The new Northwest. (Portland, Or.) 1871-1887, December 22, 1881, Page 5, Image 5

Below is the OCR text representation for this newspapers page. It is also available as plain text as well as XML.

- . , , " ' 't- - . .. . " , ... ; . . ' -
' ..j.
lntrtlce with evergreen groves The snowfall is
comparatively light because of the humid charao-
ter of Western Oregon, whose mountains con
dense the heavier cloud that rim; from the sua on
th western slope, between the (Toast and Cascade
range', where they usually fall In the- form of
rain.!,' let snow-storm sometimes occur, ana it is
necessary for the frugal husbandman tofpnrvide
for his, flocks ami nerd during several - months in
. the vekr if he would be both humane and prosper
ous. There are many open Wlntera, wherein stock
will have little need of other food than the graz
lng land afford ; but straw- ricks and 'haystacks
will keep for years in this" climate, and uo man
needs' to ta without necessary food for bands of
'stock, however large,- if he Is at all vigilant.
Let our immigrant now return to The Dalles
and 7 - V - ' vV;;.-
A hundred and twenty miles to the north and east
- ward, over an Immense area of diversified uplands,
" all confined within tin) geographical boundaries of
v Wasco county. The character of the country here
via' much like that of Lake county; In Southern
Oregon, except the difference in climate, which Is
, much less rigorous In the Winter. In ' Wasco,
Sometimes for two months of Winter there Is no
snow at all. out at otner times the rail ranges from
- two to eight Inches In depth. This, however. Is
"uually short duration, for the "Chinook,'.! or
.warm uinweia witia rrom me eaioaru, meitH
It ufa uaahv ma erf o v tt gn iurt litn ufniuiti
where It frequently lies all Winter. This part oi
-the -country abounds In extensive table land,.
bordered by tfalls of "rlm rock.'on -which the,
stock cannot graze in hummer because of the ab-
sense of running water. Here the native bunch
grass grows in undisturbed luxuriance during the
Hummer mouths, and forms a. reliable Winter
rauge,when water is plenty because of the melt
lug snow. This range Is The Siokan Hlver comes thunder
fltdfsturbe4-oT-delroyed tn-lta-growing sea- Ing down, through ihtTYa
rumbling onA awakening. eehoea that reverberate
every where, - -
'Is a border town, named from the falls of the river
ron whose banks It sits, and J, one of the pleasant-
est locations for a city that we have yet visited.
1?!V- l,e landscapes areoiien peojniruiiy diver
" sified by groves of juniper trees, so reirularlv scat
w tered over the plains and hillsides that they have
the effect' of cultivated orchards." TheseJgroves
' fornl admirable shelter for stock, serving as a pro
leciion iron Biuriiia 111 m imcr aim suimiiiiie in
every direction from the cafiohs
all -of "which" are weII7"wateredr
abounding'!!) game, and are exceedingly fertile.
This part of the country is greatly in need of rail
Lead out In
and -uplands,
In any honorable occupation without the exercise
of economy, enterprise and, application had better
remain wherever accident has" placed him, for he
will surely be disappointed, let him go where he
may. ..i-.. ' ' -
j Our Immigrant, If fond of the strain:
a ud beautiful in nature, will have been so com-J
pletely enraptured a thousand times during these
wanderings "by the diversity and grandeur of -the
scenery that he has fancied himself surfeited with
magnificence. U tit the gorge of thetlreat les-f
s . ' m a a i ji mw & - I
cnuies win aiioni nim so many uinereni, new
and startling views of nature's wildest freaks that
he will forget that he has been fight-seeing on a
- grand scale lor a fortnight, aiuJ will stand awe
struck and reverent at the feet of the mighty col-
' onnades of octagonal rocks that In some great con
vulsion or by-gone eras were aeosiieu here, as lr
some lesser world tiad fallen In ruin Uioii Che
earth and wounded it nearly unto death with mis
siles of destruction.
We must now retrace our steps to The Dulles,
and crossing the Columbia Hlver, make our way
northward by stage through the counties of Klick
itat and Yakima In Washington Territory.
