The new Northwest. (Portland, Or.) 1871-1887, December 22, 1881, Page 4, Image 4

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wrra omtrgzaor jpabqsp Jioyr
a vast corirror awaitimo imwuiirr and hkybloi-
. Had the early settlers of the North A merles n
Continent been guided by the band of destiny
round the world end over the Pacific Ocean to
the mouth of the greatRIver of tthe West; had
they discovered the American Occident Instead of
Its Orient; If, Instead of planting their footsteps
upon the Inhospitable, shores of bleak New Eng
land, or In the malarial swamps of Virginia and
.North Carolina, their first dlscoveryhad been the
nn Franciscan peninsula, and their second the Co
lumbla River, with Its balmy air and venial head
lands, Virginia would not yet be the "Mother of
Presidents," the Carollnaa would still be compara
tively unknown, and the greater part of rigorous
'New England would now be a howling wilderness,
while the Pacific Slope would be a vast succession
of cultivated parks and evv-bloomlng gardens.
But the mysterious Wisdom that moulds the des
tinies of nations had decreed thst this natural
garden of the globe, this empire of coming centu
ries, known as the Paclflc Northwest, that now
comprise the Btate of Oregon and the Territories
of- Washington, Idaho and Montana, should be
held In reserve for the occupancy of the physically-
weaker descendants of 4he hardy pioneers of past
wooded slopes, even in mid Winter, are bathed In
the baliny atmosphere of Hprlng.
Bitting like an angel of peace upon the serrated
sides of a blackened clearing, her brow in the
clouds and her feet on piles In the water, is
Astoria, a city of the future, her wharves lined
wltb-Shlpidng-and hee-wlngs-flankcd by great
canneries, from which the famous Columbia Hlver
salmon go out to the remotest markets of the
earth. Across the river, miles away, .are the fa-
mous lumber mills or Knappton, from which
dense volumes of smoke and steam are continually
rising both day and night. .- On and on the steamer
vp iui v-i uuivi. iu m iiuiiuivu iiiiilw, uty
she reacheaa peninsula, of 'wooded, undulating
Jawland,pat which the Willamette River runs,
discharging her wealth of living waters in the lap
of the great Hlver of the.West. Our steamer
turns the (tenlnsula'a poiut and plows her way up
the Willamette for a dozen miles to her Portland
dock, where she settles herself for a siesta while
her numerous attendants unload her stores and
her patMengers lose themselves In the growing
city. injH,) when the writer first saw
Til ere was Httlehere except a dense fir forest,
with here ami there a clearing yet full of black-
f ened wtumpiK Therewrre severat business houses,"
where trade was brisk, and a number of tempor
ary buildings for family dwellings, with a notice
able preponderance of boarding houses And gamb
ling dens.. :. Initial steps had been taken to estab
lish the schools and churches that have since
grown into pronnerlty and crmaneoc. There.
were no regular sidewalks or public street lampaj
and the visitor carried away vivid recollectlous of
the abounding mud. Portland has since grown
Into a city of over 20.000 Inhabitants. Is the point
where all the great .railroads of the present and
tneiuture are to meet, and her maritime interests
generatlouywho battled fearlessly with thenem""
mmm mv awa a a v w v ma v as v v w as e iu(.v a r
the morning, by pre-arrangement, at "the ticket
elements of the Kas.tern Blope and rescued civ 111
ratlon from the rude blasts and Icy clutches of
hyperborean climates.
The senior editor of this Journal proposes, In this
;rj! K ETCH""OfTH K-pACf PtC"ffftTU W EST;
To give a concise and accurate description of those
parts of thhnglrest country over whlclushe has
traveled. by stage, rail and steamer, within the
past few years, and especially of those parts thst
offer, In her opinion, the best Inducement to lm"
' migrants, whether their calling be agricultural,
-pastoral or mechanical..? These limits comprise all
the. broad geographical area reaching from the
British possessions on the north to the California
line on the south, and from the Rocky Mountains
on the east to the Pacific Ocean on the west.
