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From tho Repoaltory of tho Fall Aawriatwa.
Life what In It?
Go aak tlie aire whote Jioary lock
An WanchM with four acoro yean,
What'i life to him? A barren rock
Amid a vale of team
Than aak tho man whoan mTd li fame,
IU' toll'd to reach that goal;
Ala! 'lb but u nimpicnam
' Which ne'er can wo the oul.
Thrn view ttie man who treomirn itoro.
Hi eager even to pleaac;
(Jure life on him her blowing pour,
But la hit iouI at tunc ?
Then aak the poor whono hiimblo lot
U fraught with toil and care,
While aiding 'neath hi lonely cot,
Haa ha for life no fear?
Yea, aak the youth whoae nnlling fnen
Bpenka the jnya within ;
Alaa! nlaa! hi jo)aall cav
Before they acarce begin.
And aak yon maid with eilkrn trfw,
And cheek of rawat hwo
Her heart la full of tendnmeaa
8ay, what U lifo to ou?
Methinka I hear her aniwer come.
By sephyri gentl driven ;
IJfe naught to me, a better home
I artk away in heaven.
Ah ! life U but a (raiment bubble
On timea widioreun tWd
A gale of plramre, then of trouble
Then In death'a ocrau lot !
Nov. 25, 1W5. Tar. WAxuaai.tu Hard.
For the Spectator.
Mr. EoiTOH As thin is the season of tlio
year tltot tho emigrating partii'H are prepar.
Ing to leave the states, their friends, the
homos of their fathers, ami ull that they had
learned to consider as denr to them in the
land which gave them hirth, to journey
across this vust continent, over plains, inoun.
tain.s, nnl deerts, one's mind involuntarily
roves over the magnitude ol the undertaking.
Only think of it for a moment ! A party con.
sisttmrof over one hundred wugons, eiicum
hcred with their baggage, families and little
ones, left the settlements in Missouri in the
year 1813, without a road, with no eperi.
enccd pilot, and with the received opinion of
those who had traveled tho route on horse.
back, that it was iinpnictieahlu for wugons on
account of the stupendous mountain."; with
all those obstacles he-fore thvin, and many
others, together with the distant" if VJd'u'O
miles beforci them, minds suilicienlly stout
for tho undertaking, were found among the
hardy pioneers of tho valley of the Mississip.
pi. lias tho world ever witnessed such a
daring expedition before ? c think it doubt,
ful. 1,' is true that Africa has its deserts of
and, which arc more dreary even than those
of America, as they arc sometimes, in dry
seasons, destitute of water, whieh, however,
onn never be the case with the latter, as ul.
most tho entire route is Krformed on the
margins of largo and nevur-failing streams;)
but tho crossing the great Sahara, or desert
of Africa, with caravansof cumcls and mulcM,
on an old and constantly traveled route, can
have no comparison with the long and tcdi.
ous expedition under consideration, perform
ed in wagons drawn by oxen, which rcquir
cd, in some instances, over six months to per
form it. Who will disputn the characteristic
boldness of tho Anglo-Saxon race in Amcri
ca? It certainly cannot bn done in this age ;
but great actions aro often productive of
great ends. Who may dure to say that this
little heroic party, directed hither by Prori.
donee, has not carried with it to tho shores
of the Pacific, tho germ of republicanism or
self-government, whoso limits may be boun.
ded by tho Frozen ocean on tho north, and
Cape St. Luca or Capo Horn on tho south;
and may, dispute all other forms of govern
ment except that of tho sovereign people, re.
gardloss of boundary questions, &c.
