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Oregeu City, January 91, 1847.
OIO. L. COMT, EDITOR . TV. COLWEU., rSWTEB.
COLUMBIA RIVER MOUTH, ONCE MORE.
In another column will be found a communication
from " A friend le Truth," la which, of conrao, we are
completely "ed up." Wfcsa we took upthW sub.
jfct, Mouth ef the CehUa Rhrer,' wt were well
aware of what we were Aeiag, and expected that op
position would bt arrayed again ue, from the fact
that there are thoee whoee inlereeta are aubeerred in
magnifying the difficult! at the entrance of our1 riv
er. Albeit, " A Friend to Truth" tliall learn, that wo
do not take back one jot or tittle of what we Have
tali! that our confidence ie unahaken that we fall
not back one inch from tho position we have taken.
AnJ uni hit l iIhim with ua. hn shall tikenriaa Irani.
Pond iv te BrfoJJelfolfnt their muting notwithstanding the modest innuendo given In the as
on Tuesday tttnint, Dec.Qd, and ordered to be sumption of his signature, that wo nre emphatically
inttrted in the "Spectator," till the end of the friend to truth. Wo feel highly flattered by the
present volume. cft handed" compliment paid to our mental acquire-
Remhed, That tho paper will be continued to all J mf u in ,he gunon t,at W8 werc ploriint 0f the
MbBtriber who have paid, unles. they signify to the and tlial
Jtetoivfd, That the names of all subscribers to the remarkable "chain of events" connected therewith ;
"Oregon Spectator" who, by the close of this volume, ' indeed, 'we ought to feel grateful to "A Friend to
hall not have jld their subscriptions, be stricken from Trutn for ,ne ;, aj abor he has taken to inform
the Ik and tho aending JJSoSk I ,u of '" wh,ch wo dart t0 PMnnw' evcry ,cho01
Sec'y Board Director. boy'a mind la familiar with, although they may be ir
relevant to the aubject matter of dispute. I ho com
merce of Oregon haa hitherto been ttuntcd in its
growth kept o conveniently small, as to suit the ava
ricious desires of u few monopolists, who, by their
far and wide jMililiihed stories of shipwreck and disas-
Oregon City, De. 2d, 1846.
To CoBaEsro.cDErrB. Z. is welcome to the use of
our column. His articles will be read with pleasure,
for they are upon almost interesting subject.
M. shall appear in our next number. Something t ter attending tho entrance of that " nest of dangers,"
less of vindictivenr, and a little more of the " milk
of human kindness," in our friehd M'a aflicles, would
give them greater force.
" Religious Orders," we must decline in consequence
of an article in the Constitufjon of the Oregon Print
ing Association, forbidding the use of this press, " for
the purpose of propagating sectarian principles or doc
trine." We sincerely regret that any article publish 1 .peak upon this subj
the six fathomed mouth of the Columbia, have man
aged, up to the prevent lime, to drive away mid stute
off competition in trade, the only safeguard tho people
have against r'ttortioo. It waa with a view of en
deavoring to counteract the evil influences that have
gone abroad to tho
suflenoir of our coi
our commerce, and the
that wo undertook to
e truth might be known
ed in the Spectator, should be thought by any of our and appreciated ; anlsHM appreciated, well satis
reader " altogether unreasonable," and " null, iinge n- f1L.J are we thut it wiliTeTdto an cnlaigement of our
erous and ill-grounded in its application." The arli-' commercial operations, and the consequent prosperity
do complained of, " The Iron Collar," we selected 0f the country generally,
oareelf.and published it simply to illustrate aphasia Calmly and du-pasMonately, and after "maturely
of the feudal time. There are numerou events of liberating upon all the fuel," we nrrire at the con
very day life, which it become the duty of public
journalists to record, however unpleasant the nature of
those event may be. And it were folly to question
intention Or imagine any apeciid application therein.
" New VouiMEv With the present number closes the
first volume of the Oregon Spectator. Notwithstanding
the difficulties of its commencement, It ha grown into
a vigorous existence with a fair prospect of future suc
cess. It would bo a hard matter to exptct that the
manner in which it ha been conducted, ha given
aatWaction to every one ; it were next to impossible,
in a mixed community like our own,, to gratify all in
terest ; It is an achievement to have held a straight
and undeviallng course amid national prejudices.