Within the boundaries of this- vast area are to be
"found every variety of , sol I and climate on the
- globe,'exeept the extreme torrid. Here also may
be found the grandest scenery of the earth and the
. most varied. Homes for the million are yet to be
made within the great arid gold-bearing region
known as the Bnake Hlver basin of Idaho, where
aeml-troplcal productions of every variety flourish
with astonlshlngjuxnrlance, where rains seldom
fall, and where the desert-like lands only need irrl
ration to awaken and prolong their marvelous
frultfulnes. MonCanaTtoo, wltiriier drverslfled
xnnntr. m nii mnm nnrthnrti ltlturl. mHVirrla
. perlor facilities for settlement because of her vast
resources, which are now being brought Into no
tice by the Northern Paclflo Railroad. But It Is of
That this article would more particularly treat
Let the reader, who has not crossed the continent
(as did the writer, In 1M2,) with long lines of lazy
oxen dragging for six weary months their Inter
trainable treinsf-whlttopped. wagons over
league after league of rocky, perilous and dusty
roads, but has been whirled along over the great
plains in s few days In a palace car, now step with
' us upon the palatial ocean steamer Oregon, that
Ilea at her dock Inside the Gulden (late. The pas
sengers are all aboard, and our good ship la loosed
from, her moorings and goes bounding through the
Paclflo Ocean's deep green billows, past Point
Arenas, beyond the Farallonnea, along the billowy,
treeless coast of California, and still further north
ward, till she reaches the wooded steeps of the Ore-
Son shore and finds herself Inside the vernal bor
ers of the grest rain-girt slope between the Cae
cade Mountains and the sea. Off shore lies the
mighty ocean, as if asleep In the horizon's lap,
Its regular breathings watched over In tenderness
by the patient moon as the night advances. Off
to the landward the Coast Mountains rise in tree
- crowned beauty, guarded at the breakers' edges by
basaltlo rocks that stand as hoary sentinels at
their feet. We pass Port Orford. Cape Blanco,
the bays of Coos and Yanulna, and gate at last In
silent admiration upon Tillamook Rock, with Its
'""flashl ng 1 Ight,"atwhos foot the raven! ng breakers
roar and surge, -r Yonder Is the Jutting promon
.. .tory of ; vf , ,
A great fir-clad apparition of Immortality, bath
ing Its hpoded brow In the salt sea spray of the
ages. It Is morning now, and our steamer proudly
rlrfna the heaving waters of the Jwp, as withauK
the Yenrbest troaiityr
. . . . . . .....
Arriving at jioseuurg, ine present terminus or
the O. A C. H. R, our Immigrant will And a busy
town nestled among the undulating foothills that
border the Uropqua Hlver Valley, where he may
mount the box of a Concord coach belonging to
the Oregon and California Ktsge Company, and
after proceeding southward for a hundred miles
through narrow, well-watered valleya bordered by
picturesque forest-covered mountain ranges, he
will And himself In the broad aud beautiful-
Above the rain belt of the Willamette region, In
m. pArAdlse of the comlnir railroad era. but now
"Mnmbla Bar, ml great Is our surprise to -niiafa"-n ,lK- -..j rrdnnhe world's irreat
. I J i. '.I . M a t rwm I. Mai tr 1 V
len, angry roar they dispute the right of way with
-the broad Columbia majestic ltiver of thWest
who ceaselessly dashes his white-capped head
against the shaggy-browed surf thst angrily op-
posea nis progress. . x e arw ju uuwue n w
climate to suit evervbodv. Tlie ranee Is lnex
haustlble. The Winters are dry and cold, but the
facilities for making and preserving hay for stock
are unrivaled. We would gladly linger, for a
longer time among the beautiful and varied scenes
of this enchanted land, but our time Is limited,
and we return bv the same route to Boweburg. It
Is raining now, and our immigrant can see a
r . , , WmtttX )REWX Wl NTER '-
In all its pristine wetness. He will see men en
araired In Dlowlnsr In the rain, turning up the
moist earth with perfect confidence in future bar
vests; will see vegetables green In the fields and
srardens. and children . nlavlmr in the' open air as
(though enjoying an April mist. He will wonder
s m - - - r - .
control the entire commerce of the Pacific N
west Herjdhool rare seconiT UTfiotieAn North
America, her civilization Is of the-highest order,
and her wealth Is enormous.
