The Corvallis gazette. (Corvallis, Or.) 1862-1899, December 11, 1896, Image 1

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    XXXIII.
COIlVALtlS," BEKTOrC'OUOTY,- QEEGON, FRIDAY, DECEMBER 11, 1896.
NO. 39."
1 r M Ti r
VOL.
r r-
-I -
l ae Iaipjjja t ' t ta'turiii U i
. the Chiet jcecutives Ad-'-dress
to Congress.
na the ConeTMU of the TTnffpri Statps
As representatives? of the people in. the
legislative orancn-oi meir governmem; you
have assembled aV a time when the strength
and excellence jpi our -free institutions
and the fitness of our eKizansj, (o-enjoyi
popular rule have -been again made tnanli
fest. A politicaLcbntest involving, moment
ous consequences;' fraught with feverish
apprehension, and creating aggressiveness
so Intense as to approach bitterness and
passion, has been waged throughout our
land, and determined by the decree 'or-free
and lndependen-"-uffrage without disturb
ance of our trarbqullttty-.-or . the -.least sign
of weakness lr.our national structure; "
When we coiiaider these incidents and
contemplate tlc peaceful : obedience and
manly submission which have succeeded :a
heated clash of. political opinions, we ilfs
cover abundanfreyidenea of a -determination
on the part of rar countrymen to abide by
every verdict Ofl the popular will, and to
be controlled at all times by an abiding
faith In the agencies: -established . for the
direction of the affairs of -their govern-"
ment. Thus, our people exhibit a patriotic
disposition, which entitles them to demand
of those who undertake to. make and exe
cute their laws such faithful and unselfish
service in their behalf as can only be pro
moted by a serious appreciation of the
trust and confidence ewbtph the., acceptance
of public duty JitVltea" '. x----?--: ---
In obedience;, to constitutional require
ment, I hereby submit to the congress
certain information concerning national af
fairs, with the. suggestion of such legisla
tion as, in My judgment, Is necessary
and expedient; ; To secure brevity and to
avoid tiresome narration, I shall omit
many details; -concerning matters - within
federal control, which, by no means un
important, are more profitably discussed
In departmental reports.
I shall also-further curtail this communi
cation by onjftting a. minute recital of any
minor Incidents connected with our foreign
relations Which have' heretofore found a
place In executive messages, but are now
contained iir. -a report of the secretary of
state, which is herewith submitted:
FOBEIGN RELATIONS.
America at
n
Persecuted
Armenians.
At the ojitset oft rrternpe to the more
Important "rnjitters affecting our relations
with foreigh powers. It would afford me
satisfaction. If I could assure the congress
that the Swturbed conditions in ' Asiatic"
Turkey had-jduring the pist year; -assumed
a less hideous and bloody aspect,, and"
that, either as a consequence of the awak
"Baft
of the sr&t nations having the right by
treaty to: ttirerrere fanr-.tii-e. -protection
of those iosed to trie fageuorjnad- bigotry"
and cruel fanaticism, the shocking features
of the situation had been mitigated. In
stead, however, "of welcoming -a--softened
disposition or protective Intervention, we
have been afflicted by continued and not
Infrequent reports-- of j the , wanton, de
truction Sf homes and the "bloody' butch
ery of m?n, women and' "Children-:--made
martyrs & tpelr profession of Christian
faith. !
While nonejf of our citizens In Turkey
have thus: far been . killed -wounded,
' though - often! In "the midst of dreadM-J
cenes oir danger, their safety in the
future is3y. no means assured. Our gov
ernment at home and: our minister, at Con
stantinople Have 9eft, 'nothing undone?'- to.
protect onr missionaries -inrOttoman terri
tory, wh c6ns,ti&teeriy:'all eiadi-'
viduals residing there who 'have""a Wghl" tb4
claim ouf protection on the
score of
American, citizenship.
Our effort i In this dlreetlpn"wril"n'o't be
relaxed, but the deep feeling' and symnathy
that have been raised among onrj peopl
- ougnt net p so tar Dlind their reason
and judgment as tWleajJ them, to demand
ImpossibTCe tti tags. ne. outbreaks of bifnd
fury, wljch;lead.o njtarder and pillage in
Turkey, -occur sudden Jyand 'without notice,
and an attempt on ,oir part to force such
a hostlli presence ''there as might be ef
fective fbr prevention or protection would
not only' bef resisted by the Ottoman gov
ernment, but would be regarded -as . am.,
Interruption of their plans by the great
nations .who assert their exclusive right
to interenf in -flteln own time And method
for theV security-'of cllfe' aBd property in
Turkey" i s-i " - ' . v.. j,
Several naval vessels are stationed in
.the Mediterranean, as a measure of cau
tion and to furnish all possible relief and
refuge in as ft- mergeflf 36- - j, .;.
Claims Airalnat Turkey.
