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About The Madras pioneer. (Madras, Crook County, Or.) 1904-current | View Entire Issue (Dec. 14, 1905)
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m0M THE THEME
r " ... . . Tariff.
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" . . ..rifleatl.i-'.- . ..nnnl
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s'".". good or oru-. ... -
u Mrtuny . ..:m hurt
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t if " them wnu "."..
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nm in... Hnt iia latwi'
fun im - . ... ..nnirT in in
PVT..'... nf th rernn
... .I'll... -- .j.i nf minunii
t. firmer --
- -....inn roan, .L ...
jf pi..----- - . , nlten in
mwirW "d Jiiiajiy Int.rtwln.d
. .... majority 7".r
. "m a who by h i "z:
W11' intra. Normally tfl.
,WJwiT,a tllclly "ho MComt
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1 11": '. .v. taimr or ma" -
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notn f . .tiiiM i
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vr Lima ub iw
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...n num. ana
.':". k. m.Hnr conJIUona aucn
"f". iL..inr b uy
... a.afliiai cnaractrr
a a.U flfld IflM WIUI a-.- ;-
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fitefillf, Hi inFriiri ,"
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', .k. .l.li .111 anuradlr b that
taut mar conn to tb i iiruca ai,
situ Ikr Wow, Tan a a w.iui.,
ati itn tit mn aiiwn luiciiuit
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..i. l. l. Int. thai IttMff
UUk 11 II aiv imi -
CerutotoUl rtilralnt or uwrviiin.
i( at iitrjllonal men lata Ihtlr nf
tat to ri that art for tha common
let in win wtlch toll aialnit thl"
iVA, 1R tUClUnT aillBHU lIMVUftll
t. Mtiklrillnni a rm una an larva lillt
vttnto-lUt la, to th Qovarnment,
HKtMSU ina pwpia as a wnoio surna
wvir vi laprrTiiion orar tnsir irur
tN. li order to Iniur a htalthy ao-
ai biwtrUI Ufa, trrry tlr corpora.
a!i U htld rttnohalbla br and b ae.
a (tcaoct I am In no itnn hoa.
nmllw . ThU la an ait of com
ua nj rnori to prevent ail com
U1 U Mi only urttraa, but In III
tt rtlluri 10 anlorca law IntvltaUIr
w tacit lamiun ma mmrnw aooa
II coreoillt Iltnclm In a nuinlrv
utm. tti b wtallh of Intrllecl. n
U H'lkllla 4...l4 4- .k.l. '
17 (bflr 6fflMri anil i1irtka Th.
r""""" , juai a ina trau
lu torni to .tar B. h can do and
-'iiuw. r.acn tnouia b favored
I"" lood, llut rach ahould U
CXCCtla Whr It aria avkln.l law
LI MIT III fntai a. I .1 .
iviui an iiiiiuraiion. in
.; !! a minraiion: ior rrom
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U U maal IK. k. i ji.i...
ui . " v1"'" ' common
(Witter th bowrr ll haa itwavi
U1I iVltl KI .
- ifiuianon or rain would
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aviia ui iny inn a i, . 1. 1 - .
K'Utlrti OTtr aoma rlv.l. u
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linld ir. . 7 a""mmt of th.
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h "7 '"I Interni of i.. .,i.h.
"aijoarm..! . nv.
lank.. . . '"iir ior ariV"
ii ik. ... ..w,r hy no mratia ..
ftumin.itra.Hi-. . .
I kit,. uuy me other
o im:,. T"!1. 1 "rd
icmm,d ..w.rr..0f "I" th.
'. which ,0a.1x V'n maxl.
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at! InJ ' IIUILIIIIV WnilM ft..
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nn fc... - M HI 11 IflP ttlal
m .?.4od,:lr:''' to ... ,
tola X"f. "on ao handl.d
, , k rn. lve "0 d.
by A read en land, wa ep.it to- .lt It bo
longed to th. public find th. trafflo alone It
wti fr... At prtient th. railway la thli
highway, and w. muat do our ti.it to it.
that It If k.pt open to all on .final t.rma.
Unlllt. th old lilnhwny It 1. at v.ry difficult
and compl.x thin to tnanaa;., and It la
far ti.tt.r that It ahould b. manned by prl.
vat. Individual, than by th. Oov.rnm.nt.
Th. National Clov.rnment hn. a. a rul.
but llttl. occnilon to deal with th. for
mldabl. group of problem, connected mor.
or directly with what U known a. th.
labor qu.illon, for In th. great majority of
can. the. probLmi mutt b. deal with by
th. .tat. and municipal autheritl. and hot
by th. National Government. Th. National
Oav.rnm.nt ha control of th. Dl.trlct of
'Columbia, how.v.r, and It ahould aae to It
that th. mir or waamngton 1 mad. a
mod. I cltr In all reaped, both a regard,
park., public playground, proper regulation
of th. .y.t.m of houalng .o a. to do away
with th. vll. of all.y tenement., a proper
.y.t.m of education, a proper .yit.m of
dealing with truancy and juv.nll. offender,
a proper handling of th. charitable work
of th. Dl.trlct. Moreover, there .heuld b.
prop.r factory law. to pr.vent all abut in
th. employment of women and children In
th. Dl.trlct. The, will b. uaeful chiefly a.
obj.ct l.aaon., but .ven thl. limited amount
of u.efUln.. would be of r.al National
Th. great In.uranc. companlt. afford .trlk
Ing .xampte. of corporatlomt whoa, butlnt.
haa extended n far beyond th. Jurisdiction ol
th. date, which created them a to preclude
.trlct enforcement of aupervl.lon and rexula
tlon by th. parent .tale. In my taat an
nuat mcaaac X recommended "that the Con
grea. carefully conilder whether the power of
th. bureau of corporation cannot conatltu
tlonally to extended to cover Interatat tran
actlon. In In.urance." Itecent event have
acter of Inaurance, for In th. abmnc. of
emphaelied th. Importance of an early and ex
hauttlve conelderatlon of thl. queatlon, to
are whether It I. not poaalbla to furnlah bet
trr aafeguard. than tha aeveral Mati-ti have
been abl. to furnlah aealnat corruntlon of
th. flagrant kind which ha. been expoaed. II
ha. been only too clearly diown that certain
of tha men at the head of the large cos.