" After our immigrant has learned these facts, let
nim stop ror the night at one or the many city ho-
orth ive-home sltes-
office of the Oregon and California Hall road Com-
t any, and will start together for a t Hik through
he Willamette Valley, our first destination Hose
burg, two hundred miles away. OurHmmltrrant
lias heard eo; much -about the ' '
That he is surprised to see the sun ride proudly up
a.' ''... a . a a a a i ? a ' i
ine nonzon, patuingme noary summit oi Mount
Hood In rose-colored billows of glory. Filmy
fleeces of grayish fog. are creeping up the forest-
clothed sides of the lesser mountains, and gossan
mer aneets or ine same ethereal neece-work hang
over the lowlands-in patches, between. which the
warm sunxnine siummera uuimpeueu upon rank
fields of Winter wheat, on which contented flocks
are feeding.-Oregon-CityrKaiem, Albany and
luugene are passed In turn, and hamlets,, towns
ana villages of lesser note are seen at brief inter
vals. Farm-houses abound,- and orchards : and
meadow; lands stretch aWay Into little valleys.
Level prairies are encountered here, billowy hill
ocks there, and dark green forests yonder, diversi
fied occAsiunaJly by dense groves of undergrowth.
The timber in sight Is principally oak and fir, the
latter predominating. Our Immigrant is enrap,
tured at the eight of the fir trees, so large and tall
and stately are they. But a fellow traveled cools
his enthusiasm by calling them "mere saplings,
and bids him wait for tall tlmbeMlll . lie wes..the
TorestiToT the CascadeMountalns or Puget Hound
Two hundred reet's no height for a tree in this
country1 he remarks, with as little show of
boasting as possible. , .
Our immigrant Is reliably Informed that good
lands, well -watered, with alternate, timber and
prairie at convenient Intervals, and capable of
producing excellent harvests of fruits, cereals and
vegetables, can be had all along the railroad at
reasonable distances from stations, the prices
ranging from -. " ' . ;
; f2 60 TO $50 00 PER ACRE, ..
According to location and Improvements; "that
the cllmatlo extremes of the Eastern coast are en
tirely wautlng here; that the Bummer nights are.
always cool, and the Winters never excessively
cold i that he will grow to like the humid atmos
phere, and, as bis years advance, will learn to
long for rain when lowering weather ceases. He.
will learn by gratified experience that the rainy
seasons, of which the temporary visitor to the
Willamette Valley usually complains to the out-
aide world, are not the terror he has. been led to
Imagine. And yet, the climate is excessively
humid In Winter along the coast, and also In the
great valleys . between the Coast .and Cascade
mountain ranges. There is, rain enough to make
the unmade roads of a new country very muddy
and disagreeable, and to keep them so till the
Bummer sunshine comes to the rescue. But the
same huraidltythat spoils the roads bathes the
mountains in perpetual green, ana so rructines
the valleys that crops never, fall, and all the
abundant and varied products of the soil are of
mnPA ininntiw irit atH M enter I la channel
than the open sea beyond. Away to our left is
.the boldly outlined promontory of Disappoint
ment, latterly known as .'.ape Hancock, at its
Mimmlt a first-class revolving light, at its feet the
north channel, bounded by surf-beaten rocks and
guarded byjnammoth mounted ordnance, shielded
by earthen parapets. We bave7enleredbythc
south channel, and close at hand on our right are
the lower lands of Point Adams, crowned ty a
Alio uuynuu 1 1 t n iHonrar piraiiici mus
plays fantastic tricks with Its hidden wheel, b
steam ou through the mighty stream, whe
thoroughfares as to be comparatively .unknown
and unappreciated, except for its gold fields,
which have from time to time produced enormous
Jrlelds, and, as the country grows older, are doubt
ess destined to prove of greater and more perma
nent value than ever. " . .
A branch stage line will pick us up at Ashland,
another-bmry-inland town of a few-humircd lnrthe:
habitants and amatlng prosperity, and from here
we jnay cross a spur or the Cast
Cascade mountain
rj4x"theffree-gTssing -uplandyj scene w 1th 1 wtmanirmnarAi
Aonsttlcuous llvhthonw. and Fort Bteven9.miIU4-aws? esisl psye, v
; lary posti ieeblyiuanleunby antiquated guns, iof lAkjuunjylereJsM
The msjBtlCTTveT--tashea ear steamers macs-ana i goais anu snepuerus- uavens, oi wnicn me i scino
Dot I xorinwesi ooasia mo manr. u n oroaa eoQugn in
lose I area for a Btate, and varied enough In scenery and
horizon, but not low enough to obscure the setting:
uu as ii iignis up me . , ,
it". . "CTTY OK THE DALLES - " .