We have made.clalms against the Turk
ish government for "the pillage and ' de
struction of missionary property at Harput
and Marash,. during uprisings at these
places. Tlius' far,"' tKe" validity of these
, demandsr- has 1 "lioKCDeen. admitted,' -though
our minister; -prior to such outrages, and
In anticipation - of danger,' demanded
protection for the persons and property
of our missionary citizens in the localities
mentioned, and..;' notwithstanding . that
strong evidence exists-of the actual com
plicity of Turkish soldiers in the -work -of.
destructjpn-'ana WBiSery. The facts, as they
now .appear,'- do riot , permit"-us. to doubt
the justice "of. 'fhse ' claims, anij. nothing
will be bmitted to bring about their prompt
settlement.'' ;.-"' ' i' -,
A number of Armenian refugees-having
arrived at bur i5orts;- and an order having'
lately beerii' obtained' fronv the Turkish
government; 'permittihg the . wives, -andi
children1 -of- such -refugees, to-. Join them
here, It, Is hoped that hereafter no ob
stacle -will. 'be iHterp'osed to. prevent .the
escape' of" all those" who -seek' to avoid the
- perils' whchhrgateti; them Jn Turkish do-;
U1HUUUO.
Our recently appointed consul to Erze
roum. Is at his post and discharging the
duties of l-hlslofficej .though, for some unac
countable reason his formal exequatur
from the sultan has not been issued.
I do not believe that ibe present somber
prospect in Turkey "will be long permitted
to offend the sight of Christendom. It so
mars the 'humane! and. ,;enligh tened civili
sation that belongs to the close of the
19th century, " mat j it seems hardly possible
that theearjneat-emand of good people
throughout the Christian "world for its
corrective treatment, will . remain unan
swered. ' :. . , . . . . .
' THE -CCBAW -ftl'ESTlOJr.
friendly Offleea of the United States
Offered to. Settle the War.
.The Insurrection in' Cuba still continues,
with all its perplexities. It is difficult to
perceive that any progress has thus far
been made towards the pacification of the
island, or that the situation of affairs, as
deplcfed'in my tast annual message, has in
the leas,t improved. ' ...
If Spain still holds 'Havana and the sea
ports 'and all the considerable, towns; the
Insurgents still roam at will over at least
two--thirds of the inland country. The de
termination of Spain to put down the in
surrection seems but strengthened with
the lapse ct-'time, as .is ;evincedby her
unhesitating devotion of largely Increased
military and naval forces to the task.
There i-much reason, tp beliete ..that the
Insurgents have gained :in number, char-
'acter and resources', and. are none the less'
Inflexible "In their resolve not -to -succumb
without practically securing the great ob
ject tot which .they took up arms.
If Spain has not yet re-established her
authority, neither have the Insurgents yet
made good their title to be regarded as an
Independent state. Indeed, as the contest
has gone on, the pretense that civil gov
ernment exists on the Island, except so far
as Spain ix bIe to. maintain It, has been
" practically abandoned. Spain "does keep
on foot such a government, more or less
Imperfectly,, in the large towns and their
Immediate suburbs, but, that exception
"being made, the entire country is either
given over to anarchy or is subject to tne
military occupation of one or tha other
party. It Is reported. Indeed, on reliable
authority, that at the demand of the cbm-mander-Jn-chief
of the Insurgent army
the putative Cuban government has now
g-iven up all attempt to exercise Its func-
fiOUBf jeaVHl WJl fcuvci uiuciii uuu,ccu- ,i
(wqaf fheref is best reason' for suppos
ing It always to ha-Je been In fact); 0V
ernment merely on paper. 1 1 jjjt
,'l!if!
H;:"IertrpU'oa. of Property.4
i Meanwhile, as in all cases of protract
' fed -''civil,-', strife',' She passions of the
combatants grow; .more -and more
Inflamed, and exfcessteaj faTz Betirsides-
become ; more ' freijuijhti infe'
deplorable. They are -triso.partkUpa.teq in
by -bands, of. marauders who now in the
name of one party, and now in the name
of i' the' -other as. may best suit the occa
sion, harass the country at 1Mlt nd
plunder its wretched inhabitanttfiMStJieir
tf4rdtanfageA gueh a condltionjcrf jjhjrigs
jv'ouffl &iiAfafejy entail immense destrtic
rr6ffbrpfcpertl, jyen if it were the policy
of one party to prevent it as far as prac
ticable. But while such SdeiAeaj ft? qej-t ha
original policy of -the Spaistt eimf pt:
it has now apparently .abaniHqpfd; Jf f
is &cting-upon the same theory as tfe In-'
suissh aiamely; That the exigencies of
ine contests require me wiiuit-saie blixui-
bilation of proper ty-fhat it-nay-jt jirAxe J;
of any use anit. advantage to the enemy.