poratlon. take but .mall not. of th. ethlcfl
distinction between honeaty and dlahonraty;
they draw th. line only thl. nlde of what may
be called law honmty, III. kind or honeaty
neeneary In order to avoid falling Into th.
clutche of th law. Of rourun tlin only com
pleta remedy for thl condition mutt b found
In an aroud public conscience, t higher atn
of ithlcal conduct In tha community at large,
and especially among bualne men and In th
great proftanlon of Ih. law, and In the growth
of a aplrlt which condemn, all dlxhonetty,
whether In rich men or In poor man, whrther
It take, tha .hap. of bribery or of blackmail,
Hut much can be don. by leglalallon which I.
not only drattlo but practical. There la need
of a far stricter and mor. uniform regulation
of tha vat Ineuranco Intere.t. of thl country.
Th. United fitatt nhould In thli reaped follow
the policy of other natlorui by providing ade
quate1 national .upervlalon of commercial In.
lere.t. which are clearly National In char
acter. My predeceaaora have repeatedly recog
nised that the foreign builnerm of three com
t.anlr I. an lmrortant part of our foreign com
mercial relation". During tho administration,
nf t'rmldent. Cleveland, Uarrlmn and Mo
Klntey tha Btata Department exercised Ita In
fluence, through diplomatic channel, to pre
vent unjust discrimination by forcltrn coun
tries against American Insurance .ompnlra.
Three negollatlona llluatrated the propriety
of the Congreaa recognising tha National char
Krderal legMallon the State Department could
only give expremlon to tha wlahr. of tha au
Ihorltlt of th aeveral state., who policy
wa. Ineffective through want of uniformity.
There I. more need of stability tban of th.
attempt, to attain an Ideal perfection In
the method, of ratting revenue; and th.
shock and .train to th. bulne. world cer
tain to attend any serious change In the
method, render such change Inadvisable un
lets for grav reaton. It I not pottlble to
lay down any general rul. by which to
determine tha moment when the reaions for
will outweigh the rrntont agalntt uch a
change. Much muat depend, not merely on
(ha need., but on tha dealrea of th. people
a. a whole; for needs and desires are not
necessarily Identical. Of courea no change
can be mad on line, beneficial to, or detlrrd
by, on tectlon or on state only. There
must be something Ilk a general agreement
among th eltlxen. of the several states, as
represented In the Congress, that th. chang.
Is needed and desired In tho Interest of the
people a. a whole; and there should then be
a sincere. Intelligent, and dlalntereated effort
to make It In such snap a. will combine, so
far a. possible, the maximum of good to the
people at large with the mlnmum of neces
sary disregard for th special Interest, of
localities or classes, llut In time of peace
the revenue must on tha average, taking
a series of year, together, equal the expendi
ture, or le tha revenue, muat b Increaaed.
I-ast year there waa a deficit. Unlets our
expenditures can b. kept within the rev
enue then our revenue law mutt be read
Jutted. It Is as yet too early to attempt to
outline what shape such a readjustment
ahould take, for II Is a yet too early to say
whether there will be need for It.
it ahould be conddcred whether It Is
not dealrbala that th tariff lawe
' atimild riMvlil. ttr anrilvlnr aa trfllnil
or In Yavor of any other nation maximum
and minimum tariff rates established by the
Congress, so as to secure a certain reel-
'Proclty of treatment between other nations
:ond oureelves. Having In view even larger
I considerations of policy than those of a
i purely economic nature. It wou.4, in my
i Judgment, be well to endeavor to bring
; about closer commercial connections with
(he other peoples of (his continent. I am
happy to be able to announce to you that
Itustla now treat, us on Ih. moat-favored
Kronomy In Kxpendlturr.
I earnestly recommend to (he Congress
Ih need of economy and to this end of a
rigid scrutiny of appropriations. As exam
ples merely, I call your attention to one or
two specific matters. All unnecessary offices
should be abolished. The Commissioner of
Ih. (lerteral Land Office recommends the
abolishment of the office of receiver of pub
lic money, for United Btates land offices.
Thl. will effect a saving of about a quar
ter of a million dollar, a year. A (he bust
ness of th. Nation grows It I. Inevitable
(hat there should be from lime to (Ime a
legitimate Increase In tha number of offi
cials, and (hi fact rendera It all the mor
Important that when offices become unneces
sary they should b. abolished. In th. pub
lic priming also a largo saving of public
money can be made. There Is a constantly
growing tendency (o publish masse, of un
important Information. It I. probably nol
unfair lo .ay dial many Ijns of thousand
of volumes are published at which no human
being ever look, and for which there Is no
real demand whatever.
In my last annual message I saldi
"The power of (ha Government to protect
tha Integrity of tha elections of It. own offi
cials Is inherent and ha. been recognised
and affirmed by repeated declaration, of th.
Hupreme Court. There I. no enemy of free
government mora dangerou. and none so
Insidious as (ha corruption of (he electorate.
No one defend, or excuse, corruption, and
It would .rem to follow that none would
oppose vigorous measures to eradicate it. I
recommend the enactment of a law directed
against bribery and corruption in Federal
elections. The detail, of such a law may
b. safely left to tha wise discretion of tha
Congress, but tt should go a. far us under
the Constitution It I. possible to go, and
should Include severe penalties against him
who give, or receives a bribe Intended to
Influence his net or opinion n. an elector;
and provisions for tho publication not only
of (ha expenditures for nominations and
election, of all candidates, bul also of all
contribution, received and expenditures made
by political committees."