However, be the satisfaction great or little, we havo
endeavored to do our duty, with an earnest desiro to
promote tho welfare of our fellow citizens generally.
The next number being the commencement of an
other volume, an excellent opportunity will be afforded
mifaacribera to aend in their names. We shall endeavor
to make "The Spectator" more acceptable to our
reader than it haa heretofore been, posaibly, by sketch
e of the country and scenery, and interenting statisti
cal Information, with an agreeable miscellany, which,
wo think, will make it deserving of their patronage.
Some of our subscriber are negligent about paying
their subscriptions, and we have been hinting about it
till wo are tired, and they ought not to oblige us toJ
giro them the " kick." They must bear in mind that
they will not receivo the paper hereafter, until they
have settled up.
Tub Wsatiikb We have had remarkably cold
weather, for Oregon, during the lat week, and a con
jderablo fall of enow. The mercury in the thermom
eter fell to two degree aboveEero, on Monday morn
iKf hut. indeed we Jrfve not had such severe
weather since the the winter of 1842 and '43. The
Claokamas river i frozen over near the Indian village
so strongly a to permit a common thoroughfaro lo be
atabUhed across it The navigation or the upper
Willamette ia obstructed in consequence of ice in. the
vicinity, of Rock Island. Wo understand that the
Columbia river U likewio fastened with the fetter of
the " ico king." Information come to us of a great
mortality existing among cattle, chiefly amOug those
that were brought In with the last Immigration; but
apprehensions are entertained for the welfare of live
took generally, should the severe weather continue,
a no Bfovlaion baa bean made fur feeding them, and
there la ao much snow on tho 'ground aa to preclude,
almost, the possibility of their obtaining sufficient bud-
aksaaeojroia tho grass. . n J
IT Wo would beg tto attention of our reader to
thf advertlaeaaant of a Faawle Academy, to bo con.
alAtrf-by M N. Mi-Ttamton, .!jry opawtly.
?. HJMMA W V. u4atlaMar.
clunion which we havo already git en tho public, that
the difficulties at the mouth of the Columbia ijkay be
overcome, if a proper degree of prudence in exercised,
that the entrance of this river is not what lying
rumor has has mad? it that it is comparatively easy,
if that practical wisdom, which evcry master of a ven-'
sol ought to potaen, is but permitted to have controll
ing influence. Tho time is at hand, when the master
epirit of experience will abundantly confirm our decla
lions. The masters of American merchantmen are
ecoming acquainted with the Columbia river trade,
and it will not bo long before they will avail themselves
of tho profits to be realized by engaging in it. Where
ever there is a profitable trade to be carried on, there
you will find them, and they are made of sterner stuff
than to be intimidated by the roar of Die breakers, or
the dash of the surf. And what If they have been
sometimes " critically situated," and have anchors and
cables " corroding on the middle sands," or any where
else, where duty cnlled them to navigate ? Their pro
fession is one of risk and danger, and they have the
heart for the first, and the knowledge to triumph over
the other. It were certainly better that every anchor
and cable of the ship should be left to the corrosion of
the sea, than that the ship herself should be lost
In our remark upon the matter, we havo had to do
with tho mouth only of the Columbia river, and we
defy any of our observations so to be construed as to
have a tendency to diminish tbo necessity of steam
tow boat in facilitating commerce. A we remarked
in a previous article" The current of the Columbia
are strong and'swift, and the wind are noTalways to
be depended upon, nor are they always available.
Hence the importance tho necessity of steam tugs,"
"With that portion of your editorial, approving the
creation of pilot and tho employment of tug steam
ers, I meet heartily concur," says A Friend to Truth.'
We are really much obliged for tho condescension,
but no body asked for such concurrence, and we shall
cease our editorial when they require any one' stamp
to make them pas current. We will conclude by
saying, that wo are also of tho opinion, that " Oregon
need no tawdry ornament, or false gloss to set off her
charms," and fancy that the observation ia quite a su
perfluous, aa it was ratuitou in 'A Friend to Truth'
to make it.
Elemkntaby SrELLiNO Booxv ""he Association's
edition of Webster' Elementary Spelling Book, will
be ready for all who may be in want thereof, by tho
first of next month. It la excellently well gotten up,
and we think will prove highly am tiafactory. Stitched
oopiea may be obtained tot twenty five cent, and
bound oneaofor the additional tax of tho binding,
which 1 certainly very cheap, aa the volume will com
piiae, njnetyalx pagea or actual mutter. Let each
tewfrJM4tlct b preparing it order.