It te to the. sai end that. In pursuance
of , inerat irdere- Spanish, gar j-isq'nV are
jdow: (being . withdrawn -.from planjationa,
and the rurar-TopVlfttiPU,. is. ybeiji-g re.
quired to concentrate itself -in- the townv
"The slJ'te3tttKuld- seem?tohe thaUtfiS,
industrial value;-of : the Island "is fast -diminishing.
andr,tiranless there is a
speedy .-and jradical-Jqange- in-ihe exteliBaJ
UUIliLlUUS 1L Will UUU imaficai tyJ
gether, Z v ' ' - j i
' - '" j- w4. -'- ,i
Our Concern in Cuba.
The spectacle of the utter ruin of an
adjoining country, by nature one of the
'-mosC-fertile--antj charming;'; oft;" the . wftoie-
giobe, would engage the serious' attention
of the government and the people of the
United .States in. any circumstances. In
point of fact, they have"a concern" "With it
which is by no means of a wholly senti
mental or philanthropic character. It lies
so- near to Jjs as Jto be hardly separated
froinour-'tei-ritory. " Uf;'acual pecuniary
interest In it Is second only to that' of the
people of Spain. It is reasonably estimated
that at least from" $30,000,000 to .$50,000,000
of American capital is invWted' irh planta7'
tions and in railroads, mining and other
business enterprises on the island. The
volume of trade between the United States
and Cuba, .which in 1889 amounted to about
$6.000,000; rose in 1893 to about $103,000,000,
and in 1894, the year before the -present
Insurrection broke out, amounted to near
ly $96,000,000.. ;
' Demand for Intervention. .
' These inevitable entanglements of the
"United States with the rebellion In Cuba,
the large American property interests
affected,-! and, , considerations of philan
thropy and humanity in general, have led
to a vehement demand in various quar
ters for some sort of positive intervention
on the 'part' of 'the United States. It was
at first proposed that belligerent rights
should -be accorded the insurgents, a
proposition no longer weighed because its
untimely and impractical operation would
be clearly perilous and injurious . to our
interests. It-has -since been and is now
sometimes . contended that. the. independ
ence' of the nrisurgents should be recog
nized. But, imperfect and restricted as
the Spanish government of the island may
be, sTro tulier exists there," unless the will
of 7 the military' pnjiej) in temporary com
mand of a particular district can be dig
nified as a species of government. It is
j-jiq-y alsojsuggfested that' the United States
snuuiu uuy me umuu a suggesuuu jjuse-
sibiy worthy of consideration if there
were, any evidences of a desire or will
ingness on the part of Spain to enter
tain such a proposal. It is urged, finally,
that, all other methods failing, the exist
ing internecine-stFife?.-in Cuba should be
terminated-by., our intervention,, even at
the cost of a war between the United
States and Spain a war which its advo
cates confidently prophesy could, neither
be Jiu-ge- ta-iW'r&twrtions aor doubifuj
.ln'Its "Issue: ' -'- - ' " "":,
. A Character to Maintain.
' The correctness of -this fprecast need be
neither affirmed ilor denied. ,-The "United
States has, nevertheless, '.a character to
maintain as a. r nation which plainly dic
tates mat rignt ana not migm snouia De
the rule of Its conduct.
f " Further, - though, jthe,JTnited States is
not a nation to which peace is a necessi
ty, -is Is, in truth,, the most pacific of
powers and desires ' nothing so much as
to live in amity with all the world. Its
own ample -arid diversified domain sat
isfies all possible " longings . for terri
tory, precludes all. claims of conquest and
prevents any- casting of -covetous eyes up
on neighboring regions, however attrac
tive. .,- -
That our conduct towards Spain and her
.dp.minlons has constituted:-no exception to
this national dispositioif is made manifest
by the course of our government, not only
thus, far during the present lnsurrection,
ibtit durhig thje"iO years that followed the
rising of Yara 3n 1868. No other great
power, It may safely' be" said, under cir
cumstances of similar perplexity, would
"have manifested the-same, restraint and
J (became patient .endurance. ,
Respect for Spain.
..It may also be said that this persistent
attitude of the United 'States towards
Spain in connection with Cuba unques
tionably evinces ho slight respect and re
jcard for Spain on the part of the Amer
ican people. They, in truth, do not forget
Tier connection with the discovery of the
Western hemisphere, nor -do they under-
estlm'ate" the great qualities, of the Span- '1
lish people, nor fail to fully recognize their
'splendid patriotism- and their chivalrous
devotion' to the national- honor. They
view" with, wonder ,and. admiration the
, cheerful resolution .With.-whieh vast bod
ies of-men- are sent, across thousands of
miles- of ocean, and. an., enormous debt ac
cumulated .that, the costly possession of
the .Gem of the Antilles may still hold its
place.-in the Spanish. crown.' .'
