell the patient he has
been guilty of eating such things. He'll
wonder how you could know it. Prescribe
some hot drink or other, tell him to be
careful of his diet, collect your fee and de
part. I've saved thousands by just such
The student took the lesson to heart, and
when his father died fell into the practice.
For a long time the parental rule worked
without fail, and on one occasion being
iill1 to attend a fever case, ht was equal
ly astonished and embarrassed at seeing
the hearth swept quite clean.
He must, however, find something on
which to base his treatment. So noting an
empty halter and set of harness lying by
the grate generally used by iu only sort
of steed the family possessed, and taking
heart at hope he charged the patient ac
cordingly. "The trouble with you is you've gone
and eaten a donkey!"
"What!" yelled the patient; "donkeyl
Get out of this house instantly or I'll real
ly make your word good by eating you."
And jumping up he so belabored the un
fortunate physician that the exercise broke
the fever and wrought a quick and perfect
cure. Philadelphia Times.
Two A ffectlonute Friends.
Colonel D. K. Tate, of Bellefonte, owns a
cow, Daisy, and a little black dog, Beaver,
between which there exists a remarkable
degree of affection. No matter where the
cow is seen or what the condition of the
weather is, Beaver is the companion of her
travels. From the time she leaves the sta
ble in the morning until her return at
night he is playing about her. If other
cows come about while she is grazing he
quickly clears the field, and Daisy has 'no,
fear from the stones of the small boy, for
they all respect the rights which her little
protector demands for her.
When fhe becomes drowsy Beaver lies
down beside her, and there hu stays until
he is ready to get up. Should she decide
to stay away from home at night no bet
ter guard could she have than the little
black canine. In the stable, if it is cold, he
sleeps huddled up between her fore legs,
and when the weather is warm he makes
his bed in some part of the stall with her.
So strong is the attachment between these
two creatures that if Beaver is accident
ally locked out of the stable nt night he
makes night so hideous with his mournful
howls that some one is only too glad to get
up and let him in.
The only reason which Colonel Tate as
signs for tjiis strange affection is the fact
that when Beaver was a pup he was kept
in the stable, and unfortunate in being
born in the winter he fouud a warm nest
Bear the cow. His gratitude to Daisy for
the warmth which she provided him has
prompted the devotion which he now daily
exhibits. Centre Hill (Pa.) Reporter.
The Other Man'i Hat.
A very amusing incident occurred lm
one of the local churches Sunday. Asa
visitor entered the church he was shown
to a seat by one of the sextons, aud after
eating himself quietly and placing his
hat beside him on the seat, he became an
attentive listener to the proceedings. As
time passed on, however, ho became nerv
ous and uneasy, and reaching for his hat
was about to leavo, when he was stopped
by some person, who tapped him on bis
. shoulder from behind. Thinking it was
the sexton who wished him to remain till
the close of the service he waited; but in
few minutes he again reached for his hat,
and was prevented in the same mauner
He now came to the conclusion that the
service must be an important one, and that
the sexton did not wish him to disturb the
proceedings in any way, so he again seated
himself. After waiting for some time
longer he resolved to leave at all hazards.
'He made another grasp for his hat, and
was again tapped on the shoulder; but he
did not heed it and arose to leave, when a
voice from behind him exclaimed, "I beg
your pardon, but that is my hat you have."
The visitor made a hastv anoloirv. Dicked
up his own hat, which had fallen upon the
noor, and left, while the observers tittered.
Superstitions Great Men.
Superstition has not only prevented man
kind from attaining a superior eminence of
happiness, but what is more deplorable, it
has added in a great degree to an already
extensive catalogue of earthly miseries. It
is not by the ignorant alone that super
stitious beliefs are entertained, but by
many eminent men of the past and present.
Dr. Samael Johnson was a firm believer in
ghosts and second sight. Josephns, the
great Jewish historian, relates that he saw
the extraordinary sight of an evil spirit
being induced to leave the body of an af
flicted mortal upon the application of Solo
mon's seal to the patient's nostriL James
VI, who was noted for his intellectual at
tainments and theological learning, was a
firm believer in witchcraft So deeD a
hold did this absurd notion have on bim
that he published a work upholding this
doctrine, and actually punished all who
opposed the belief.-Hebrew Messenger.