With a flood of glory. Here Is a rock-wslled town
of several thousand Inhabitants, the seat of a bus
tling and prosperous Inland trade and the present'1
why the Oregon rain linbt more wmetratlng un headquarters of the O. IL & . and N. IV R.H.
in a palatial
til lie learnaJby observation that the clouds bang
low and the water hasTPot so far to rail as in me
vallevsof the Ohio and the Mississippi, or the pla
teaus of thej-'astern Btates, where the-vapors ride
in an upper stratum of air in an altitude to which
the condensing cold of our mountain ranges will
-eirtt frkArevil Iiasv vl t svt Ik . 1
smat isaa tiivui, w lbiimw '
-e return to Portland and embark
river steamer; our destination
WedescentPlheVillamette River for a dozen
mites to its confluence with the Columbia, and
round! ng;tjie-pehlnftula
skirted when coming up In the ocean steamer,
soon find ourselves at the Vancouver dock on the
Washington side, where a brief halt Is made at
the foot of a most beautifully situated town, com
manding a magnificent view or the river, the ad
jacent forests and the distant snow-capped moun
tains.. Thus far, and for a long distance yet up
the (joiumDia-, jwe encounter but little open
farming latttf. The agricultural area is lim-
rited. and the uplands all along the river can only
be cleared by heavy labor! Lut they surely will
be cleared in time, and willlorm the most attract-
itossible-urimaglne. Extensive
bottom lauds abound in some places, and in others
Islands are seen that overflow sometimes in an
nual freshets. As weascend the river, these bot
toms are displaced by abrupt, terraced and rocky
uplands, afiurding scenery that strikes the be--hplderwJl!i
swcbq itadttowjadet
fully magnificent and beautiful.
About twenty-five miles above the mouth of the
Willamette Hlver Is an opeuing in the Cascade
range, where the Columbia emerges from the
rocky, road way. made for its passage through the
great mountain wall bv. the ceaseless erosion of
the-agesrenhanced no-doubt by TOmeterribtecnnr
vulslon of nature in the long-dead centuries. Our
good steamercan get no farther, for the tortuous
and rapid current, broken by numerous rocky
ledges into many different channels, successfully
disputes her passage, andthe T
: , CASCADE lAX'KH ' -
Are not yet completed. But there Is a railway
portage here several miles in length, and every
body1 Is Tiurriedhnto a passeiigor car. and whirled
away to the Upper liandlng. We are ahead of
time, so we, cross the river lri4 llttle' govermnent
packetr-conneoted with the worksjptrt . the Iocks,
and stop over for the purpose of clfmblnir the ad
jacent- steeps r to get ar blrd-eyevicw-of - the
country. . " ? '"" .
Away to the south lies the vernal valley or the
Willamette, so far distant that Its prairies look
like garden, patches, and its slant eversreen for
ests, like little orchards. Its numerous water
courses are marked by groves of deciduous trees,
stark and gray in their winter nudity, and Its
letter mountains rise from the flats like billows
i n a vast i n land searWe are far above t lie clouds -
aonve tpe logs mat caressingly cover the swamps
and bottoms with their fleecy mantles of mist.
Away, and away, to the westward rise the undu
latingwavesof the Coast Mountains, hiding with
their fog-bathed crests the outlines of the heaving
ocean. The east-side railroad runs like a well
defined thread through; the center of the valley,
us wesi-siue orancn uniting wun it at a little
town called Junction, forming a visible knot in
the middle of the line. Numerous creeks, and
rivers of lesser note than the Willamette, ome
meandering down from the Cascade Mountains to
meet the central river, their borders lined with
farms and virgin lands, their streams forming In
numerable waterfalls which are yet to be the seat
of busy Industries as the population-increases and
markets are created lor manufacturers' wares.