Kvery where, as We Journey on anil on, the eye le
' holds the same Illimitable,-undulating expansion
of area that has characterized these entire journey
ings. Everything we behold is on the broadest
scale. Middle ..Washington, like Middle Oregon,
is a vast and comparatively treeless upland,
abounding In auerior grazing and grain facilities,
and offering virgin homes by thousands to those
..who will come and possess them, Her mountain
ranges, like all the others, abound In the tallest
-and fittest timber, ettmpr Mug fir, hemlockf sprocert
piue;ceuar, taraarac, alder, oak ana ash, the ever
green varieties predominating.
Looks like a desert in places, lut yields to culti
vation everywhere like an oasis. The Interstice
in the rocks are rich in vegetable mouldy and the
very sands are -replete with fertility, as anyone
can test to his satisfaction who will trust them I
with orchanls or vlneyanlLwitha3opdresslng
of straw to retalhlhe condensing moisture of the
earth and atmosphere till they shall have taken'
root, after which they will form their own pro
tection with their own redundant foliage. As-
cendlng to the highlands of Klickitat, our Imml-
Jrraut will find himself upon an extensive undu-atlng-plateau-of
alluvial soil,-marvelonsljrpn-ductlve,
and so free from malaria as to have al
ready become a famous resort for persons a filleted
with bilious diseases; while It Is declared second
to no place on the earth a an asylum for victims
of pulmonary disorders..
Is divided from the Klickitat by the Hlmeoe
lXountansL high, grassy and densely wooded
range.'uow almost uninhabited, and abounding In
derel at their feet by fringes of deciduous under-
growin. mis valley, like all the rest easrof lhe
Cascade and west of the Uocky MountaluV Is
mouniain-waiietl, with here and there acpnspicu
ous gap to let the rivers through. It abounds also
in the same diversified rharacterintlcs as the
others. It has the severe. winds of Snrlnirtlme
the warm days and plea-ant nightjt pLBunime
the dreaded snowidorm, and the longed-for "Chi
nook", of Winter: the same braciiiz air. the
same wohdrous, ferti lit v. and the same nronortion
of unclaimed lands awaiting the occupancy of the
tvlk...... II.. . . A 1
pKMit-rr. us nurrwunuiiig moiniaius are cverei
with timber, are rich in miuefalsr and dazzlingly
beautiful.- A natural oiemiig through these
niountal os. o gradual In its ascent from the lua
or the valley that the sensation of climbing is
oareiy perceptible, IeaU out to the great uper
uasin caiieti the bend or the Columbia Klver. and
to the head of navigation, through' a country as
broad Jn area and as fertile In resou rces as any of
the rest. We will cross. thla Jmmense basin of
what was once an Inter-ocean above the lildden
bed of the river, burls now the Hummer home of
the cattle from a thousand hills, and traveling In
southeasterly direction, will Intersect the
At Ilitzville, where we. can take passage for the"
Hpokan aid Pn d'Orei He countries." Here again we
are in a maze nf tMiwllderin31,HtRnc'llCiPi'
Is palnetl and the brow oppressed with the lllimita
hie vastness of area that stretches out unon every
hand, bounded by the blue horizon, the great
round gTole conveying an accurate Idea of its
spherical shape to the sense ofCisiou as we gaze.
and imprinting It there as a lasting memory. The
railroad runs for miles through alternate sage and
bunch-grass lauds, and In the neighborhood of
Cheney encounters open groves of .piue timber,
bordered by grandly pictiireiie and mountain
(m, ,i iiT.Vwili.irii.i.Mi,vw1-J and hsve teen
" . . . ' n . . ' I tiaklakrsfAMff Wtm liimikttsi i twaaiAiifaA tliAV mum amall
iflf Mffi f la t f M I - w l'P lUIIIV i s-sfj j w v spisssasa
enough for men to manage, the larger ones havlug
Tlie river rises in tlieCourd'Alene Mountains and
courses down ranidlv throuch a brad nralrie
lrough7In"a sink in the plain so far below the level
that at a littie distant its course would be hlttden J
If it were not for the tall pine trees that lift their
heads above the edges of the natural wall, as If
i-oattTacimtevanirwiir-aoTroneHHNBvenem in waicningroreXeciei roes, me ueauiy oi ignore,
very few years, immigrants. otmoierate means
and large families would do well to possess them
selves of these lands while they can (tehad for the
homesteading. -TJie climate is milder than the
North Palouse and the natural farming facilities
are equally as good, A railroad will bring every
virgin acre up to sio, 5 , and even l(Ki, when
the advantages of the county are known.