I deslr. (o repeat this recommendation, in
political campaign. In a country as large
and populou. a our. ft Is Inevitable that
thr.ro ahould be much expense of an entirely
Im'tltnat hind. Thl., of course, means that
many contributions, and soma of them of
larg. else, must be made, and, us a mutter
of fact, In any big political contest such
contribution, are always mad to both sides.
It Is ehtlruly proper both to glva and re
ceive them, unless thera Is an Improper mo
tive connected with either gift or reception.
If they are extorted by any kind o( pressure
or promts., express or Implied, direct or In
direct, In the way of favor or Immunity,
then the giving or receiving becomes not
only Improper but criminal, It will un
doubtedly be difficult a. a matter, of prac
tical detail to ehapo an act which shall
guard with reasonable certainty against suoh
misconduct) but If It I. posslbl. to atcure
by law the full and v.rlfled publication In
detail of all th. .urn. contributed to and
.xpended by th. candidate, or committee, of
any political parti., th. result cannot but
b. wholeaom. All contribution, by corpor
atlon. to any political commute, or for any
political purpose .hould b. forbidden by
law, director, .hould not b. permitted to
us. stockholders' money for such purpo'?
and, moreover, a prohibition of thl. kind
weild. be, aa far a. It w.nt, .st.ctlv
J!I!I!!S? !fopp,B" "ll ma at fn
hi v.iir:, .V' " on,r hould both
An r...fIb 2 'ay ofnc,r or corporation
or Tha.! nf-tn".m?.B,sr ot tn corporation In
ft,0".. uny ."o". ut they should also
inJ ,. i11" ot monr In connection with
Jn.mi',,,"t,0.n.. bjr th mployment of
tc. manner for distinctly l.gal
Tho Hague) Conference,
HaiH.flirn" tiS2.nf?r,.nc ot n"n h.ld at Th.
ih. " i!.,,.ni89l'',b.,nc unbl 10 dl,P0 of all
rnJ.M.U.i?." b0M . "commended th.
frnno?..,"" "'m.nt of a number of
to Pt?. .ii.2u"t.lon' br another conference
dt. .,l ub,e?"ntly -nd at an early
m Th. ,iJ '..'"Vf w,r th blowing:
ii. i7.hM r,,h.u f"4 du"" of neutrals; 8) the
i.a .ndnnih,f..rm4d ,orc" lnd and
sa, and of military budgsts; (3) th. us.
,.,.,,,. "i.uiinj' oi private
SffiS "rs. ?? ....) th.
navat VoV... . WUA"' ."" no. villages by
whlrh th Interparliamentary Union,
d Jr ,!."? "d? y the lawmakers of 15
ciirurcnt nation. t . .......... ... . .
... - ..-s. i.ii.L.tu in. uemana
illumA. con'e'Vc i nations, I Issued
Th. i . ; " owrs signatory to
Tlia llagu convention to send delegate, to
I,iiin.?j?ftr.1S; nd ,u""td that It be
again h.ld at Th Hagu. In It. not. of
Decembet 10, 10M, th Unlt.d Stat. Gov
ernment communicated to th. rtpreitntsv
Jlves of foreign governments It. ballet that
the conference could be best arranged un
dir the provision, of the present Hagu.
From all th power, acceptance wa. re
S!.. d ""Died In om cat, with th. con
dition that w. ahould wait until th. nd of
t warkthen w'n between Jlut.la and
!?"'.. Th TPror of Hunla, Immediately
afler the treaty of peace which so happily
lermlnaled (hi. war, In a not. presented to
the I'rwrldnt on September 1J, through Am.
batador Ilottn, took the Initiative In recom
mndlne: that the conference bo now called.
The United Ulate Government, In retponw,
exprd Itn cordUl ac-riuleactnc. and tUted
that It would, a a matter of cour. take
part In th new conference and endeavor to
further It. aim. W. aume that all civilized
governments will trupport th movement, and
that the conference la now an asaured fact.
Thl. Oovernment will do .vtrytblng In It.
power to eecur th succem of (he confer
ence lo (he end (hat substantial progress may
be made In the eatiaa of Int.rn.tinn.i
Justic and good will. '
The) Monroe Doctrine,
to develop along Its own line. If w had
would not meet any of the need, of th. pres
ent day, and Indeed would probably by (hi
refuted (o apply the doctrine to changing con
dition It would now be completely outworn.
One of the moat effective Inttrumente for
ptac I (he Monro Doctrine, as It haa been
and la being gradually developed by thla Na
tion and accepted by other nation. No other
policy could have been a. efficient In pro
moting peace In (he Wertern Hemltpher and
In giving to each nation (hereon (he chance
(Ime have mink Into complete oblivion. It 1.
uteful at home, and I meeting with recotrnl
(Ion abroad becaue we have adapted our
application of It (o meet the growing and
changing needs of (he hemisphere. 'When wa
announce a policy, such as (he Monroe Doc
trine, we thereby commit ourselve. to the con
sequences of the policy, and (hote consequences
from (Ime to time alter. It tn out ot th
question to claim a right and yet shirk the
responsibility for Its exercise. Not only we,
but all American republics who are benefited
by the existence of the doctrine, mu( recog
nise (he obllgadonn each nation la under as
regards foreign peoples no less than It duty
to Intlrt upon It. own rlchts.
That our rights and Interests are detply
concerned In (he maintenance ot the doc
trine Is to clear a hardly to need argument.