A Civil Hallway Porter.
At one of the Leeds stations thorels a
nan who has been a porter for many years;
"tends to the booking lobby, and waits
on Passengers arriving by cabs, etc He is
n old favorite of consunt travelers, and
Wmor says that he can retire any day on
"Past earnings. His little fortune has
Tf n,ade by civility; and there are prob
tay msny more all over the country that
I the same. It is certainly true that
Porters who are advanced in life get the
"on s share of public favor, but tbey were
young once, and have served on apprentice
'P which has tauuut them something to
men- dvanue.-Chambers" Journal
ENGLISH FOLKSI AT THE SEASIDE.
Visiting for Pleats e They TTosto No Time
In Go! og to Bed.
A man charged with begging once de
clared tLat he hi id not been in bed for
thirteen years; hfe took his rest in door
ways and passa; es. This is not a bad
record, but man) of the homeless class
could probably b( at it. Certainly there
are thousands nqt only in England, but
all over the worldi to whom such a lux
ury as a bed is unknown; unfortunates
re obliged to lay their heads in the odd
est places imaginable to prevent their
being rudely awakened by the police.
A sad ne'er-do-well told the writer
hat this was h' j principal thought for
more days than
could count. Where
t night? And he had
ut for having this
should he sleep i
a theory that
1 view as he tramped
is pavements of Lon-
over the nionoton
don be must ha
lost his reason. He
thought of somd
i after days when he
is experiences at
Even he, howev
never slept in a
stream, which wa
what some thirty
persons of both se
did at Buda-Pesth
a few years back
The water, which
was warm, flowed
vagrants got into
number of stones
lorn a mill, and the
It and converted a
Into temporary pil-
' Even people wiv
homes could tell
on this head. Of
some strange stori
course in some co'
tries beds arenn-
known. The Jap;
ese, for example,
sleep on the floor
wadded coat and v
for a pillow. But,
uflled in a great
li a block of wood
to England, just tal
to the dwellers in
the slums on this s
to bed there during
jeqt. Why, going
e summer months
fto iuo4ti,t, mt ft.sM, I bUftC. uuuy
places swarm with Vltoin, and conse
quently those who TfVi in them find it
more comfortable to sleep anywhere
rather than in the proper place even on
The manager of the Isle of Man hotel
remarked a few mouths ago that "vis
itors" never went to bed. His servants
are often asked to provide breakfasts at
8 or 4 a. m. Certainly the streets of
Douglass are pretty lively any time dur
ing the season.
A gentleman is fond of relating that
one night a select prty settled not far
from his bedroom window and created
the most discordant din imaginable. He
bore it with exemplary patience for
about five hours, and then, dressing him
self, he went out and mildly expostu
lated, saying he wanted some sleep.
"Sleep!" roared one of the gang, blow
ing a terrific blast! on a toy trumpet;
"then what did you pome to the Isle of
They say at Blackpool, too, that if you!
arrive at any hour o the day or night Tvo' "T " point o,
you are just iu tint, for something or ; tllan a voIumo of Buncroft or Mot".
other. The story apes that early onel Few have reckoned the magnitude of the
morning a dance wt in progress on one increase in the reports. The general pro
of the piers, when a&hipwroc.ked Bailor, ' sumption Is that it comes from the In-
Who had been driftitg about on a spar
and had fortunatelr "landed" on the
! l v., L., j . . t
girders below, crawled up the steps.
TheM. C. came forird they are never
surprised at H'ack-fool smiled, bowed
and said:" i"o j-obT sirTTJuri
I find you a partnl jvJassuU's Journal.
An Iiujl It iteicne.
Emperors and I Igs when at home
are very much likthcr people, and it
is doubtless in tlJ small amenities of
life that their realt-.haracter shows it
self most truly. Anincideut of the visit
of the emperor of iussia to his father-in-law,
the king of enniark, at the pal
ace of Amalienborg is creditable to the
czar, though it put him for a moment
in a ridiculous light
Early one moruinf, soon after the ar
rival of the czar it Amalienborg, the
sentinels who were giarding the garden
of the palace were attonUied to see the
emperor come rumiin; on; of the palace
In slippers aud shirt Jeeves, gesticulat
ing wildly and shouting lcudly.