And yet neither the' government nor the
peoplevOf. the . United- States have shut
their eyes to. .the course of events in Cuba
nor , baye . failed to realize' the extent- of
conceded grievances2, trhich- have led to
the present revolt from1 the authority of
Spain, grievances" recognized by the queen
regent ."and by the'eortes, -voiced by the
most! patriotic and -enligh tened of Spanish
statesmen without'-regard - to party, and
demohstrated by reforms proposed by the
executive and -approved by the legislative
branch of the Spanish -government. It is
in the' assumed temper and disposition of
the 'Spanish governmeat tp remedy these
grievances, fortified -io? indications of in
fluential ' public- - opinion . : )n Spain, that
this government has hoped to discover the
most- promising. -and. effective means of
composing -the present : strife with honor
and 'advantage to. Spa.i'a and with "the
achievement of .all.., the. . ostensible ob
jects of. tha. insurrecfion, . :
' -: ' ;. .A-Way iOnt 'of It. .
Kevertfieless, realizing that suspicions on
the part of .the weaker . of the two com
batants are: always.-natural and not 'al
ways unjustifiable, being sincerely desirous
in the interest of both as well as on bur
own account that the. Cuban problem should
be solved with the, 'least possible
delay, - it was intiniated , ' by this
government - to the' government of
Spain ' some months ago that - if a
satisfactory measure of home rule were ten
dered the Cuban insurgents, and would be
accepted by them upoa-a guaranty of its
execution, the United . "States would en
deavor to find a' Way?not ohjectiopable to
Spain of furnishing such guaranty.
While no definite response to this Inti
mation has yet been received from the
Spanish government, . it is believed to be
'not altogether unwelcome, while, as already
suggested, : no jeason is perceived why It
Neither. ,arty can fail to' see the impor
tance of 'early action, and both must realize
that to prolong the present state of : things
for even a short period will add enormously
to the time and labor and expenditure
necessary to bring about the industrial re
cuperation of the island. It is, therefore,
fervently hoped on all grounds that earnest
efforts for healing the breach between Spain
and the Insurgent Cubans , upon, the lines
above indicated may be at once inaugu
rated and poshed to an immediate success
ful issue. The friendly offices of the United
States, either in the manner above outlined
or in any other way consistent with our
constitution and laws, will always be at the
disposal of either party. - ,
Whatever policy may arise, our policy
and our Interest would constrain us to
object to-the acquisition of -the island. or
to any interference with it control by any
other power. ., ; ' ' -,..'.-".';
OonJVfct Maat Soon XMitf. '
It should pel added that it cannot be trea
sonably assumed vjUiaXthe hitherto . ex
pectant attifo'de of the tTnited',Stat8s0wfri
be indefinitely maintained. While we are
anxious to Record--all due respecr'"to"tHS.p'
sovereign tysf spam, we cannot view tne
pentUne.cori'ct in all Its features and prop
erly j apprehend our close relations to it
and as, poMble results without considering
tharb- the-'course of events we mav .be
"Srawn "mto-such an unusual and unpreeevT
dented condttion as will fix a limit to rbttf
patient waiting for Spain to end. the con
test, eithe- alone and in her own' way,
or with crtiic. friendly co-operation.-;"
When ttte-,inabili.ty of Spam to deal sue
cessfully VUh th ' JnsilrgBiitB 1asVbepOms-4
manifest, aiod it isidenioiistratd thai her J
anirerpie-nfe'jL.'iH pvtinrt lij Chlbaf 3Tor Jflrf nur-
tpeses of ts rightfijl eEisteace and) when
to.hopeless-;" struggle' for""its 're-estabiish-
-linHnt has'egenerated into a Btrife which
Tnreans norhing -more than the useless
sacrifice -ol( human, life and (he, ytter .de
struction of every subject mtfytip t)9pe
conflict, situation will be presented tn
whTcK bufe obligations to the "sovereignty' of
Spain wjH be superseded by higher obli
gations, . ik-Jilch we can hardly, hesitate to
recognize" and discharge. - Deferring the
choice of-rays and-methods until, the time
for actioV arrives, we Should make' then
depend upon the precise conditions than ex
isting.; a&J they should not be det'ermihed
upon wilhput giving careful heed to every
- eonsiderion involving our honor and in-
terest, 'g- the International duty we owe
to Spal- Until we face the contingencies
-suggested or the situation is by other incidents-.Imperatively
changed, we should
continue".in the line of conduct heretofore
pursued. -thus In all circumstances exhib
iting ouS. obedience to the requirSmen'tS-'of;.
publifCiaw and our regar.d -for. the duty en
joined upon us by the pbsitloir'' we occupy
in the galaxy of nations.
. A contemplation of emergencies that may
arise should plainly lead us to avoid their
creation, either through a careless disregard
of present duty or even an undue stimula-
tion and ill-timed expression of feeling. But
I have" deemed it not amiss to remind. the
mnrrwM th-at u Hmo mair at-r-fv'' vTiaii a
correct . policy and care for our Interests.
as well;as regard for the interests of .othein
nations and their citizens, joined by con
siderations of humanity and a desire to see
a rich and fertile country. Intimately re
lated to us. saved from complete devasta
tion, will constrain our government to such
action, will subserve the Interests involved
and at the same time promise to Cuba, and
its inhabitants an opportunity to enjoy the
blessings of peace. . .-- ' f " :";' '-e' . -vJ r
THE: VENEZLE31.A BOUNDARY.