Thla Is especially true In view of the con
struction of the I'anama Canat. As a
mere matter of self-defense we must exer
.It a clote watch over the approache (o
'hit canal; and (hi mean that we mutt be
thoroughly alive to our Interetts in (h.
flan to Domingo.
fianto Domingo, In her (urn, ha. now made
an appeal (o ua (o help her, and not only
every principle of wladom but every generous
Instinct within us bids us respond (o (he ap.
peal. It Is nol ot (he sllgh(es( consequence
whether we grant (he aid needed by Santo
Domingo as an Incident to the wise develop
ment of the Monroe Doctrine, or because we
regard the case ot Santo Domingo as stand
ing wholly by Itself, and to be treated as
such, and not on general principles or with
any reference to the Monroe Doctrine. The
Important point Is (o give (he needed aid,
and the case Is certainly sufficiently peculiar
to deserve (o be Judged purely on Its own
merits. The conditions In Santo Domingo
have for a number of years grown from bad
to worse until a year ago all society was on
tha verge of- dissolution. Fortunately, Just
at (his (Ime a ruler sprang up In Santo
Domingo, who, with his colleagues, saw (he
dangers threatening their country and ap
pealed to the friendship of the only great
and powerful neighbor who possessed the
power, and as they hoped alto the will to
help them. There was Imminent danger ot
foreign Intervention. The previous rulers ot
Kanto Domingo had recklessly Incurred
drbls, and owing (o her Internal disorders
she had ceased to be able to provide means
of paying (he debts. The patience ot her
foreign creditors had become exhausted, and
at lenat (wo foreign nations were on th
point of Intervention, and were only pre
vented from Intervening by the unofficial as
surance of (his Government that It would
Itself strive (o help Santo Domingo In her
hour of need. In the case of one of these
nations, only the actual opening of negotia
tions to this end by our Oovernment pre
vented the seizure of territory In Santo Do
mingo by a European power. Of the debts
Incurred some were Just, while some were
not of a character which really renders tt
obligatory on, or proper for, Santo Domingo
to pay them In full. llut she could not
pay any ot them unlets torn stability was
aaaured her government and people.
Accordingly the Executive Department of
our Government negotiated a treaty under
which we are to try (o help (he Dominican
people to atralghten out their finances. This
(reaty Is pending before the Senate. In (he
meantime a temporary arrangement haa
been made which will latt until the Senate
has had lime (o take action upon the
treaty. Under this arrangement (he Domini
can Oovernment has appointed Americans (o
all the Important positions In the customs
service, and they are seeing to the honest
collection of (he revenues, turning over
per cent (o (he governmenl for running ex
penses and putting the other 33 per cent Into
a safe depositary for equitable division In
cat the treaty ahall be ratified, among tha
various credllors, whe(her European or
Tha cus(omhouaes offer well-nigh (he only
sources of revenue In Santo Domingo, and
the different revolutions usually have as
(heir real aim (he obUlnlng possession of
(hese custom-houses. The mere fac( (hat
the collectors of customs are Americans,
that they are performing (heir duties with
efficiency and honesty, and thai (he (reaty
Is pending In the Senate, gives a certain
moral power to th governmen( of San(o
Domingo which !( ha. no( had before. This
has completely discouraged all revolution
ary movement, while It has already produced
such an Increase In the revenues that th
government Is actually Betting more from
(he 45 per cenl (ha( (he American collcclors
(urn over (o It than It got formerly when
It took tho entire revenue. It Is ennbllng
the poor harassed people of 8anto Domingo
once more to (urn (heir altentlon to Industry
and (o bo free from (he curse of Inter
minable revolutionary disturbance. It offers
to all bona fide credllors, American and
European, tha only really good chance (i
obtain (hot (o which (hey ora Jutly entitled,
while It In return give, to Santo Domingo
the only opportunity of defense against
claims which It ought no( (o pay, for now
If It meet, the view, of the Senalo wa
shall ourselves thoroughly examine all these
claims, whether American or foreign, and
seo that none that are Improper are pold.
There Is, of course, opposition to the treaty
from dishonest credltois, foreign and Amer
ican, and from tho professional revolution
ists of (ho island Itself. We have already
reason to believe tha( somo of (ho credllors
who do not dare expose (heir claims to
honest scrutiny are endeavoring to .tlr up
sedition In the Island and opposition to the
treaty. In the meantime I have exercised
the authority vesled In me by (he Jolnl reso
lution nf the Congress to prevent tha Intro
duction of arms Into th. Island for revo
Army nnd Navy.
We cannot conntder the question of our for
elgn policy without at the same time treating
ol tha Army and the Navy. We now have a
very small Army-lndeed, one well-nigh In
finitesimal when compared with the army ot
any other large nation. Of course, tha Army
we do hava should be as nearly perfect of It.
kind and for It. l l posalble. I do not
boltev. that any army In Ih. world ha. a
better average of enlisted man or a better
type of Junior officer! but th. Army .hould b.
trained to act .ff.ctlvely In a ms. Provis
ion should b. made by sufficient approorla
(Ion. for maneuver, of a practical kind o
that th. troop, may learn how to tak. car. of
tb.sTUMlTM unaer actual i.rvlc. conditions;
v.rr march, for tnrtanc-, being mad. with
th. soldier loaded exactly a. h. would b. In
an actlv. campaign. Th General and Colo
nl. would thereby have opportunity of hand
ling regiment., brigade and division, and
th. commissary and medical department,
would ba tested In tha fltld. Provision .hould
he mad. for th. .xercls. at leaat of a bri
gade and by preference of a dlvMon la march
ing and embarking at aom. point on our
coast and disembarking at som. other point
aid continuing It. march. The number of
Pot In which tha Army Is kept In tlm. of
peac nhould b. materially diminished and
th. post, ttiat ar. left mad correspondingly
larger. No local Interest should b. allowed
to stand In the way of awtembllng th. greater
part of th (roop which would at need form
our field armies In station, of such size as
will permit the best training to b. given to
the personnel of all grade. Including th high
officers and .taff officer. To accomplish this
end w. must hav. not company or regimental
garrison., but brigade and division garrisons. '
Our Navy must,, relatively to th. navl. of
olher nation., alway. be of greater size than
our Army. W. hav. mot wlMly continued
for a number of yarr to build up our Navy,
and It has now reached a fairly high standard
of efficiency. This standard of efficiency must
not only be maintained, but increased. It
does not seem to me nscessary, however, that
th Navy should at lesst In th Immediate
future b. Increased beyond: the present num.