. Occasionalh' tersous come to the Pacific Xoj-th-
-west ahd go away unsatisfied. Those who come
with the unreasonable anticipation that they will
find a sort of Happy Valley, ready made, with all
the modern conveniences, are doomed to disap
iK!ntment. The country IsTfere, and the virgin
jtoil, and choice In nifmii. lnMtlfwi.yj-yi fHt, w n'"lll,u "
ttccupatlon ailRe await the inteuigeiji immigrant.
But there Is no royal road to success in any
country; and the person who expects to prosper
the pesy of Minnehaha and the majesty of Nlag
ara are mingled In the falls of the Siwkan, as,
breaking abruptly away from the level upland,
thev. bound forward Over a steen Incline and are
dividett Into several distinct cataracts by prom
ontories of basaltio rock around which the suds-
white waters rush with busy pertinacity, their
seed augmented by the Impulse of -the near-by
mountains tliut Is still strong within them as they
surge, swell, rush, roar, sing, leap, dance, and do
everything else but tarry, In their Wild endeavor
to meet the waters of the Columbia and move on
with them toward the distant ocean.-. Klectrlcity
may supersede the waterfalls of the Pacific North- used .furever for grazing purposes, product ng-the
. a . a is. a ... a. 9m a -- a
.Ujyitf -Uit'iiLJinii-iwtBU'iii. imncr miuwh- hi-tij-unriri.
serve this sublimestxrf nature's beauties from the
rapacity of human enterprise, or retain its pris
tine glory in unobstructed granueurror tne visual
delectation of multitudes unborn. Our eyes feast
ed, but by no means satedwith thks4'thlng of
beauty," that ought to remain as it now is. a
"iov forever." we sten with our InVhiltrrant Into a
dally carry-all, bound for-
awaits us ill the fohu 1f a' miniature .Deal Hea,;
whose waters trassesa incredible mellclnal power,
and whose sloping shores are covered with ever-
jrreert trees to their very edges. This lake has
neither outlet nor miei, ami is in. every way a
curiosity whose eccentricities are yet-4o be satis
factorily accounted for by scientists. It Is one of
a chain of four or five contiguous but disconnected
lakes, each differing from all the others In the
quality of Its watersLSoine of Jheiii-being sweet
and leaf as crystal, and others brackish and un
palatable. - ,
Our Immigrant learns that homes for the home
less are yet to be had for the preempting In places
all over this broad domain: but be is not yet pre
pared to make a selection : for he has heard much
of Puget Sound and the great coast region of both
Oregon and Washington, which he is next dis
posed to visit. :.'''"
lly rail ami steamer, where, in order to see still
more of this great Uper C-ountry than we have
yet" visited, we take the stage for The Dalles, via
Heppner, through the broad grain belt of Uma-.
tilla and Wasco counties bordering on the Colum
bia Hlver, our route crossing some of the finest
wheat and dairy farms la the world, with plenty
more Just like mem to be nai tor me noniesieai
Inir. Reach Ins The Dalles, we embark again In a'
Ealailal river teamer,-anililescendlng the Colum
la t6 the confluence of the Willamette, wedouble
the -Peninsular and land at Portland at 4 o'clock
l'MIer-iifatakaateajneetha. next nioruiug
our destination Kalama, the tefore mentioned
lantern terminus of tlie Pacific Division of the N.
P. It. It, s city of dead expectations, which was
ouce Intended to rival Portland, but la now a way
station and nothing more. Here we are trans
ferred to the railroad, and after a ride of 1(4 miles
over as good a roaa-bed an any in me m or
West, we are landed at.
tied to Its venrJP
TaTnsfe. ah J mm o do w n a steen. aidelonff and seem-
lRly perilous descent, reaches a broad, level plain
through which the Yakima Klver runs, Its course
marked by solid ranks of stately evergreens, bor-
A busy-town, with good prospects for further pros
perityT cmnaudlnga.ilne view of the Hound and
atljacent country. Hut our Immigrant Is not look
ing ior vowns mau can ,Je,J"JHzfj5JlJ
lie chooses o he climbs the almost perpendicular
bluff's and gazes in silent wonder upon the heav
ing waters and tree-robed walls surrounding Ta
coma, and reverently exclaims, "The half has not
been told V X .