Negrotiationa for a Treaty of .General
Arbitration. -'
The' Venezuela boundary question has
ceased to be a matter of difference between
Great Britain and the United States, their
respective governments having agreed upon
the substantial provisions of a treaty be
tween Great Britain and Venezuela, sub-V
mitting the whole corttrpversyi to . arbitra-J
uob. The provisions at,th treaty fre: so.;
eminently just ana lair tnat tne assent oi
Venezuela thereto may confidently be an
ticipated. - . ;.
Negotiations by a treaty of general.ar
bitration for all differences jiefween Great
Britain and the United States "are far ad
vanced, and promise to reach a successful
consummation at. an early date.
TREASURY DEPARTMENT.
Excess of
Expenditures
ceipts.
Over . Re-
The secretary of- the.rtreauQr-ceports
that during the 'fiscal year ended June 30,
1896, the receipts of the government from
all sources amounted to $409,475,408 76.
During the same period, its expenditures
were $434,678,654 48, the excess of expendi
tures over receipts thus' amounting to $25,-
203,245 72. , The ordinary expenditures dur
ing the year were $4,015,852 21 less than
jdurin tierecdiijg ja,a4year.
receipts menuonea, mere were aenvea ,
from customs the sum of $180,021,751 67. and.
from internal revenue $146,830,615 .66. . 'Tha
receipts from customs show an Increase of
$T,S63,134 22 over those from the same
source for the fiscal year eliding r June
30, 1895, and the receipts from -internaM
revenue an increase of $3,584,537 91.
The value of our imported duMable mer
chandise during the last fiscal year was
$3.59,757,770, and the value of free goods.
imported $409,967,470, being an increase of
$6,523,675 in the value of dutiable goods
and $41,231,034 in the value of .free goods
over the preceding year. Our exports of
merchandise, foreign and domestic,
amounted in value to $882,606,938, being an
Increase over the preceding year.-of $75,
068,773. . The average ad valorem' duty paid
on dutiable goods imported during the
year was 39.94 per cent, and on free and
dutiable goods taken together 20.55 per
cent.
Jrhe cost of collecting the internal rev
enue was 2.78 per cent, as against 2.81
per cent for the fiscal year ending June 30,
1896. . - -
Lll esa-vina Service.
From the lifesaving service It Is reported
that the number of disasters to docu
mented vessels within the limits of its
operations during the year was 537. These
vessels had on board 4608 persons, of
whom. 4595 were saved and 13 lost. The
value" of sudh vessels . is, estimated at
$8,880,140, and of their cargoes $3,846,380,
making the total value of property im
periled $12,726,520. Of this amount. $11,
292,707 was saved and $1,432,750 was lost.
Sixty-seven of the vessels were totally
wreeked.. There were besides 243 casual
ties ta "small undocumented craft, -on
board0orwhlch there were 594 persons, of
whom 587 were saved and seven lost. The'
value of the property involved In these
latter casualties is estimated at $119,265,
of which $114,955 was saved, and $4350 was
lost. The lifesaving crews during the year
also rescued or assisted numerous other
vessels and warned many from danger by
'"signals- both by day and night. The num
ber of disasters during the year exceeded
that of any. previous year in the history
of the service, but. the saving of both life
and property was greater than ever before
in proportion to the value of the property
involved and to the number of persons
imperiled. "
. Marine Hospital Service.
The .operations of - the marine hospital
service, the " revenue cutter service, the
steamboat inspection service, the light-
- house service, the bureau of navigation and
other branches of public work attached to
the treasury department, together with
various recommendations concerning their
support and improvement, are fully stated
in the report of the secretary of the treas
ury, to" which '' the attention of congress
is especially invited.
THB WAR DEPARTMENT.
Little Active Work for the
Dnrlns; the Year..-..
Army
. The' report of the secretary of war ex
hibits satisfactory conditions in the several
branches of the public service intrusted to
his charge. The ..Jimit of our military
force, as fixed by law, is constantly and
readily maintained. The present discipline
and morals of om 'army "-are. excellent, and
marked progress" and efficiency are appar
ent throughout its entire organization.