The soldiers knew not what to do.
Ead the autocrat of oil the Russias
lost his reason or been attacked by
some mysterious enemy? I
The czar soon aiswerec the question
by rushing to a ccrner o'i the garden
where a great barking andhowling was
going on. From the wijdow of his
sleeping room he had soen ne of his big
dogs make an attack orilthe favorite
black cat of King Chris tun of Den
mark, and without waitinU to summon
a servant or even to put In a coat he
had rushed out to rescue jie cherished
pussy. He saved the cat, md no doubt
earned the lasting gratituifeof the king,
his host. Youth's Compadon.
The Cnklnde Cutsf All.
"I understand your nev paper is not
to come out againr said Kiss Cynicus.
Young Eenfield bowed lis head in as
sent. He had come to her br sympathy,
and his grief was too d?p for words.
When his paper suspends! the day be
fore he felt that he hid bid the chance
of his life and failed Oily an author
filled with youthful aubition conld
realize how he had bnrnedtlie midnight
oil when at last the chincecame for him
to make a strike for hones) fame. But
it was of no avail, and after a few weeks
his little sheet went tie way of many a
better paper. After tl fint great pangs
of his Borrow were ovr hi had come to
her he loved the best it the world, feel
ing sure that she could ease bis pain.
"It isn't for myself alone I feel to
bad," he went on. "Tie publisher was
yery good to me. He lank a great deal
of money in the venftre, and while 1
did my best I can't hip feeling that 1
was the cause of bis nrsfortnne. What J
I lost in comparison wb nothing.'
"Of course it wasn'ty she replied. "I
understand just bow lit was yon lost
nothing. You put in Ce brains. " Kew
York Evening Sun.
The Cleanlf Boaeh.
Contrary to the ttual supposition,
cockroaches are quit cleanly and do
vote a great deal of tile to the toilet
It is an interesting sigi to watch a cro
ton bng carefully cleung first its an
tenniB and then its leglby passing them
I through iu multiple math parts. Pro-
I f essor Riley.
DEBATES IN CONGRESS.
REPORTS OF THE
HAVE GROWN BY
One Ri-ason tor tha Increase In tha Num
ber or Printed Page Is That Man)
Written Essays Are Set In Type Instead
of Uelne; Delivered on the Floor.
The reports of congressional proceedings
are growing or have already grown so large
as to be burdensome and in imminent dan
ger of becoming useless. There are two
soeciflc reasons for this increase, one is th
printing of every trivial detail with sten
ographic exactness, and the other is the
permission in both branches of using writ
ten essays instead of making actual speech
es in debate.
In the beginning of the government, and
for many years thereafter, the habit ol
speakiug from a manuscript In eithef
branch of cougress was uuknown. Ob
every important measure that came before
congress, on the expediency of which mem
bers differed in opinion, there was an act
ual delxite, in which positions were affirm
ed and contested with off hand speech. la
every conflict of this kind the members ol
congress were, as a rule, in their seats,
many taking part and the mass so inter
ested as to sit continuously through the
The habit of speech has greatly changed.
At this time any one who will take hii
seat in the gallery of the senate as the
senators assemble will be interested dur
ing the "morning hour," which is often
marked by what may be called a sharp de
bate; but wheu the "morning hour" ex
pires and the "regular order" is an
nounced the spectator will very probably
see a gentleman rise and unfold a mass of
manuscript and begin to read.
He will next see out of the eighty-eight
senators probably seventy-five and possl-
Vi!- ri"-r - t 1 " ' i
i-.j li.v.L, vub dturt.U tun, Muavui,
themselves from their scats aud retire to
the committee rooms to write letters and
transact both public and private business
nntil the pages shall Inform them that the
reading of the manuscript, in progress
wheu the senators left the chamber, is
about to close.