ber of unltn. What In now clearly necessary
In to subatKute efficient for Inefficient unit
as the latter becom. worn out or as It be
comes apparent that they ar useless.. Prob
ably the result would be attained by adding a
single battle-shlp to our Navy each year, tha
superseded or outworn vessels being laid up
or broken up as they are thus replaced. The
four tingle-turren monitors built Immediately
afler th. clone of the Spanish war, for In
stance, ar vrrnels which would b- of but
llttl. us. In the event of war. The- moneys
pent upon them could have been more use
fully spent In other ways. Thus It would have
been far better never to have built a slnrle
one- of these monitors and to have put t"e
money Into an ample supply of reserve guns,
Most of th remaller cruisers and trunboalo,
(hough they serve, a useful purpose so far as
they are needed for International police work,
would not add to the strength of our Navr
In a conflict with a serious foe. There Is
urgent need of providing a large Increase In
the number of officers, and especially In the
number of enlisted men.
During the past year evidence has accu
mulated to confirm the expressions con
tained In my last two annual messages a.
to the Importance of revising by appro
prlate legislation our system of naturalizing
aliens. I appointed last March a commis
sion to make a careful examination of our
naturalization laws, and to suggest appro
priate measures (o avoid the notorious
abuses resulting from the Improvident or
unlawful granting of citizenship. This com
mission, composed of an officer of the De
partment of State, the Department ot Jus
tice, and of the Department of Commerce
and Labor, has discharged the duty Imposed
upon It, and has submitted a report, which
will be transmitted to the Congress for Its
conslderadon, and, I hope, for Its favorable
Ureflcb.es of Trust In Public Service.
There seems to be no statute of the United
States which provides for the punishment of
a United States Attorney or other officer of
the Government who corruptly agrees to
wrongfully do or wrongfully refrain from
doing any act when the consideration foi
such corrupt agreement is other than one
possessing money value. This ought to be
remedied by appropriate legislation. Legis
lation should also be enacted to cover, ex
plicitly, unequivocally and beyond question,
breach of trust In the shape of prematurely
divulging official secrets by an officer or
employe of the United States, and to pro
vide a suitable penalty (herefor. Such offi
cer or employe owes the duty to the United
Slates to guard carefully and not to divulge
or In any manner use prematurely Infor
mation which Is accessible to (he officer or
employe by reason of his official position.
Moat breaches of public trust are already
covered by the law, and this one should be.
Once again I call your attention to the
condition of the public-land laws. Itecent
developments have given new urgency (o (he
need for such changes as will fit these laws
(o actual present conditions. The honest
dlspoaal and right uae of the remaining
public lands Is of fundamental Importance.
The Iniquitous methods by which th mo
nopolizing of the public lands Is being
brought about under th present law. are
becoming more generally known, but the
existing taws do not furnish effective reme
dies. The recommendations of the Public
Lands Commission upon this subject are wise
and should be given effect.
The creation of small Irrigated farms un
der the reclamation act la a powerful offset
to tha tendency of certain other laws to fos
ter or permit monopoly of the land. Under
that act the construction of great Irrigation
works has been proceeding rapidly and suc
cessfully, the lands reclaimed, are eagerly
taken up, and the prospect that the policy
ot National Irrigation will accomplish all
that was expected ot It Is bright." The act
should be extended to Include the State of
The forest policy ot the Administration ap
pears to enjoy the unbroken support of tha
people. The great users of timber are them
selves forwarding the movement for forest
preservation. All organized oppotdtlon to the
forest reserves In the West has disappeared.
Since the consolidation of all Government for
est work In the National Forest Service there
has been a rapid and notable gain In the use
fulness of the forest reserves to the people
and In public appreciation of their value. The
National parks within or adjacent to foreut
reserves should be transferred to tha charge
ot the Forest Service also.
To (he spread of our (rade In peace and
(he defense ot our flag In war a great and pros
perous merchant marine la Indispensable. We
should have ship of our own and seamen ot
our own to convey our goods to neutral mar
kets, and In case of need to reinforce our
I battle line. It can not out d a source of re
gret and uneaslnem to us that ths lines of
communication with our sister republics of
South America should ba chiefly under for
eign control. It Is not a good thing that
American merchants and manufacturers should
have to send their goods and letters to South
America via Europe If they wish security and
dispatch. Even on th Pacific, where -our
1 ships have held their own better than on the
Atlantic, our merchant flag la now threatened
through ths liberal aid bestowed by other
governments on their own steam lines. I ask
your earnest consideration of the report with
which the Merchant Marine Commission has
. followed It long and careful Inquiry.
It Is a matter ot unmixed satisfaction once
more to call attention to the excellent work ot
i the Pennlon Uureau; for the veterans of the
Civil War have a greater claim upon ua than
any other class of our citizens. To them,
first of all among our people, honor Is due.
Seven years ' ago my lamented predecessor.
President McKlnle, stated that the time had
come for the Nation to care for the grave,
of the Confederate dead. I recommend that
the Congress take action toward this end. The
first need Is (o take charge of the graves ot
the Confederate dead who died In Northern
The question ot Immigration I. of vital In
tercat (o thl. country. In the year ending
Juno SO, 1003, there came (o the United States
1,020,000 alien Immigrants, In other wordH,
In the .Ingle year that has Just elapsed there
came (o (his country a greater number of
people than came hero during the 100 years of
our Colonial life which Intervened between the
first landing at Jamestown and the Declara
tion of Independence. It Is clearly shown In
tho report of the Commlssloncr-aeneral of
Immigration that while much of this enormous
Immigration I. undoubtedly healthy and natur
al, a considerable proportion Is undculrablo
from ono reason or another; moreover, a con
siderable proportion ot It, probably a very
largo proportion, Including most of the unde
sirable class, does not come hero ot Us own
Initiative, but because of the activity of the
agents of tho great transportadon companies.