With -the exception of delicate duties in
the -suppression of . slight Indian disturb
ances along our southwestern boundary,
in. which the Mexican troops co-operated,
and the compulsory but peaceful return,
with the oonsent of Great Britain, of a
band of Cree Indians from . Montana to
the British possessions, no-active opera
tions have been required of the army dur
ing the -year past. ' '
. Changes in the method of administration,
the abandonment of unnecessary posts, and
the ' consequent -' concentration of troops,
and the exercise of care and vigilance by
the various officers charged with the re
sponsibility., in the expenditures of the ap
propriations, have resulted in reducing to
a minimum the cost of maintenance of
our military establishment. '
During 'the past year the work of con-"
structing permanent infantry and cavalry
posts'-has been continued at places here
tofore designated. -The secretary of war
repeats his recommendation that appropria
tions for barracks and quarters should
more strictly conform to the need of the
service, as judged by the department,,
rather than respond to the wishes and im
portunities of localities. It is imperative
that much' of the money provided for such
construction should now be allotted to the
erection of necessary quarters for the gar
risons assigned to the coast defenses, where
many men will be needed to properly care
for and operate modern guns. . It. lc es-
sentlal. rtoo, that.. early provision be made
to. .supply, the necessary, force of artillery-
to meet the demands of this service; -
Coast Fortifications,
- I51nli
been made toward the completion of the
scheme adopted for the protection and
armament of fortifications along our sea
coast, while equal Progress has been made
Lin providing the material for submarine
defenses in cronneotion "with these works.
It ispecullM-ly gsatifyfng. at this? time.il
.u jnute ine great jaavajce tnat nasi been?
made, in this important undertaking since
the date of my annual message to the 63d
Congress at the onenin? ftf ita aonnti n n-
-npaj e&sio--ijt ' lpepember,-1893. At that
tlmej, I Jnformjed 1 cojigresof the ap-
proachUig cemBleJloii of' ninejOi-inch. 20 10-
incb and 34 8-Jnh jhlgn-poer steel guns,
and 73 Ifi-lrieH rifled mortars.- This- total
then seemed Insignificant compared with
the great work remaining to be done, yet it
WaS nOnf thf IPUI a am ,,- n nf aaHafanUnn
fctit ev,ery. fclflzen rfi eh ;hff reflected that.it I
r represented the first mStallmnt Of the new. I
ordnance-of -American- design a-nd American
manufacture, and demonstrated our ability
to supply from our own resources guns of
unexceiled.power ;and accuracy; At that
date, however, there, were practically no
carriages upon which' to mount these guns;
and .only 31 emplacements for guns and
6" for-mortars;: Nor were-all these n-4.
placements in . condition to receive, their
armament. Only one high-power gun was
at that timet in position-; f((r the defense, of
the entire coast. .Since that time, the num
ber of guns 'actually completed .ha& been
increased to 21 12-imh. 66 10-lnch, and 61
8-ir.cn rifle mortaa-g.i -v
Jn addition there are In process of con-
tructian : onfe.rtfranelf-tyije ;gun, M 12-ineh,r
po jv-mcn,. ist. s-incn nign-power guns, and
66" 12-mch rifled mortars," fa aIl-428 guns and
mortars. -
rOSTOEFlCK DEPARTMENT.:
The
Deficit .
.- l- :
Leaa -Than
Yearit
In Former
I Our postofflce department ' Is -ih-(Wof
.condition, ,: and ilhe.--exhibit made, .of .Its
operations during" the fiscil year" : ended
June 30, 1896,y-,tf allowance Is made for
imperfections ih'the'laws applicable Ho it,
is very' ."satlsfactfliryi. .The. total receipts
during the ' year ' were- $82,499:208 40. ' The
total expenditures, were $90.626,286 84, ex
clusive of $1,559;88 27. which was earned
by the Pacific railroads for transportation
and-, credited -on tleir debt to the- govern
inent.7 There "was an-increase of receipts
over the previous year of $5,516,080 21, or
7.1 ner cent, an Inorease of expenditures' of
3,836,124 (B. or 4,42 .per, cent. . The deficit
was $1,679.956 "19 'less- than that of the pre
ceding year.
The chief expenditures of the postal ser
vice are regulated by law and are not in
the control of the postmaster-general.' All
that he can accomplish by the most watch-,
ful administration and economy is to en
force .prompt and thorough collection; and
accountings, for public moneys and such
minor savings in .small expenditures and . in
letting those contracts for postofflce sup
plies' and. star, service which are not regu
lated by statute. -
An., effective .corOperatlon' between the
auditor's office, arid; tha ijpttstdfjjce depart
ment, and the making and enforcement
of orders by the department requiring im
mediate notification to their sureties of
any delinquencies on the part of post
masters and -compelling such postmasters
to make more frequent deposits of postal
funds, have resulted in a prompter audit
ing of their accounts and much less de
fault to the government than heretofore.
The ' year's- report shows -large ...exten
sions of both ' star; route- service and rail--,
way mall service, - with increased postal
facilities. Much, higher accuracy in hand
ling mails has also" '. been -reached, as
appears by the decrease' of errors . in the
railway mall service and the TediicIdn of
mall matter returned to the dead-letter
.' - ;"' V- - A" erovtffftK-'Abtise. .-t -The
deficit for the.-year although much
les3 than that' of the last "and preceding
years,, emphasizes the necessity for legis
lation to correct .the temwlty.abuse of
second-class rates, to -which ujd'eficit -is
mainly attributable. The transmission at
the rate .of 1. cent a. pound-. of serial li
braries, advertising sheets, "house or
gans" (periodicals advertising some par
ticular "house" or institution), sample
copies and the like, ought ' certainly to
be discontinued. A glance at the revenues
received for . the work done last year will
show more plainly than any -other state
ment the gross abuse of the postal ser
vice, and the. growing waste of its .earn
ings. The' free matter .cajcried rinthe;
mails for the department, offices, ' 'etc..