'Walt till you've seen something worth brag
ging about,' says a fellow-traveler in exultant
tones. "Let's go up to the railroal office and take
a look at the maps. You get only a limited View
Our immigrant does as he is bidden, and learns.
thepaclflo has a shorejlne. of and-Lcktdwatert
of at least two thousand miles in extent, whose
Islands, peninsulas, soussia, bays, and inlets form
a labyrinthine maze of intricate meanderlngs of a
magnitude to which ' the Urecian, Archipelago
: - V- V'-'
forma no parallel. Navigation Is nowhere lm-
ieled In this great luland ocean. Any shin that
sails" the Atlantic or Pacific can sail In or out of
the Strait of Fuca and traverse Its entire length
in au weathers without a pilot. Wherever there
is water, the channel is good. There are no shoals
or sunken rocks, no dangerous reefs, and uo point
wueresuip-may not ssii yue In fKrtr provmetl
me soundings are not. too deep for anchorage,
Which at many places Is an Inconvenience.
Which forms an arm to tlie elU)W mado by 'tlie
Strait of t Fuca, sjUJheJbefore-meutioned town of
Tacoma, where sea-going vessels of all classes cau
safely come and stay, or go, the only difficulty"
here, as elsewherer-belng the depth of "the water.
which" precludes anchorage except at uncomfort
able distances from the shore line. J."
" Numerous streams of Inconsiderable magnitude
flow Into the Sound from ditterentdirectiona, their
course marked by dense forests, and. the' bottom
Jandott4helr borders being-wonderfully fertile
Hops, potatoes and butter are the principal
products, the yield . in all cases-lelng enormous.
White Hiyer, a stream 4?f some lniHrtance, runs
norm and empties into Seattle' llayt draining In
Its' course a large area of good agricultural lauds,
already occupied by farmers. , ...
Is a beautifully located city of several thousand
inhabitants, and the seat of much business and
general enterprise, Kxtenslve coal fields alnVund
In her vicinity, and her, lumbering interests are
unrivaled. Our Immigrant; who admired what
bethought was tall timber in the Willamette Val
ley, Is awed Into silence when he sees the saw-logs
at Seattle and Port (lamble and learns that these
sections of fallen giants, averaging from Ave to
eleven feet in diameter, stood from Ji'sXto--850 feeir
thus far baffled their skill In handling.
The available lands immediately contiguous to
the Sound are mainly claimed by el tiers, almost
any one or whom (like all f huAnhabltants of uew
countries) will sell - out his Improvement for
OTaclr1tWthan tlielr cost andstart out again In
search or new fields to conquer. - Itut there Is a
yastjireftof tide land lnthe region kn'own as the
Convenient to navigation, and comprising from
50mtoJkMX)Q acrmj)fwhlch-jore tttan-one-half
Is yet subject to settlement.. TbeJSkaglt Itlver
,' . ' , , , . .i-.t . ,.i
i!r -!J? ' secondarily, a large upjer qeua oi
exceedingly valuable virgin soil, by. the aid of
long, winding tributaries, bonlereI 'by lHttoin
lauds, heavily covered with growths of alder and
vine maple, that when cleared are prodigiously
productive. "The greatest beauty of Puget Sound
Is Its Islands, that rise bold, high and heavily
wooded from the crystal waters, some of them too
heavily Umbered to admit the plow until stripped
or their rorest treasures to supply the demands of
the great saw-mills, after which they are suscept
ible of a high state of cultivation ; or they may tie
Orazlng, market gardening, fruit growing and
dairying will be the great Industries of the coming
years, while hayy oatsKnd hojs will be staple'
productions as long, as beast, or nian shall live to
consume them.