M. M. M.
frln no instances havo tho folly and child
ishi'.ess of a large portion of mankind been
more strikingly displayed, thnn in thoso va.
rious, and occasionally very opposite, modes
in which they have departed from tho stan
dard of nature, and sought distinction oven
in deformity. Thus, whilo ono race of pco
plo crushes tho feet of thoir children, an
other flattens their heads between two boards;
and while wo admiro the natural whiteness
of the teeth, tho Malays filo off tho enamel
and dye them black, for tho all-sufficient rea
son that dogs' teeth uroyhito! A Now Zea
land chief nas his distinctTvSNymt of arms
emblazoned on tho skin of his faSe, as well
as oh his limbs ; and an Esquimaux is noth
ing in his own opinion if he has not bits of
stone stuffed through a hole in each cheek.
saV sssal ti.mlt t:
" Waatwari the Htax.of Empire takaa U way."
Vol. I. Ortgon City, (Ortfon Ttr.) Thnnity, Hay 14, 1M6..
Quito an abctird,and still more mischievous,
is tho infatuation which, among some Ameri
cans and Europeans, attaches beauty to that
modification of tho human figure which re
sembles the wasp, and compresses tho waist
until tho very ribs havo been distorted, and
the functions of the vital organs irreparably
disordered. Davit China, .
(Kr An attentive survey of the tropical re
gions of the earth, where food is produced in
the greatest aounaance, win seem to justify
the conclusion that extremr. fertility, or pow
er of production, has been rather unfavora
ble to the progress of the human race; or, at
least, that tho industry and advancement of
notions have appeared in some measure to
depend on a certain proportion between their
necessities and their natural resources. Man
is by uaturo an indolent animalrandwjihout
the stimulant of necessity will, in the first in
vtance, get on as well as he can with the pro
vision that nature has made for him.
In the warm and fertile regionsof tho tro
pics, or rathcrof the equinoctial, where lodg
ing and clothing, the two necessary things af
ter food, are rendered almost superfluous by
the climate, and where food itself is produced
w ith very little exertion, wc find how small
a progress has in most instanced been made,
while, on the other hand, tho wholo of Eu
rope, and bv far tho greater part of China,
are situated bevond tho northern tropic. If
again, wc gofartlter north, to those arctlcre
gioiis where man exists in a very 'miserable
state, we shall find that there he has no ma
terials to work upon. Nature is such a nig
gard in the returns which she makes to la
hor, that industry is discouraged and frozen,
as it were, in tho outset. In other words, the
proportion is destroyed ; the equinoctial re
gions aro too spontaneously genial and fer
tile; the arctic too unkindly barren; and on
this account it would seem that industry,
wealth, and civilization have been principal
ly roiifmed to tho temperate zone, where
there aro at once neccs&ty to excite lahor
and production to recompense it. There ?"e,
no doubt, other important circumstances, be.
sides geographical situations, which influence
the advancement of nations; but this, at least,
is too eonsiderable an ingredient to bo left out
of the calculation. Davis.
The Knickerbocker tells the following hu
morous story : A gentleman from New York,
who had been in Boston for the purpose of col
lecting some money due him in that city, was
aliout returning, when he found that one bill
of SI 00 had been overlooked. His landlord
who know tho dobtor, thought it a doubtful
case; but added, that if it was collectable at
nil, a tall, raw-boned yankefl, then dunning
a lodger in another part of tlie room, would
" annoy it out of tho man." Calling him up,
therefore, ho introduced him to the creditor
who showed him the account.
" Wal, 'squire, 'taint much uso tryin', I
guess. I know that critter. You might as
well try to squeeze ilo out of Bunker Hill
monument as to c'lect a debt o' him. But any
how, whal'U you give s'pos'n 1 do try?"
" Well, sir, the bill is 9100. I'll give you,
yes, I'll givo you half, if you colleot it."
" Greed!" replied tho collector ; "there's
no harm in irg'n'. any ways."
Some weeks after, the creditor chanced to
bo in Boston, and in walking up Tremont
street, encountered his enterprising friend.
" Look hore," said he, " I had considers,
bio luck with that bill of your'n. You see
I stuck to him like, a dog to a root, but for the
first week or so' twant't no use not a bit!