of the government,- and for congress. In
pounds, amounted ;to 94,480,189. If this
is offset against" buildings for postofflces
and stations, the rental of which would
more than compensate for such free postal
service, we have this , exhibit:
Weight of mall matter - (other than
aove) transmitted thwmg-h the malls for
tne year endlng-June'" 30, 1896: .-. . .
i - - Weight Revenue
Domestic and foreign
, letters, postal cards,
etc 65,337,343 $60,624,464
Newspapers, periodicals
a cent per pound)... 348,988,648 2,996,403
Books, seeds, etc., (8
cents per pound) 78,701,148 10,324,069
Parcels, etc. (16 cents
per pound) 19.950,187 3,320,321
Totals 7. 512,977,326 $77.044,257
The' remainder of our postal revenue,
amounting to something over $5,000,000,
was .derived from box rents, registry fees,
money-order business and other similar
Items. The entire expenditures of the de-t
partment, including pay for transporta
tion credited to the Pacific railroads, was
$92,186,19611, 'which may be considered as
the cost of receiving, carrying and deliver
ing the above" -mail matter. - It thus
appears that though the second-class mat
ter constituted more than-": two-thirds of
the -total that' was carried, the revenue
derived, from it was less than one-thirtieth
of total ' expenses. The average, revenue
from each pound of first-class matter .was
93 cents, from each pound of second-class
matter 8H mills (of . the second class 52,
348,297 pounds was free matter); from each
pound of third class, 13.1 cents; from each
pound of fourth class, 15.6 cents. .
- The . growth of weight . in second-class
matter has been from 299,000,000 pounds in
1894 to 312,000,000 in 1895, and to almost
349,000,000 in 1896, and it is quite evident
this increasing - drawback 'is far outstrip
ping any possible growth of. postal revenues.-
.: ' ."''"'
Our mail service should, of course, be
"such as to meet the wants and even the
conveniences of our. people,; with a direct
charge upon them so light as to exclude
the idea of our postofflce' department -being
a money-making concern; but in the
face o( the constantly recurring deficiency
in its revenues. . and to .view of the fact
that we supply the best mail service; In
the world, it seems to me it is' quite time .
to correct the abuses that swell enormous
ly our annual deficit. If we-concede the
public policy of carrying papers free in
the county of publication, and even the
policy of carrying at less than one-tenth
their cost other bona fide newspapers and
periodicals,' there can be no excuse for
subjecting the service to the further ' im
mense and Increasing loss involved in car
rying at the nominal rate -of ,1 cent a
pound the serial libraries sometimes In
cluding trashy and even harmful litera
ture, arid other 'matter, which, under the
loose interpretation of a loose statute, has
been gradually given second-class rates,
thus absorbing . all profitable -returns de
rived from first-class matter, which pays
three or four times more than its cost, and
producing a large -annual loss to be paid
by general taxation.. If such- second-class
matter merely- paid the coat-of Its handling,
our - deficit would Usappear and a -surplus
result -which "might JSC used to-give
the people still better man facilities or a
cheaper rate of letter postage. .,
, - INTERIOR DEPARTMENT. 7f S
Spent -a Hach Money, as It jed to
Take to Ran the Government,
The report of the secretary of the Interior
presents a comprehensive and interesting
exhibit of the numerous and . important
affairs committed to his supervision. It is
Impossible in this - communication - to do
more than briefly refer . to a few of the
subjects concerning which the secretary
gives lull and instructive information.
The money appropriated on account of
this department for its disbursement for
the fiscal year ending June 30, 1896, amount
ed to mere- than $157,006,000, or a greater
sum than was appropriated for the .entire
maintenance of the. government for the
twi' fiscal years ended June 30, 1861.
"fr-; Public la-Ads.
Our public lands, originally amounting to
1,840,000.000 acres, have been - so reduced
that only 600,000,000 still remain in govern
ment control, excluding Alaska. The bal
ance, being by far the most valuable por
tion, has been given away to settlers, to
new suites and to railroads, or sold at a
comparatively nominal sum,
. The patenting' of tend, ti execution, of
railroad grants has. progressed ..rapidly
during the year, and since the '4th day of
March, 1893, about 25,000.000 acres have
thus been conveyed to these corporations.
I agree with the secretary that the . re
mainder of our public lands should be. more
carefully dealt with, "and their - alienation
guarded against by, better economy, and
greater prudence. . ' '"
" " -:- .,..";:.
-i Vj 'J Indian Affairs.
The' total Indian population of the. United
States Is 177,235, according to a census: -'blade-,
in 1895, exclusive of those within the sta.te
of New York-and those comprising, the five
civilized tribes. Of- this number,'.'' there'
are .approximately 38,000'. Children of school
age. During the year, 23,33&.Of these .were.