In the house of representatives the spec
tator, when be seats himself in the gallery,
will probably see repeated, its nearly as the
analogy of proceedings iu thetwo branches
will allow, all that has been said of the
senate, with the addition of a habit which
is not extensively, if at all, practiced in the
senate tiz., the permission to print
speeches, not one word of which has been
delivered, anil also the setting aside of odd
afternoons, .merally Saturday, for debato
only, which i.ieans that some one deputed
by the speaker will preside, with the un
derstanding that no business is to be done
and that any member who chooses can
come there and deliver a speech upon any
subject he may select, whether it is pend
ing before congress or not
The essays which are thus read on a
B!nB'8 <urJly wu'l often fill a large
creased membership of both branches of
congress. This' accounts for part of the
itirM-PMW hut. it la tint, a ,,fYi.,At ., .. 1
tha .!,nU '
The sonnta is -larger than fifty years ago
by. a. little more than one half fifty-two
then, eighty-eight now. The house today
is not one half larger in membership than
it was fifty years ago. But the volume of
the reports of either house today com
pared with those of fifty years ago is pro
The reports of proceedings in the Twenty-sixth
congress March 4, 1831), to March
4, 1841 take scarcely one-sixth of the space
given to the reports of the Fiftieth con
gress. But if we go back only half of fifty years
a striking illustration will be found. Take
both houses of cougress from Xl 'to 1865,
embracing the Thirty-seventh and Thirty-
eighth congresses, and covering the entire i
period of the war. One would suppose
that the proceedings in two congresses,
with an extra session in one of them, dur
ing such a period as 1801-05 would be ex
Both houses were filled with remarkable
debaters, and the subjects that were con
tinually before each branch were so ab
sorbing In interest that almost every sena
tor and every representative desired to be
As the form in which the proceedings
are reported has changed since that time
the comparison of different periods can be
made with approximate exactness by stat
ing the proceedings in uniform pages of
1,000 words each. From March 4, 1801, to
March 4, 1805, the number of pages filled
by the proceedings was 25,400. Twen y-oix
years afterward the fiftieth congress con
vened. It lasted from March 4, 1887, to
March 4, 18S!, and the report of proceed
ings filled 88,1100 pages. 1
In an uneventful period, then, with noth
ing especially to exercise or disturb the
country, the number of pages filled by the
proceedings of a single congress is greater
than during the whole period of the war,
with all its mighty issues at stake.
Other comparisons of interest may be
made readily. One of the most exciting
congresses supposed to be one of the most
important ever held In the ante-bellum
period was the Thirty-first, beginning
March 4, 184'J, and ending March 4, 1851.
The compromise, measures of 1850, Involv
ing all the phases of the slavery question
as it then existed, called forth a debate
which for thoroughness and ability has
perhaps never been equaled, certainly
never surpassed. In the history of the gov
ernment. Men who naturally belonged to a former
period Wehiter, Clay. Calhoun, Benton,
Cass were there in full vigor, and tha
younger men of prestige and ower Sew
ard, Douglas, Chase, Jefferson Davis, Rusk,
of Texas were also there in all the strength
of mature mu'iliood.
Tbe first Region of the Thirty-first lasted
uutil Sept. SO. and that of the Thirty-third
nntil Aug. T, and the proceedings of both
congresses filled only 20,000 pages, leas by
1,400 psges than tbe record of the proceed-
lugs of the first session of the Fifty-first
To make a comprehensive and moat sug
gestive comparison, let It be stated that
from the inauguration of Washington In
1789 to the close of the civil war In 1865
the report of the proceedings of congress
for the entire seventy-six years employed
177,4110.000 words. From the close of the
civil war in lbCj to the first day of October,
18U0, being twenty five years, tha number
of words etntloyed .in reporting congress
Hence the congressional report for the
last twenty-iWe years contained I03J500,OU
wonls more than all the reports from 17bV
to 1805. James U. Blaine in Youth's Cosa-twuion.
A CHAPTER OF QUEER ACCIDENTS.
Perplexities of Nearsighted Man Who
Left Ills Glasses at Dome.