If he was at home be was short if he wasn't
at home, I could jet no satisfaction. By and
by, says I, after going sixteen times, I'll fix
you; so I sot down on the door step, apd sot
all day and part of the evenin.', and, begun
arly next day, but about 10 o'clock he gift
in. Ho paid me my half,ixA I gin him up
the note." " "
AffHctaltsmal Cswealstrr MaspHfJe.
raoM trots un iitmus mi. til
The questions proposed in our last, are con
nected with the invariable condition of the air
with respect to oxygen. 100 volumes of air
have been found, at every period and in ev
ery climate, to contain 21 volumes of oxygen,
yet ono man consumes by respiration 25 cu
bio feet of oxygen in 24 boars, and 1 cwt. of
charcoal consume 8,200 cubic feet, during
its combustion. How, does it happen then,
that tne proportion or oxygon in the atmos
phere is thus invariable f The answer to this
question depends upon another; namely, what
becomes or the carbonic acid, which is pro
duced during the respiration of animals, and
by the process of combustion ? A cubic foot
of oxygen, by uniting with carbon so as to
form carbonic acid, does not change its vol
time, and the proportion of carbonio acid in
the atmosphere may be regarded as nearly
equal to one thousandth part of its weight.
It is quite evident that the quantities of
carDon'c acia ana oxygen in me aimospnere,
which remain unchanged by lapse of time,
must stand in some fixed relation to one an
other; a cause must exist which prevents the
increase of' carbonic acid by removing that
which ,is constantly formingj"and there must
be some means of replacing the oxygen, which
is removed from the air by the process of com
bustion and putrefaction, as well as by the re
spiration of animals. Both-ihese causes are
united in the process of vegetable life. It has
been stated, that the carbon of plants must be
derived exclusively from' the atmosphere;
now, carbon exists in the atmosphere only in
the form of carbonlo acid; and thereforein a
state of combination with oxygen. It has been
mentioned Jjke wise, thatctrbon and the ele
ments of water form the principal constitu
ents of vegetables ; now, the relative quan
tity of oxygen in the whole miss is less than
in carbonic acid, for the latter contains two
equivalents of oxygen, while one only ia re
quired to unite with hydrogen in the propor
tion to form water ; the vegetable products
which contain oxygen in larger proportion
are very few. It is obvious, that when the
hydrogen of water is taken up by a plant, the
oxveen in combination with it, roust be lib.
-crated, and will afford a quantity of this ele
ment sufficient tor the wants of the plant
the oxygen contained in the carbonic acid
being unnecessary in the process of vegeta
ble nutrition, it consequently escapes into the
atmosphere in a gaseous form. It is there
fore certain, that plants must possess the pow
er of decomposing carbonic acid, since they
appropriate its carbon for their own use, and
the atmosphere must thus receive a volume
of oxygen, for every volume of carbonic acid
which lias been decomposed.
This remarkable property of plants has
been dewr-strated in the most certain man
ner ; the leaves and other green parts of a
plant absorb carbonio acid, add emit an equal
volume of oxygen, and they possess this pro
perty quite independent of the plant ; for if,
after being separated from the stem, they are
placed in water containing carbonio add, and
and exposed to the sun's light, the 'carbonio
acid is, after a time, found to have disappear
ed entirely from the water; if the experiment
ia conducted under a glass receiver filled with
water, the oxygen emittedfray be collected
and examined; but if plants are placed in wa
ter which is free from carbonio add, nooxy.
gen is emitted. These observations were tr:
made by Priestley and Sennebier.