. 1.' N7
For the Oregon Spectator
" THE ROAD TO OREGON. No. I.
From tho great length of tho journey
from tho United Stale to tho Willamette
valley, tbo many rivorn to oroas and mouii.
tains to climb, it is but roasonablo to sup.
pose that emigrant" would moot With many
accidents, and suffer many losses in its io
complishmcn't. To lessen thesti oasuultics
to thoso who follow them, should th'-rcforc
be tho wish, as it is the interest of evcry
citizen of this valley.
To show tho necessity of improvements
upon tho route, and tho menus adopted t
effect them, I shall briefly refer to tho time
and mannor in which tho three preceding
emigrations havo accomplished tho journey ;
and as the lattor part of the road is much
tho most difJictilt, as well as iiumI susccpti
blu of improvement, all improvements wor.
thy of notice, havo been made or attempted
west of the Rocky mountains.
Tho emigrants of 164:) wen- the first who
traveled with wagonb below Fort Hull of
theso a part reached tho Dialles of the Co.
lumbiu in tho month of November others
left their wagons und animuls ut Wallnwul
la, and n few remained at Dr. Whitman's
Mission through the winter.
When we consider tho scarcity of grass
and wator along most of the route, the dan
gerous crossings of Snuko river, and the
making of the road for s" grent a distunce,
over wide plains of Faire und sand, and al
most impassable inountuins, that tlicy arriv.
ed on tho Columbia at all, is a proof of en
rrgy and perseverance not often equalled by
those who havo followed them.
The obstacles so formidable had not. been
surmounted without much labor nnd loss,
ImijIi of life and pioperly ; yet, though so
neur the end of their journey, they expert
enccd by far, more losses, hardship and suf
fcrings in descending from the Dalles to the
Willamette, than in all tho rest of the jour,
ney together ; and almost in sight of the
great object W their wishes, many were re
lieved from perishing by the benevolence of
the Hudson's Hay Company, nnd the timely
and grouitous assistance of Cant. James
WVTifi a fellow emigrant.
Tne emigrants of 18-M fared even worc
than thoso of tho preceding year ; arriving
lato in tho season, when, bv reason of the
snrw, the trail by Mount Hood was tl. jught ,
to be impassable ; the greater part of their
woni.down animals were swum to the north
side of the Columbia, which is nearly a mile
wide, driven down on thnt side und re-crossed
in boats at Vancouver; a route, of great
danger, fatigue and exposure to thV owners,
and in which more than half the1 animuls
were lost. The rear of this emigration, ulo,
got no further than Dr. Whitman's Mission.
Most of the citizens having experienced these
calamities, and seeing their friends arrive
in this distant country, shorn of the means
of their comfort, or of becoming useful citi
zens, a desire to remedy these evils became
Hopes wcro entertained that this could be
effected by finding a nearer and better roud
into the Willamette valley, by a route for
merly traveled by tho Hudson's Day Com
pany, leaving the present road in the Mal
heur, or Powder river valley, and crossing
the;Qascado mountains by a pass near mount
Jefferson. This was attempted bv a party
under the patronago of Dr. K. While, late
Indian Agent of this Territory, in tho sum
mer of 1845. This party, after spending
about a month in exploring tho Cascudo
mountains up tho Santinm river, and south of
it, returned without accomplishing their ob
jeet. As by thin enterprise, Dr. Whito had
been at considerable expense, tho Lcgisla
turo of Oregon passed a resolution recom
mending his claims to remuneration, "to tho
favorable consideration" of tho Federal
Two attempts havo since been mado to
penetrate tho Cascado mountains from the
Willamette valley j and, as on ono occasion,
in caso of success, thXguido was to receive
ono thousand dollars, wLhavo reason to be
lievo they havo been prosecuted, with duo
energy. Yet, I think these attempts should
hot , be taken as final ovidenco that no pass
cart bo found.