A nearsighted bookkeeper carelessly left
his eyeglasses at home the other morning,
and had a half day's experience that he
will not forget or care to repeat as long as
he lives. He was in a great hurry to catch
the car, and rushed out of the house shout
ing farewell to his wife as he passed
through the door. There was a large sized
puddle in front of his residence, and the
first step that he took off the curbstone
was directly into it. That utterly ruined
the polish on one shoe, aud imagining t hut
he saw a firm place ahead of bim he made
a leap for that and went into the mud
with the other foot.
He narrowly escajied being run over by a
team hitched to a brewery wagon, aud al
most missed the r;il of the car as it passed
by him. As he scrambled to the platform
he trod heavily upon the pet bunion of
tout old gentleman, who uttered a howl
of anguish, aud turning to apologize
knocked a dinner basket out ot the hand
of an office boy going to his work. When
the conductor came to collect his fare he
offered him a three cent piece and then a
nickel penny. By this time those who
were near looked pityingly upon him. Ho
searched through his pockets for his
glasses, and to his great annoyance discov
ered that they were missing. There was
no help for it, and he decided to keep on to
the office and send a boy back for them.
When the car arrived nt the corner of
i ...nvw.ur, ui.
Bank and Superior streets he hastened to
alight and almost embraced a stern female,
who gave him a look that would havo pet
rified him could he havesecu It. He raised
his iiat and begged her pardon for the col
lision, and as he did so the conductor bent
forward to assist the lady onto tho car nnd
knocked the hat out of the nearsighted
mans hand to the ground. The latter
i.r,. imi.uiv lurwaru in me direction iu shells were lined with sheet of mica past
which lie thought the hat might lie, but , ed on paper and filled with burned clay or
could not discover it. The conductor miMiit. am) chnrt-ont nu.im T.,i.,...j
Jumped off the car, and picking up the hat ' tho moisture successfully but was' so'uV
restored it to its owner. .tractive to the thin iron shells that it.
I he bookkeeper reached his office with-1 use was abandoned. Connor allowed his
out any further accident. He sent the invention to lapse, nnd a man named Fits
oflico boy to his residence for his glasses g,rnm in 184:1 obtained new letters patent
and sat down at his desk to work as best on tho same kind of a safe,
he could until the messenger returned. In somk ot n saffs
five minutes he had written with red Ink William Murr, of London.' In S34. was
upon the wrong lKiok, and as he reached tne flrst tt patent a method of construction
for the eraser he knocked over another ink for 8ftfl.a. In lm cll,lr,e8 cbllul) of th
rii .! tlie,c",,,c",f .V'0:?"?'1? 8,rtu; n.e city, used concentric linings of iron
rated a pile of statements that he had spent plHtcs filled in between with wood ashes
W?i ,rV:ril;'yitn,,,,':k'S0Ut;. Jrher conducting material, of a
bile attempting to stop the flow of Ink nilUlr0 t0 the transmission of heat,
he daubed it upon his coat and cuffs and , l843 ,eltl.re ,,atcnt, wero ,,, t
finally sat down in the corner, lit a c sar. w t' .i
n,iT! h 1 i1'! W"""""; the glasses
came with the messenger. His hurry to
catch the street enrcost him about twenty
rve dollars, to say nothing of we-r and
tear of nervous energy. Cleveland Leader.
Worrying Ticket Sellers.
"What nre you doinir that for?" oskpd
the writer of a downtown elevator boy,
who was industriously hacking the edges
ot a nickel with a sharp knife.
futtln' up a Job on one of dc 'L' rakes,"
he replied, as be started the elevator with
a velocity that douNcd up the kiio-is M a
puny looking man who wanted go to the
Who are the 'L' rnkcsf
I In loft tirii ir I r I a nn tin. uunnil Ann nn.1
- ' - i ''.
Diew a chewed wad at a messenger boy on
w..u vo.au, ,ucu unnuBnutu.
De rakes are de fellows wat pull in de
coin at de elevated station windows. Dey
tink tier mighty slick in mnkiii' change,
and de lazy way dey slide It out makes you
tired. But we fellers are on to 'em. We
whittles sharp edges on a coin like dis and
flops it down hard on do wood. Do man
paws it, but it don't rake. Ho tries it also fused or disintegrated alum, roleasli'g
a...:.. I... ft l.lo ln..n -.ne t., a .... ... . . .
again, but his fingers slip off. It's fun to
see him get rattled when ders a big crowd
waitin. Tree of de fellers had a man wild
last night. We mixed up In a 7 o'clock
crowd and each of us hud a cut coin. Do
ticket man was slidin' change his purtie.it
when a lad chucked down a nickel with
whiskers on. He pulled at it six times and
then had to pick it up.