That his eyes ache, and his understanding is
tuxed to the uttermost to comprehend the magnl-
tutle, majesty aiullHlyofwatielliMJMCnn
His appreciation of infinitude haa been indefl
nitely expanded. His heart Is awed within him
as he .views the silent majesty of Mount. Italitler,
the hoary tangled head of Mount Ilaker, and the
long line of snow-tipped lesser heights of the
Cascade range that form the backbone of the Pa
cific division of the great Northwest. Below the
snow line a" dense-growth of evergreen "timber
marshals Its regular hosts, and. as In phalanx
after phalanx they regularly climb the serrated
teeat it is not dllllcult ta imagine them endowed
with: human sentience under the command of
mlirhtv. leaders, so assiduously do they seem to
obey the mandatory behests of the hoary-beaded
monarchs or the mountains,- who watcit the
1ageant in haughty silence from afar. Itut he
las yet to behold other sights, and we lure him
away from the contemplation of these, sublime
surroundings, and returning by steamer to;Ta
coma, proceed thence to ' (
A pretty town at the head of Puget Sound, where
we spend a day .or-two among the solons of the
legislature, and learn that every Interest and In
dustry of this great State of the future Is being
discussed by. representatives from the widely sep
arated and remarkably different parts of the Terri
tory, the legislation embracing lumbering Inter
ests, stock-raising, grain-growing, dyking, drain
Ing, Irrigating and mining. A member from the
Sound advorAtes'clearlng off the forests in his
km-t Ion of the country, and a member from the
buneli-grass-plains wants great groves planted
In the treeless uplands of another DarL Ous
seeks alaw for protecting fish in one section, and
another wants a game law for his county.- (Jold,
silver, iron and coal come In for their share of
public consideration. Wool-growing eialms-the
attention of one section, cattle one, and horses
one ; and so the work of legislating goes on, until
our immigrant rightly concludes that there Is
ample sco for everybody's talents and all peo
ple s Industries In the Pacific Northwest, as well
as ample room for the teeming millions of the fu
ture who are destined to Ond homes within her
borders. Hut he has yet to see much of Washing
ton Territory, and we return to Kalama, and era
barking in one of the fine river, steamers belong
ing to the Qlt A-NCoC tliat make laliy trlta
down the Columbia, steam away to Astoria, aud
from thence in one of the little packets that regu
larly cross the river to Knappton and Ilwaco. and
heallngfor Itaker's Hay, land once more within
ler borders. Here we take stair for a trio
across the neck of Cape Hancock, our way leading
for three miles through a dense forest of spruce
and hemlock," when we reach thabrow of the last
bill and meet face to face with the (
nni i iKfi aiTap ns- the nmv nrn,
VIeague-long rollers" of-, the ocean, guarded by
Jutting promontories, clothed In peretual green,
with gray rocks protruding here and there; ami
on the other is a long, narrow stretch of sand-girt
upland.-sklrtcd by silent colonnades of trees,
whose feet are laved by fresh-water lakes, abound
ing In. fish and game. A ride of sixteen miles''
hringarits to the-neclrcT'Iieadbetter Point; a long
rolling sand spit, commanding the southern en
trance to Shoal water Hay.' We turn to the right,
a ml. crossing the spit, nnd ourselves at Oyster
vllle, the county seat of laclflc county, once the
scat of a thriving oyster trade, that Is destined to
Ins renewed in the near future by care and cultivation,-
. - 1 -
Is a broad, magnificent sheet of water at h lglji tide',
and forms a great mud flat when tides are out,. ,
through the center of which a channel runs that
Is uaYlgaiJle for steamers of light draft to the
mouth of the Willapa, a large river affected by
the tides to the head of navigation, and draining
with Its tributaries an immense wooded bottom
and tide-land district, In size, products and char
acter much resembling Jhe delta of the Skagit on
Puget Sound. ,To the north of Shoalwater Hay Is
11 ray 'a Harbor, another great Inlet fed by, numer
ous tributaries, and surrounded., like all the waters
of-lhe "Pacific Northw'eRt,'lth"denseJ primeval 1
forests."-; Settlers on any of these bays, Inlets, or
water courses of whatever description,"' may rely
iion sure returns for their toll. They can reach
a convenient market by literally "paddling their
nwn iinnM. anil nn mxillv nltali nml nFlm.