Below the Willamette, Is Kalama, the present
Eastern terminus of the Western Division of the
Northern Paclflo Railroad. Tills division of the
road, over a hundred miles In length, pursues the
serpentine windings of the Cowlitz River through
a low and fertile valley for about twenty miles,
and then climbs over a rough tract of ragged ever
green timber till it reaches a gravelly prairie that
extends to the headwaters of Puget Bound.
uur walk has been longer than we anticipated,
for the mountain steeps are much higher than
they appear, and we return to the busy town of
Upper Cascades to find that the Dalles steamer
has been gone for hours, and there Is noaTterna
tire but to wait for another day before continuing
our Journey. The Interval Is occupied In a survev
ftheliWksrhlchrwhencom uleled. "ari "to
afford river vessels of largest size an unimpeded
Companies' offices and machine shops for .the
1 . . . t I f t . 1 1 a 1 1 .
ruBiem re go n envision, .a nine way beyond
the city from which its name Is derived) are The"
Dallea of the Columbia, no. -narrow, rock-ribbed
and tortuous, that no boat can navigate them, and '
so deep in some places as to be unfathomable. A
railway portage Is the accotriodatlng style of tran-
sit here encountered, and we are whirled away at
a rapid rate through a wild, wind-worn valley to
Celllo, sixteen miles distant, where another fine'
river steamer is waiting, in which we embark, if "
we choose ; or should our Immigrant prefer it, we ,. '
can continue our Journey by rail to Walla Walla
in " Washington Territory ; .or, changing. cara a,t-
uanuia junction, can proceed to Alnswortu, at
the confluence of the Hnake and Columbia rivers,
from whence we can proceed by way of the North
ern Pacific to Cheney, Bpokan and Pen d' Oreille. ,
We can also take the steamer at A I us worth and"
proceed toLewiston In Idaho Territory, situated at
the confluence of the Clearwater and Hnake rivers,''
and from thence can go by stage southeasterly
across the great plateau. leading to the Camas"
Prairie country, a charming, well-watered and
well-timbered region, large enough for a republic
within itself, and containing ail the native ele
ments for human sustenance or emerrriaeJt
turning UTXewlston and crossing the Clearwater.
we can goby stftgein a northeasterly direction over
the billowy bunch grass hills to Paradise Valley, '
and thence to the North Palouse country. In all
of this vast domain there is yet a very great deal of
Which is yet unclaimed by settlers, though
abounding in, every natural advantage, and hlth-
erto kept In the background because of a lack of
transportatloh'facilitles, which the completion of '
the Northern Pacific will siteedily supply. Indeed.
-ouiHmmi grant-has-al ready-seenrcnou ghrof "UTF-
occupied lands in these wandering, combining
channel to the ocean.
Continuing our lournev un th rnlnmklA u-a
are soon In the midst of the
On the American Continent. We have passed the
outer edges of the rain belt now, and thedeuenr
Lhills. The railroad hugs the sides of yonder rock.
ribbed wall, midway between the water's edge and
the sky, so far away from the steamer's channel
that it resembles a shining band of steel. . The,
men -at work Upon the road-bei look like little
children at play, as they climb the rocks likecov
uies, ascending and descending rope-like ladders.
-planted perpendicularly against the wind-worn
teepsThew4Joudahaug-4ow-tver the western
sufficient prospects for, undeveloied industries to
sustain a population of many millions. He has
gone from the timber to the grazing regions, from
farming to mineral lands, and has passed from ag
riculturar exhibits of marvelous growth to many
a water Power of Immense rtoMsible utility. , He
has seen the Willamette Valley, where there are
two seasons, the wet and the dry, and the uplands -of
the great Columbia basin, where the climate Is
more like that of .Western .Pennsylvania,- except '
thattTie extremes of heat and cold are not so ereat. '
and in the hottest, weather the nights are always
cool. But the baif has not yet been exhibited,
and he returns by stage to Walla Walla Valley,
through Colfax, Dayton and Waltsburg (thriving
Inland towns In the great heaving bunch grass'
uplands), and taking the stage for Baker City in
Oregon, crosses the Blue Mountains via Pendleton,
and the Umatilla Indian Reservation, and halts
beyond the mountains .
A veritable garden spot of nature's own creating.