"After a few people had passed I struck
him wld a sharpened dime. It took him a
minute to rake It in and gimme change,
and a Hollum train went up wid a big
crowd pushin' to get through de gate. Den
de money slipped all right for a minute,
but another of de gang set down a fixed
piece. It stuck fine, .iml de man was so
mad de station trembled. It's de last joke
out uint' floorl" New York World.
A Oorgeous Curtain.
The curtain nt the English Opera house
Is one of its nights. As it hangs closed it
looks- like a magnificent pair of golden
gates. It was made bv Messrs. I tel bron ner.
of Oxford street. It measures thirty-three,
feet high and is forty-eight feet wide. A
special wareroom had to be hired for it to
be made in. The bane Is gold colored silk,
on which has been worked an applique of
a darker tone of the same color. The ap-
plique a fiorated adaptation of fruit and
foliago, pineapples and pomegranates, con-
ventionally treated is of the Renaissance
period, and is from a design by the arch I-
tect, ingeniously carried ont by Messrs.
Tbe npplique is outlined by a One cord of
silk; a fringe with tassels decorates the foot
of the curtain. Thesilk is about a yard wide
and there aro between Ave and six hun-
dred yards of it, and more than thirty eross
of cord have been used in the curtain. Tha'
tilk was made in Lyons and the eonl anil
fringe in London. The lining is of yellow
tatcen, and the substance of the curtain is
obtained by layers of wadding. The valance
is sIbo applique work in bright roils, blues,
yellows and browns, and has been carried
out by the same embroiderers. Pall Mall
"Eight sinners came forwunl for n raters
last night," said a gentleman conducting
revival services In this city; "eight sinners,
tome of tbem of the very highest social
standing, and some of no standing at all."
What would John Wesley have said to
tucb a scech as that, or what bis inspired
brother Charles? Social standing discussed
at tbe altarl
A story is related that when one day tbe
Fi.. 1, r,l H'.. 1 1 i ... .... I. II... . I
ASU9 Uft 1. KIIIII,UU U AIICt:ilIIJf Bfr WIO
altar to partake of the communion a peaa-
ant knelt by bis side for the same religious
purpose. An officious erwn standing by
whispered in words the Iron Duke couj''
not but overbear: "Come away from l.
Don t you know you are kneeling
tide of the Duke of Wellington
bim remain," interrupted the du
Is no rank at this altar."
Contracted tha Habit a
W uttut nitA Vnii'rA f.hnrm.
I Beggar I wasn't bcggln', y P.
Magistrate But you were f
out jour hand.
LVggnr-It'a this way, yer w
bad to hold out my hand so mi
, that now I can't break myself of.
'-Ixiudon Tit Bits. i
HOW SAFES AEE MADE
FIREPROOF MATERIAL IS PLACED BE
TWEEN IRON SHEETS.
cfame Conner, a Tjpa Founder, Mad
the First Iron One In 1839 Many Kinds
of Mixtures Are Used for Filling Burg
lar Proof Sales.
The earliest style of safe known was
made in heavy oak or other hardwood
boxes or chests. They were bound on the
corners and across the top and front with
Iron bands studded with nails. Iron platea
were eventually made to cover the outside
f the chest and nailed to the wood. The
foundation of the plan upon which fire
proof safes .ire still constructed was laid
by a Richard Scott in 1801. The Improve
ment previous to 1SS was to make the
chest of soft wood, In thicker body, soaked
in brine. After thoroughly soaking both
the inside and outside shells sheets of iron
were fastened inside and outside with
large -jails or spikes.
The idea aud principle was that the
moisture in the wood upon the application
of heat would produce steam and prevent
the interior and its contents reaching a
temperut ure of 812 degs. Below that point
paper of every description will be preserved
from damage either to the fiber of the ma
terial or to the writing which may be upon
us Biiriitro. i uese principles oi lue steam.
producing quality and the reliance upon
this quality is the principal element in tho
manufacture of all safes of the present day,
though different materials may be used to
produce tho same result.