In support of this opinion, I would remark
that their endeavors nave been improperly
directed ; tho great height of this rnngo of
mountains intercepting the ordinary rain
clouds from tho Pacific ocean, thoir western
sides, from thoir great moisture, product
heavy a growth of timber and undergrowth,
thut in such forests, traveling to extremely
slow and laborious, and sinning from tli
foot of tho mountain, it is difficult to keep a,
correct course, and utmost inixssiblo to do.
cide with certainty, whether a valley or
ridge .v!U !cr:r.!::to nt the summit of tho
main range, or some lateral spur.
But from the cust siile of tho mountains,
as the pluin of tho river DcChiitos It
much higher than (hut of the Willamotto,
und from tho dryness of tho couniry, the
aides of the inountuins nre either bold, or
sparsely timbered-Hyth pino without under
growth, it is not dfilteult to reach tho top.
Once on the summit pf the ridge, a tho
whole country below will bo in view, and at
every stream or valley will lead to the foot
of the mountain, thero can belittle difficul.
ty in choosing the most fuvorablo descent.
That n road muy bo found over' the Cascade
mountains, near mount Jefferson, ia made
still more probable from the observations of
Cupt. Fremont, in the winter of 18111, while
traveling up tho river DeG'hutcs, (see his
journal, p. Ill)) fpcuking of tho Cascades,
he says, A small trail takes off through
the prairie, towards u low joint in the range,
und perhaps there is here u puss into the
Willamette valley." The r-umo evening,
he finds his cumit to .bn in latitude, 45 cleg.
" Mount Washington, which cognomen ought to
be aaaintaied.-E. fincTATea.
min. 45 sec, and longitude, l'J5 deg. '2
faun. Ill sec, leing a duo cast course, and
Vot exceeding I DO miles from the town of
Suluin. Tuking into ucpouut the length of
the vulley of the Santiain, und the opposite
brunch of the river DeChutcs, but u small
purt of tliis distunce can be timber.
When via take into consideration the ex
cellcnce of the mills ut Sul in, its literary
Institution, the cheapness und abundance of
provisions in its vicinity, und its centre! posi
Hon in regurd to tho rest of the Territory,
its advantages to the cmigrunt as the term!
uus of tbu road from the United States,
must be obvious.
Tho failure of Dr. "Hate's enterprise
left the large emigration oPtH, to find
their wuy into the Willamette vulley by I bo
usual means; tbo supply of bouts being
wholly inadequate to their speedy convey,
aiice down the Columbia, ami the stock of
provisions fuilingut the Dulles, famine, and
a malignunt disease ut the sumc time raging
amongst them, a sceno of human misery
ensued which scarcely has u parallel in his
tory tho loss of life und property was cnor
moiiH. To tho honor of tho citizens of Oregon
City and its vicinity, necessaries to tho valuo
of several hundred dollars were dispatched
to their relief. To Mr. Cook, master of the
Culupooiu und the distributor of the above
named benevolence, many indigent families
huvo reason to be grateful.
The whole community were again arous
ed to the necessity of finding a remedy for
an evil so distressing and calamitous. Two
roud companies were churtercd by the Legis
lature, und n lurgo amount raised by sub
scription, to encourage individual enterprise j
nnd the'ycur 1840 is1 not more an epoch to
be remembered in the history of Oregon, for
the quiet settlement of its boundary, thar
for tho arrival of emigrants from tho United
States with their wagons, ut both ends of
tho Willamette vulley,
These improvements on tho route, pro
pose examining in a future communication.
V For the Oregon Spectator.
COLUMBIA RIVER, AGAIN.
Mr. EDiTonTho two last numbers of
tho Spectator, 23 and 2M, contain articles
from your own pen, upon that very interest
ing subject, the navigation of tho Columbia
river. From tho vital iinportanco of this
subject, it would havo been naturally ex
pectcd that no opinions would havo been
formed, much less published to tlwffcorld,
without maturely deliberating upon all tho
facts by which such opinion was to bo estab
lished and supported ; instead however of
this calm tevtovfif facreV.wo find you has
tening to conclusions from a few isolated
items of testimony, which boforo an unprc.
judiced judgment, would woigh nothing
against tho chain of events, that I regret to
say, stand recorded to opposo them. Tho
writer of this would not concedo shut you,
Mr. Editor, or any other man in Oregon,
entertained a moro earnest or sincere omw
than himself, that tbo country should M-
vnnA mntftlv In Ita AOmmeroial DrOSMntV S
but he should feel that ho interposed $,