"Where-ihebeh6lds a mammoth amphitheater of
prairie-rands wtiled hrbyrthe-eternt1illts7CTOi-
lug this valley and traveling for another day's
Journey over diversified uplands, he reaches Pow
der lllver basin, a magnificent plain, covered In
ail directions by wild sage and bunch grass, inter
spersed at Intervals with farms and gardens of the
most prolific order. This valley greatly.resembles
that of the Hnake. Hlver basin In Idaho, the plains
of Walla Walla, and the valley of Great Salt Ike.
The cities of Salt Lake In Utah, Baker In Oregon,
and Boise In Idaho are all similarly situated In level -
rtiains. with high mountains round about rising
n plain view from every point of the compass and
walling In the vales like scalloped rim. These
mountains are all rich In minerals, and. partly
covered with timber, and the soil and climate of
each locality is similar to all . the rest,, proving
that sometime, In a remote period or the earth's
history this whole UpperCountrv was a succession
of Inland seas, which, beyond the Inconceivable
lapse of time, were drained through some Internal
opeuing in the earth, after which their character
was still further changed by volcanic action, form
ing, as the years rolled on, an ash-like soil of
marvelous fertility, watered, by the great rivers
that long prior to the glacial period formed the
frulf streams of these voiceless oceans whose out
et was the present Columbia Bar.
With Its many millions of unclaimed leagues of
arable land, Is the Inland empire of the future. It
s asyet, only sparnely nettled, buj under the lm-
peTus of the new and permanent facilities for trans-
Donation mat are now nearly completed, it win
..... niu ""HKjr -leep. nave given Way to countv In U-hirlnr In i.h. m.iA h,k.n And
scattering pines that climb the btufTs and plant jdiversifledln woudrous fashion everywhere. The
their feet In forbidden places, where they thrive same general characteristics abound as In the
like moss and lichens upon their barren footholds, other localities named. The soil and climate are
Here and there a friendly open unland Intrude i much -the same, thouirh the country Is eener
eu oeiwecn tne pjuns, surprising you with lit TTny-niore nroken, there being no large
snowy farm-house and well-tilled fields. Acraln. in It like those of the Walla Walla plain or
massive colonnades of basaltlo rock stand in un- I Powder River basiu..: Next let our Immigrant take
broken phalanx at the water's edire. their heads a trip by stage across the alluvial lands of Uma-
i tl
peedl4y-epenup"tew-woridat therery doorof"
the pioneer.. ,
Ijel our Immigrant now take the stage at Baker
City, and crossing the mountains In a southerly
direction, make a day's Journey of sixty miles to
t;anyon Ulty, In Urant county. .Here, too, he will
nnu mat t ne lace or nature bat been wrought upon
In quaint devices bv tire, wind and water. Coral .
beds arefound-on the-motintaln tons, and living-
oisters are ' dug from-solld-rocks. The whole
among the clouds and their bosoms the abode In
Hummer of countless swarms of mlorratorvshlnls.
Waterfalls pour over the bluffs In many places
from heights of many hundreds of feet, to lose
themselves In spray among the dense undergrowth
u..v '- ' uuniiT. fMlOW. I, 1 HE SCARCITY OF TIMBER
Intlirsslf' jVdgKd ard.tKr A ' matter of great
. . . . - r- -ml 1 . w . - - - i ... , -.I. .. ,MmM m t t T-a " 'I
?ne witn'WimanirnryjmcarttalT mwu i iuniujwwiwnmw y: wnt -come w
oxnLlnduaJjgtwskps Ihe echoes In the gorges, I the railroads now- buHdtng aud lrf routenrptattOTT
till and - Wasco counties, where enormous wheat
fields flourish on theerewhile arid highlands, pro
ducing from thirty to seventy bushels to the acre.
Melons, peaches and corn grow here in fabulous
quantities, with but little trouble.
and the shrill whistle of our steamer Is answered shall gridiron the land; and timber-culture, ths
: iuiuiiuui. iiTcrwnuon mat slowest but most satisfactory because most certain
lose themselves lnaiaint whisper In the distant I of all agricultural pursuits, shall have dotted the
. i. '
1 , - - ... j ' .. -. r' s- ....
f -Z ... ,