These a cents aro distributed (hroughou Eu
rope, and by (ho offer of all kinds of Induce
mentH they wheedle and cajole many Immi
grants, often against their best Interest, to
come here. Th most serious obstacle we have
to encoun(er In (he effort to secure a proper
regulation of the Immigration to these shores
arises from the determined opposition of th
foreign steamship lines who have no Intent
whatever In the matter save to Increase tho
returns on their capital by carrying musses of
Immigrants hither In the steerage quarter, ot
The questions arising In connection with
Chlneno Immigration stand by themselves. The
conditions In cnina ar. sucn mat ma enuro
Chinese coolie class, (hat Is, th. class of
Chinese laborers, skilled and unskilled, le
gitimately com. under the head of undesir
able Immigrant, to this country, because of
their numbers, the low wages for which they
work and their low utandard of living. Not
only Is It to the Interest of (hla counlry to
keep them out, but the Chinese authorities do
not dealre that they .hould be admitted. At
present their entrance I. prohibited by law.
amply adequate to accomplish thl. purpose.
These law. hav. been, ar being and will b.
thoroughly nforcd. Th violation, of (hem
ar o fw In number aa to b. Infinitesimal
! and caa b tatlrtly dutregard.d, Tbtr la bo
s.rfou. proposal te alter th Immigration law
a. regard, th Chine., laborer, .killed or
unskilled, and there 1. no excuse for any
man feeling or affecting to feel tb. .'lightest
alarm on tb. .object.
llut in th. effort to carry out tha poller of
excluding Chinese laborers, Chine, coolie.,
grav. Injustice and wrong hav. been done by
thl. Nation to th. people of China, and there
fore ultimately to this Nation Itself. Chin
students, business and professional men of all
kinds not only merchants, but bankers, doc
tors, manufacturers, profesnors, traveler, and
tha like ahould be encouraged to coma her
and treated on precisely the same footing that
wa treat students, business men. traveler, and
the Ilka of other nations. Our law and
treaties should be framed, not so tut to out
them people In tha excepted classes, but to
state that wa will admit all Chinese, exceot
Chinese of the coolta class. Chinas skilled
or unskilled laborers. There would not ba
the least danger that any such provision would
result In any relaxadon of (he law about
laborers. These will, under all conditions, be,
kept out absolutely, But It will be more eaery
to sea that both Justice and courtesy are
shown, a. they ought to- be shown, to other
Chinees,. If th. law or treaty I framed as
above suggested. Examinations should b
completed at th. port of departur. from
China. For thl. purpose there should be pro
vided a mora adequate Cormular service In
China than w. now have. The appropriations,
both for (he offices of the Consuls and for
the office forces In ths Consulates, should be
Thla Oovernment has the friendliest feeling
for China and desires China's well-being. W
cordially sympathize with the announced pur
pose of Japan to stand for the Integrity of
China. Such an attitude tend to tb peace
of th world".
The Ctvll Service. ,
The civil service law has been on the statute
books for 22 years. Every President and a
vast majority of heads of departments who
have been In office during that period hav fa
vored a gradual extension of the merit nys
tem. The more thoroughly Its principles hava
been understood tha greater has been the fa
vor with which the law has been regarded by
administrative officers. Any attempt to carry
on the great executive departments of the
Government without this law would inevitably
result In chaos. The Civil Service Commit
ilonens are doing excellent work, and their
compensations 1a Inadequate considering the
servlc. they perform.
Adulteration of Foods.
I recommend that a law be enacted to
regulate Interstate commerce In mlsbranded
and adulterated foods, drinks and drugs.
Such law would protect legitimate manufac
ture and commerce, and would tend to se
cure the health and welfare of the consum
ing public. Traffic In foodstuffs which have
been debased or adulterated so as to injure
health or to deceive purchasers should be
L call your attention to the generous act
of tha State of California In conferring
upon the United States Government the own
ership of the Ycaemlte Valley and the Mari
posa Big Tree Grove. Thero should be no
delay In accepting the gift, and appropria
tions should be made for the Including
thereof In the Tosemlte National Park, and
for the care and pollcelng of the park. Cali
fornia has acted moil wisely as well as
with great magnanimity In the matter.
There are certain mighty natural features
of our land which should be preserved In
perpetuity for our children and our chil
dren's children. In my Judgment the Grand
Canyon of the Colorado should be made Into
a National park. It Is greatly to be wished
that the State of New York should copy as
regards Niagara what the State ot California
has done as regards the Yosemlte. Noth
ing should be allowed to Interfere with the
preservation of Niagara Falls In all their
beauty and majesty. If the state cannot see
to this then It Is earnestly to be wished that
she should be willing to turn It over to the
National Government, which should In such
case (If possible. In conjunction with th-
Canadian government) assume the burden
and responsibility of preserving unharmed
Niagara Falls; Just as It should gladly as
sume a similar burden and responsibility
for the Tosemlte National Park, and as It
has already assumed them for the Yellow
stone National Park. Adequate provision
should be made by the Congress for the
proper care and supervision of . all these
National parks. The boundaries ot the Yel
lowstone National Park should be extended
to the south and east to take In such por
tions of (he abutting forest reservation as
will enable the Government to protect the
elk on their Winter range.
I call your especial attention to the de
sirability of giving to the members of the
Life-Saving Service pensions such as are
given to firemen and policemen In all our
great cities. The men In the Life-Saving
Service continually and In the most matter
of fact way do deeds such as make Amer
icans proud of their country. They have no
political Influence: and they live In such re
mote places that tha really heroic services
they continually render receive the scantiest
recognition from the public. It Is unjust for
a great nation like this to permit these
men to become totally disabled or to meet
death In the performance of their hazardous
duty and yet to give them no sort of re
ward. If one of them serves 30 years of his
Ufa In such a position he should surely be
entitled to retire on half pay, as a fireman
or policeman does, and If he becomes totally
Incapacitated through accident or sickness
or loses his health In the discharge of his
duty he or his family should receive a pen
sion Just as any soldier should. I call your
attention with especial earnestness to this
matter because It appeals not only to our
Judgment but to our sympathy; for the
people on whos behalf I ask It are compara
tively few In number, render Incalculable
service of a particularly dangerous kind, and
hava no one to speak for them.