for all tl? products or labor, whether of the gun,
nsning tackle, garden, orchard, chicken-yanl or
dairy. The.cllmate Is humid, and the seasons are
kuown as the wet and the dry; though there Is
more frosty weather and a somewhat heavier
snow-fall than In regions of like longitude farther
South. C f
Our immigrant will now return to Oystervllle,
and taking passage in a semi-weekly steamer, will
float through the-channel-f Shoalwater Hay on
high tide, and travel southward by way of the
Pacific Ocean to the Columbia Har, which lie may
once more cross In safety, and returning to Port
laud, may take a seat in a west-side iwssenirer
eoeiof t h YHb i." 1 trlfc1 tVa-1irfe7nd "proceet
py ran mrougn me counties oi Washington, Vam-
hlllr Polk and llcnton III Oregon, and out ftast
Junctloin City to Drain's Station, where he will
t a i stage that will cenvey him through the
and down the Coijuille Hlver
Coast "Mountain
to the
Where he will find still another extensive salt
water Inlet, much the same In character as that
last" visited, (lardiner, Marsfi field ami Empire
City already form the seat of a heavy coal, fish
and lumtier trade. .The outlook for the farmer Is
the same here as on the Sound; the general out
lines of the country are much the same, and there"
Is a striking-similarity between the tastes, habits
and, provincialisms of the country people.-JrTh ,
same general description of the coast will also ap
ply to Yaqulna and Tillamook Ilaya-and their nu
merous tributaries: and our Immlgranteturns to
Portland to meet his family and sum tin the re-
ault of hit tour of thvestigation, ready jo cast his
Jot among our people permanently and Invest at
once In the line-of business to which he Is best
adapted. ; , ;.0m' -
Ample room In the Pacific Northwest for all his
friends and his friends' friends. He has found a
variety 'ojfocctijiatlons awaiting them of sufficient
scope te accommodate the means and capabilities
aii kf themliliotialre and thrpTasTitrthyTnan
uracturer, 114 merchant, me. sutck-ralser, the
graln-growerihe shepherd, the horticulturist, the
miner, the navigator, the fisherman, the hunter,
the lumberman, the ftork-maker, the dairyman,
the fruit-fancier, the woodman, the brick-maker,
the house-builder, and the luarket-gardener. He
has found the" professions seemingly overstocked,'
but with plenty of room yet "at the top." He
has encountered sufficient variety of soil, scenery.
climate and resources to suit all persons of ambi
tion and Tndustry,lle4
nor pas. he been looking for celestial perfection In
mundane countries. Hut he has found health.
competence' and happiness awaiting all who will
intelligently and patiently pursue them, and we
take leave of hltfTTor the present more devoutly
thankful than ever for the lucky providence that
cast bar lot Inyouth among the Immense natural
resources of the Pacific Northwest. ArvD.
'.r' - ----- - ;- - ' ...
Washington official society Is agitated over the
fact that the new Ilrltisli minister, the Hon
Lionel Hackvllle West, who Is a bachelor, has
family of children, two of whom he wishes to live
with him, and the query ot the hour Is, "Ought
we to visit him 7" There should be tttf question
about It. He Is entitled officially to the same ,
treatment that Is due to any foreign minister;
but there should be no hesitation In refusing to
accord him the social recognition that he has for
feited by "belng-at once both a bachelor aud the
1 1 . 1 . .. . .--,-- . .
urtui ui m laiuiij," '
(lulteau has summarize! hlg op ulons. and ylcws
n regard to his trial, and sends them oat In an
nsolent aud egotistical "statement." which Is
published all over the country. It Is, a crying
shame that publicity should be given the Impu
dent vaporing of this vain wretch and wanton
The New York Tim is a representative Journal
and a desirable paper for those who wish to keep
posted In metropolitan affairs. In politics it Is
Itepublican. but Independent. Hates Dally.-
fli 00 per annum; semt-weekly, $2 M', weekly.
11 00. "
Tl4!kiUlrrti?t-Mvantm-, an Illustrated monthly. "
published by Goddard A. Co., No. 6 Houd street,
New York, at $1 a year. Is an excellent magazine
for the young. Its engravings are good, and Its
reading is fresh and pure.
A single law for the protection" of an Inherent
right Is worth more than all the chlvalrle "con
cessions" to women that have come down to
posterity from the dark ages.
Here Is the North Beach of the Pacific North-
the fiuesl natural JrTve In the world - The beach
for thirty miles up the coast Is as hard as a (all
floor, and as smooth and level 11 s flnUrlui
dancing platform, Onthe -us hand are the
Jerful preventive an! reformatory agency, and..
shwMteferttcT-COiMITfcemTed by'tn phlfan throT
plsts. . -' - -
Tlie report Is denied that Mrs. Abraham' Lin
coln has lost her eyesight. - f
f t
T "
-, v
, j
v lr
v v V:-,i-.-' Li.f niii'-aaiff