Thus the Ufa of. plants is dosbjy connected
with that of animals, ia a most simple man
ne&and for a wieeandauWim purpose. The
presence of a rich awl luxurious vegetation
may be conceived .without the concurrence
of animal life, but the existence of animals
is undoubtedly dependent upon the life and
.development of plants ; tbey not only afford
the means of nutrition for the growthand con-
tinuinoe of animal organization, nut they like
wise; furnish that which is, essential for the
iinitii i ili' :
support of the important vital
matters froarsh bAbm
exhaustible soireef eeqxyj
plies the lose which uVeIs
taining. AhiriMds ori Mother hsji
carDon, wmen plants inspire;,
wrnpumjwnoi mcmeojuni Miwn
let, 'namely, the atmosphere is
constantly unchanged,.,. , , 4 --.,
The proper, constant, , and ;i
.i " . . i . 1 1 a SBS
sources oj oxygen, aro me
climate where a sky, seh
mils tho glowing rays pf theeujf Jgfl
oruan immeasuraoiy luxunAM'
x me lemperaie nu com zonesi
of wood and coal, must replac
oi ine sun, prouuec, on we. I
uuinu aeiu ui supenuunaanM
nended in the nutrition of the
The same stream ofair bji
revolution oi me earuiiroraj
the poles, brines to usl in its
the'equator, the oxygen generi
carries awav the carbonic leld
Plants thus improve the air!
i. . . .. ..
vai oi carbonic acid, and by f
oxygen, which is immediately
use of man and animals. Thai
rents of the atmosphere bring !
mitfti 4tiMV nrw mpW mA
change of air between the upptf-
strata, which their dtiterenoe or
causes, is extremely trifling Hi
with the horizontal movemensf
Thus vegetable culture hei
thy state of a country, and a
thy country would be rendered
habitable by the cessation of
In the primeval ages, the at
have contained less oxygenbut
portion of carbonic acidthaavitf
present time', which accounts forth
ana luxuriance oi ine earner vi
various layers of wood and
well as peat, formins the i
meval vegetation. IfutacertJijnsjf
nave amvea m wmen ine
bonic acid contained in the
neither increase nor dlmin
preciable quantity; for if it reei
uiuumi quantity i uie oaoar f
increased vegetation would- b
consequence, and the excess w
speedily removed. And, oh the
if it was less than the normals
progress of vegetation would bei
me proporuon wouia soon am
standard. The most-important
in the life of plants, or ir other
assimilation of carbon, is the
might almost say, the generatiaav
no matter can be considered as
the growth of plants, which
position similar to or identieal
and the assimilation of. whiflsl:
place without exercising this
reverse is the case in the-n:
mats ; and hence all the e;
and false notions hitherto .eal
ogy, that fertile source of ervee,
fortunately, led to the very unapi
ot the vital functions ot plants
animais. t ,
tl".' WXS. J
The Capo de Void ksuos, ftiastf -.
Iv. ham aoAnd ta Mlnkkv of iIaiaa'SWaaasm
tracuoa of ualr roraati, ua
from too partial ceamtioa m c
" . SBBBaaaaSBBBSakaU 4-
iXSjBfSSar , i
ISu TL. Mtrr-
0A gentleman conceived thsi
in his present circumstances, the
ootning a popular preacher was
he could adopt. Few career' i
vitlng, and our friend from the feftf
himself a log conventicle, and
middle of ita very lofty and ri
nit Tl ill,, nf nnanihr, srrjiuii
i :;, "- :icr? msttstc-.v.i
UUUUUJK W3 CIUWUBU. XltAllsKsJM
rriAM sumnAAarisl Ma -' tw--ltm.A J-- -.-1 Jt,,
then, for the first time, it ntijdiimH M
him that it was possible tor.sj
quite v fait at an extemi
He kept his congregation ia i
for many a long minute. He-
throat, and got three times-to
aw opening sentence ; but
prise was desperate, he at last
astonished auditorathus tultf t
down there thinks that H V the
in the world to preach, let Mil
here and trv." Sosav weaeiteVi
task of political instruct wOJiesstv
ceive inetrucfion the ssbpt
i:MU .. j i ..j r xa ' t .
mhics mm in neea wi. ji, , j;Wwj
It- '-i ;j