During the year Just past, the phase ot the
Indian question which has been most sharply
brought to public attention Is the larger
legal significance of the Indian's Introduction
Into citizenship. This has made itself mani
fest not only in a great access ot litigation
In which the citizen Indian figures as a party
defendant and In a more widespread dispo
sition to levy local taxation upon his per
sonalty, but In a decision ot the United
States Supreme Court which struck away
the main prop on which has hitherto rested
the Government's benevolent effort to pro
tect him against the evils of Intemperance.
The court holds, in effect, that when an
Indian becomes, by virtue of an allotment of
land to him, a citizen of the state In which
his land Is situated, he passes from under
Federal control In such matters as this, and
the acts ot the Congress prohibiting the sale"
or gift to him of Intoxicants become sub
stantially Inoperative, It Is gratifying to
note that the states and municipalities of
the West which have most at stake In the
welfare of the Indians are taking up this
subject and are trying to supply. In a meas
ure at least, the abdication of Its trusteeship
forced upon the Federal Government Never
theless, I would urgently press upon the at
tention of the Congress the question whether
some amendment ot the Internal revenue
laws might not be of aid In prosecuting
those malefactors, known In the Indian coun
try as "bootleggers," who are engaged at
once In defrauding the Untied States Treas
ury of taxes and, what Is far more Impor
tant, In debauching th. Indians by carrying
liquors illicitly Into territory still completely
under Federal Jurisdiction.
During the last year the Philippine Islands
have been slowly recovering from the series
of dimeters which, since American occupa
tion, have greatly reduced the amount of ag
rtcultural products below what was produced
In Spanish times. The war, the rinderpest, tho
locusts, the drought and the cholera have been
united aa causes to prevent a return ot the
prosperity much needed In tho Islands. The
most serious la (he destruction by the rinder
pest, of more than T5 per cent of the draft
cattle, because It will take several years of
breeding to restore the necessary number of
these Indispensable aids (o agriculture. The
Commission attempted to supply by purchaso
from adjoining countries (he needed cattle,
but (he experiments made were unsuccessful.
Most ot the cattle Imported were unable to
withstand the change of climate and the rig
or ot the voyage and died from other dis
eases than rlnderuest.
lteiluctlou of Tariff Needed.
The agricultural conditions of the Islands
enforce more strongly than over the argument
. . .. 1 .... I .1.. . .. . M .
in mvur (U iruutini .no mini uii .ua -jivu
ucts of the Philippine Islands entering (ha
United States, I earnestly recommend that
upon the products of (he Philippine Islands ba
entirely removed, except the tariff on sugar
and (obacco, and (hat that tariff be reduced
to 25 per cent ot tha present rates under tha
Dlngley act; that after July 1, 1000, the
tariff upon tobacco and nugar produced In the
Philippine Islands be entirely removed and
that tree trade between the Islands and the
United States In the products of each country
then be provided for by law.
In my judgment Immediate steps should be
taken for th fortification of Hawaii. This
Is th. most Important point In th. Paclflo lo
fortify In order (o conserve th. Interests of
this country. It would be hard to overstate
(h. Importance ot thl. need. Hawaii I. too
heavily taxd. Law. .hould b. enaoted let.
(lag aside for a period of, say, 30 year. 18
per cent of th. Internal revenue and costofflsr
receipt, from Hawaii as a special fund to to
expended In th. Islands for educational and
publlo buildings, and for harbor Improve
ment and military and naval defenses. It
cannot be too often repeated that our aim
most be to develop the Territory of Hawaii
on traditional American lines. That territory
has serious commercial and Industrial prob
lems to reckon with; but no measure of relief
can be considered which looks to legislation
admitting Chinese and restricting them by
statute to Held labor and domestla servlc.
The status of servility can never again b.
tolerated on American soil. We cannot con
cede that the proper solution of tt. problems
Is special legislation admitting to Hawaii a,
class of laborers denied admlmlon to tha other
states and territories. There are obstacles,
and great obstacles. In tha way of building
tha tariff now Imposed by the Dlngley bill
up s representative American community In
the Hawaiian Islands; but It Is not In the
American character to give up In the face ot
difficulty. Many an American commonwealth
has been built up against odd. equal to those
that now conf.-ont Hawaii.
I earnestly advocate the adoption of leg
islation which will explicitly confer Ameri
can citizenship on all citizens of Porto Itlco.
There Is, In my Judgment, no excuse for
failure to do this. The harbor of San Juan
hould be dredged and Improved, The ex
pentes of the Federal Court of Porto Itlco
hould be met from the Federal Treasury,
and not from the Porto RIcan treasury. Ths
elections In Porto Tllco should take place
every four years, and the Legislature should
meet In session every two years. The pres
ent form of government In Porto Itlco, which
provides for the appointment by tha Presi
dent of the members of the executive coun
cil or upper House ot the Legislature, has
proved satisfactory and has Inspired confi
dence In property-owners and Investors. I
do not deem It advisable at the present time
to change this form In any material feature.