James Conner, a type founder of this
Mtv nlwMit-. 1H'l'M Innuitl u Imn -ft........
; box with a double shell, having as a filling
plaster of Paris mixed with water. I jitcr the
ad gypsum, previously heated and cooled,
. ,.r ro. w .i,.. i ,u, ,-'
as Milner had patented a plan to fill the
jacket, formed by the double plates, with
sawdust in which were packed a number
of small tubes tilled with an alkaline scyTii
tlon and hermetically sealed, or crystiJfs of
alum or soda combining front 40ton per
cent, water crystaltv.at ion.
in case ot lire the saru heatiiifg tubes
would burst or the crystals wiiij melt
ana saturate with water the sawdust
btenm thus produced by tho l(,.at would
pass into ime inner sare and pH'.t t con
tents, if inllaifcmable,- fr a loiv time.
George Price, oP.VVOIvurlmmpton, ML.irlim.l
In IKTlY trlwl t.hn nlan nf tvmtintr nn.n ,
m I ... . i. .. jttii i . i ..
iituracAinmru i u iuo lining null atuinui..,.!
tlon to prevent corrosion, and then iwi
nnWIIPPPli lll ltTl mill KHWIItlUt. 1) n III ..-
Previous to this, In 18111. dry plaster and
common grade of alum or potash alum was
found to lie of value as a non-conductor of
neat. Plaster was used for its non-conductor
quality and alum for tha large pro
portion of wnter It contains in crystallisa
tion. The same hent which produced ateum
the moisture aud producing the requisite
Tho principal argument that might be
used against this combination would i
that alum in fusing almost entirely disap
pears. Thus a vacuum is left, to take the
place of which there is nothing to support
the outer frame of the safe. Tho outer
frame must romain Intact in order to retr.in
In another mixture of similar character
at this tlmo was Included marble dust and
the refuse of soda manufactories. When
this material wus heated It was supposed
to produce carbonic acid gas. The gas was
to subdue nr extinguish fire or flames in
the Immediate vicinity by reducing the
temperature. Still another material used
as a filler was pulverized hydraulic cement,
which embraced the several qualities of the
plaster and alum.
This material Is a non-conductor of heat
and contains water in large Quantities.
Unlike the dry planter and 'alum It is a
solid, having a crushing strength In itself
' several hundred pounds to the squnre
'Dcn- The extractlou of the moisture by
any degree of' heat that can; poasi lily lm
Ptnduced in an accidental flre Vtvea the
I filling lid and intact. Tbe volume la
neither increased nor decreased, so tlicTfe-U
1 00 strain on the frame which covert it
j Mot of l,1B fireproof safes of the present
, nay aro mono or wrought iron plates and
angles on tbe outer and inner frames. The
usual thickness of the walls Is from live
and a half to six Inches. Combination locks
are used almost universally: yet locks art
the exception. The number of safes pro- L
' duced by the manufacturers has laruelr
increased in lutcr years.
Burglar proof safes are distinct froai
fireproof safes' in material, construction:
nl llle object for which they are bulltH
The walls are composed of high and low,
grades of steel, which, when tempered!
w'" the most powerful drill. Buf
Is an error to suppose that a safe widen
provides security from the burglar's drill'-.
mat reason sufficiently protectee
from burglars who are properly fitted (if
an attack upon a bank safe or vault. 1
lb-rent exneripnee liiuiilHmnii.iruiul tl
other methods are more expeditious, I
volving leas risk for the operators, and
frequently more certain of success. Weif
inserted across one edge of a door
driven home by repeated blows of a -mcr
retain on each wedge the con
strength of each blow struck. Tl
clined plane of the wedge, being tl
dation principle of all nierhnu '
t,.. r.n.rul In m AHTW '
" ,'.'. IU IIUIM
burglaries to ao-
ft of sat''
- - ' li
CATFISH HAD ANOTHER EYE.
BttllTing Hangers of the Fonds That
Were the Scavengers of the Seas.
"Professor Brown Goode compares the
taste of catfish meat to pate de fole gras,"
Professer Bashford Dean, of the College of
the City of New York, says in a paper In
the fish commissioners' report. The ca'.j
fish is a quarrelsome, hardy and mud lov
ing fish. Fisb.culturista affect to despise
It because it is ugly aud a fighter. It
grows sometimes to three pounds in weight,
but ortlinarily it ranges from half-a pound
la a pound. Nearly all fish die when con
fined a short time in muddy, stagnant
Water, but when the vivifying oxygen is
txhuusted from the water the cattish rises
to the surface, thrusts iu snout out of tha .
water and sucks air into its stomach.
Through its porous skin also it takes in
the oxygeu of the air. Like the frogs,' the
catfish hibernates, refusing food after No
vemlier, and burying itself in the ooze at
the bottom of the pond in December. It
reappears in February or March, or after
a thunder storm, some naturalists aver.
Then it is thiti and ravenous.
Cattish were planted not long ago In
Lake Itonkonkoma, nnd fishermen com
plain that they are ogres as Thoreati
wrote, "a bloodthirsty nnd bullying set ol
rangers, ever with lance at rest." They
pause in their roving, sink headforemost
In the mud and wait for their prey, with
their black muzzles just protruding front
the ooze, while their little Ulack eyes
glance restlessly iu every direj.ioiu The
cattish will bolt anything tr' a bit of
salt mackerel to a piece of titxV r,ci Its de
struction nt the young of f,rer fish is
enough to breed a fish lamina iu a lako or
pond. Of t heir owu young, however, they
are very careful.
The adult fish alivnys bv litis with, the
young fry wandering near, exactly as
chickens accompany the mother lieu, and
at the sign of danger the lit! le bullheads
hustle to the mother fish anil get behind
t...r . t... ..III. Ill ..!-ft -v.,
waves defiance with hor whiskers. When
aroused catfish give hiddn and fearful
battle with their barbs. They light most
In the breeding season males battling
with males. Of twelve oiatHsh observed by
Professor Dean nine shfm-cd marks of ter
rific strife. The soft putts of their fins nnd
tails were torn to tailors and four eyes
were destroyed, one olill male cattish being
blind in both eyes, while, tho lon er third ot
its tail and half of the Ifcft pectoral Uu were
Professor Dean find evldcnres that tho
eatllsh has a ruillmeiitiiryeyeiu the middle
of its forehead. There I is a median skull
opening which appears wo connect tho sur
face of the head with tlib brain. There aro
evidences that a lens once cxTsTfjind it is
DelinvOcl irom microscopic exit
tho liraln that the opening anV
fti It.. I. . .1... ft. I. sr
Itiiin iil iihiii. ill iiir (VK
aiioi. n i uni i -n- Tin Mr jp
monster placodf Kii
the wnUr. ot the cnT
loitieal eiioch; that from V
of the cattish in burying itsc
with only Its noso sticking o
It must have Iwon In Us original f
riblo sclrtirger of tho sea, alilef
fore, behind and above, while, f
ready to dart on Its prey. New I
llruin Cutohes aV
An organ grinder wr
lrouifh tho country K
through tho country
h bo had
iM stoimed before
ft...... I...nr tallt
p'fternoon, aud after auiiiv
llj ""rltJi his performances I
lnlssion'Wa. slay all ni:4i,
w-ft ill rij J li" g
lug the night the fuTmll.
a terrible noise in the U.
wns screaming nnd slroikv
help!" and apparently cugu.f
gin for lifu. f
The farmer hastened thy
lowed .by the organ grind'!
mates nf the house, and fi'
tx ar with a man In his ey
him tightly, while t
gled frantically to estA,-.
The bear was muxsled a&
man no serious injury, thou
from being comfortably
examination it proved. 4,;'.
butcher, who come to tll, v
flue calf. In the darkness lit. )"
over bruin, who li ml wIjuh! . r
bim fast. v
The organ grinder, learning,
stood, called out, "Hug hlir
the bear enjoying the sport
squeeze bim unmercifully. n
thought he had Im-''"
when ho ''"T i
spread iiUT t
town to ff 5 , . .
Jected h """