The problems and needs of the Island are
Industrial and commercial rather than po
I earnestly ask that Alaska be given aa
elective delegate. Some person should be
chosen who can speak with authority of the
needs of the territory. The Government
should aid In the construction ot a railroad
from the Gulf of Alaska to the Yukon Illver,
In American territory. In my last two
messages I advocated certain additional ac
tion on behalf of Alaska. I shall not now
repeat those recommendations, but I shall
lay all my stress upon the one recommen
dation of giving to Alaska some ono au
thorized to speak tor It. I should prefer that
the delegate was made elective, but If this
Is not deemed wise then make him ap
pointive. At any rate, give Alaska some
person whose business It shall be to speak
with authority on her behalf to the Con
gress. The natural resources ot Alaska are
great. Some of the chief needs of the pecul
iarly energetic, self-reliant, and typically
American white population of Alaska Avere
set forth In my last message. I also ear
nestly ask your attention to the needs of the
Alatkan Indians. All Indians who are com
petent should receive the full right, of
American citizenship. It Is, for instance, a
gross and Indefensible wrong to deny to such
uara-working, decent-living Indians as the
Metlakahtlas the right to obtain licenses as
captains, pilots and engineers, the right to
enter mining claims, and to profit by the
homestead law. These particular Indians
are civilized, and are competent and en
titled to be put on the same basis with th
white men round about them.
Admission to Statehood.
I recommend that Indian Territory and
Oklahoma be admitted as one state and that
New Mexico and Arizona be admitted as one
state. There is no obligation upon us to
treat territorial subdivisions, which are mat
ters of convenience only, as binding us on
the question of admission to statehood.
Nothing has taken up more time In the
Congress during the past tew years than tha
question as to the statehood to be granted
to the four territories above mentioned, and
after careful consideration of all that has
oecr. developed In the discussions of tha
question I recommend that they be Imme
diately admitted as two states. There Is no
Justification for further delay: and -the ad
visability of making the four territories Into
two states has been clearly established.
The Panama Canal,
The treaty between the United States and
the Republic of Panama, under which the
construction of the Panama Canal was mad
possible, went Into effect with Its ratification
by the United Btates Senate on February 23,
1004. The canal properties of the French
Canal Company were transferred to the
United States on April 23. 1001, on payment
ot 140,000,000 to that company. On April 1,
1005, the Commission was reorganized, and
It now consists of Theodore P. Shonts.
chairman; Charles E. Magoon, Benjamin M.
Harrod, Rear-Admiral Mordecal T. Endlcott.
Brigadier-General Peter C. Halns, and Colo
nel Oswald H. Ernst. John F. Stevens waa
appointed chief engineer on July 1 last.
Active work In canal construction, mainly
preparatory, has been In progress for lesa
than a year and a half. During that period
two points about the canal have ceased to
be open (o debate. First, the question of
route; the canal will be built on the Isthmus
of Panama. Second, the question of feasi
bility; there are no physical obstacles on this
route that American engineering skill will
not be able to overcome without serious dif
ficulty, or that will prevent the completion
of the canal within a reasonable 'time and
at a reasonable cost. This Is virtually the
unanimous testimony of the engineers who
have Investigated the matter for the Gov
ernment, Necessity of Dispatch.
The point which remains unsettled Is tha
question of type, whether the canal sha be
one of several locks above sea-level, or at
sea-level with a single tide lock. On thla
point I hope to lay before tha Congress at
an early day the findings of the advisory
beerd of American and European engineers,
that at my Invitation have been considering
the subject, together with the report of th
Commission thereon: and such comments
thereon or recommendations In reference
thereto as may seem necessary.
The American people Is pledged to tha
speediest possible construction ot a canal
adequate to meet the demands which the
commerce of the world will make upon It.
and I appeal moat earnestly to the Congress
(o aid In (he fulfillment of the pledge, a rat
ifying progress has been made during the
past year and especially during the past four
months. The greater part of th necessary
preliminary wurk has been done. Actual
work of excav.u'or could be begun only on
a limited irab- till the Canal Zone wa.
made a healthful place to live In and to
work In. Tho Isthmus had to be sanitated
first. Thlj task has been so thoroughly
accomplished that yellow fever haa been
virtually extirpated from the Isthmus and
general hfsHh conditions vastly Improved.
The same methods .which converted (he
Island ot "uba from a pest hole, which men.
aced the health if the world, into a health,
ful place of abode, have been applied on tha
Isthmus with rntlitactory results. There 1.
no reason to doubt that when the plans tor
water supply, paving, and sewerage of Pan
ama n& Colcn and tha large labor camps
have been fully iarrled out, the Isthmus will
be, for the Tropics,, an unusually healthy
place ot abode. The work la so far ad
vanced now that the health ot all those em
ployed In canal work la as well guarded aa
It Is on similar work In this country and
What Is needed now and without delay Is
an appropriation by the Congress to meet
the current and accruing expenses of ths
Comvilsslon. The first appropriation of $10,
000,000, qut of the $133,000,000 authorized
by the Spooner act, was made three years
ago. It Is nearly exhausted. There Is bare,
ly enough of It remaining to carry the
Commission to the end of the year. Unless
the Congress shall appropriate before that
time all work must cease. To arrest prog
ress for any length ot time now, when mat
ters are advancing so satisfactorily, would
be deplorable. There will be no money with
which to meet pay-roll obligation! and none
with which to meet bills coming dqa for
materials and supplies; and there wMl b
demoralization of the forces, here and on
the isthmus, now working so harmoniously
and effectively, tt there Is delay In granting
an emergency appropriation. Estimates of
the amount necessary will be found In th
accompanying reports ot the Secretary ot
War and the Commission,
The Department of State.
I recommend more adequate provision than
has been made heretofore for ths work of ths
Department of State, Within a tew years
there has been a very great Increase In th.
amount and Importance of the work to b.
done by that department, both In Washing,
ton and abroad. This has been caused by
the great Increase of our foreign trade, the In.
crease ot wealth among our people, which en.
ablea them to travel mors generally than
heretofore, the Incrjasa of American capital
which Is seeking Investment In foreign ooun
tries, and tho growth of our power and
weight In tho councils of the civilised world.
There has been no corresponding Increase ot
facilities for doing the work afforded to th.
department having charge of our foreign re
Th Whit. House. Deo. 0. 1806.