Arallpri tn nrhnnls -. Th o Miricrrpoa whlrh
"lias 'attended recent efforts to. extend In
dian, school facilities and' the anticipation
of continued liberal appropriations Jo that
end cannot fail to afford. the utmost. satis
faction to those .who. believe that the edu
cation of Indian "children is'a 'prime factor
in the,- accomplishment of IndiaH..-clviliza-
tion. .. ..... ..
It may be said in general terms "thai" in1
every -particular the improvement of : the:
Indiana under government -has been most.
marked and encouraging. The secretary,
the commissioner of. Indian, affairs, and the
agents having charge of Indians to whom
allotments have been made, strongly urge
the passage of a law- prohibiting the sale
of liquor to allottees" who . have taken
their lands in severalty. ---1 earnestly Join
in this recommendation,' and venture to ex
press the hope "that the , Indian .may be
speedily protected against this one greatest
of all evils to. his well-being and advance
ment. . '' -..--. -The.
condition of affairs among the five
civilized tribes, who occupy large tracts
of land in the Indian territory and who
have governments- of - their own, has as
sumed such an aspect as to render it al
most indispensable that there should be
an entire change In the relations of these
Indians to the general government This
seems to be necessary In furtherance of
their own Interests, as well as for the
protection of non-Indian residents in their
territory. A commission organized and
empowered under several recent laws Is
now negotiating with? these Indians for
the relinquishment of 'their courts and the.
division of their common lands in sever
alty, and are aiding in the settlement of
the troublesome question of tribal mem
bership. The reception of their first prof
fers of negotiation, was not encouraging
but through, patience and. such conduct on
their part -as demonstrated' that their in
tentions were friendly and in the interest
of the tribes, -the prospect of. success has
become more promising. - The effort
should be to save these Indians from the
consequences of their own mistakes and
Improvidence and to secure to the real
Indian his rights as against intruders
and professed friends who profit by his
retrogression. A change is also needed to
protect life and property through the op
eration 'of courts conducted according' to
strict justice and strong enough to en
force their mandates. . . ,
... As a sincere friend of the Indian I am
exceedingly -anxious that these reforms
should be accomplished with the consent
and aid of the tribes, and that no neces
sity may be presented for radical "or
drastic . legislation.. -1 . hope, " therefore,
that thiS commission- now conducting ne
gotiations will soon be able to report that
jtujaienrfcM .m anaU twtrt aifriidly4:of; himself.: aqd pbj.ecti of his . loyeand.,
adjustment of existing difficulties.
r.f. - ' "
it : Pacific Railroads. -
f he secretary "calls attention to the pub
lieS interest's involved in -an adjustment
of .'the obligations of the Pacific railroads
toithe government 1 deem It to be an im
portant duty to especially present this, sub
ject to the consideration of the congress.
. On January 1, 1897, wtth the amount al
ready matured, more than $13,000,000 of the
principal of thfi subsidy bonds issued by
the United States in aid of the construc
tion of the Union Pacific railway, includ
ing its Kansas line, and more than $6,000,
000 of like honds issued in aid of the Cen
tral Pacific railway, including those Issued
to. the Western Pacific!- Railway Company,
will have fallen due and been paid or must
on that day.be paid by the government.
Without any reference to the application of
the sinking fund now in the treasury, this
will create men a default on the part of
these companies to the government as will
give it the right to af once institute pro
ceedings to foreclose its mortgage lien. In
addition ' to this indebtedness that will
be due January 1, 1897,--4hei-e will mature
between that-date and' January 1, 1899, the
Remaining principal of such subsidy bonds,
which must also be met by the govern
ment ' These amount . to more than $20,-000,000-
- on account of. the Union Pacific
lines, and exceed $21,000,000 on account of
the Central Pacific 'lines.
- The situation of these roads and the
condition of their Indebtedness to the gov
ernment have been fully set forth in the
reports of various committees to the pres
ent and prior congresses, and as early as
1887 they were thoroughly examined by a
special commission appointed pursuant to
an act of congress. The considerations' re
quiring an adjustment of the government's
relations to the companies have been clear
ly presented, and the conclusion reached
with practical uniformity that If thess
relations are not terminated they should
be revised upon a basis securing their safe
continuance. -.
Under a section of the act of congress
passed March 3, 1887, the president is
charged with the duty, In the event that
any mortgage or other incumbrance, para
mount to the interest of the United States
in the - property of the Pacific railroads
shall, exist and be lawfully liable to be
enforced, to direct aetion of the depart
ments of the treasury and of justice in
the protection of the Interest of the United
States by thorough judicial proceedings,
including foreclosure, of the government
liens. In view of the fact that the con
gress has for a number of "years almost
constantly had under consideration plans
for dealing with the conditions existing be
tween these roads and the government,- I
have thus far felt justified in withholding
action under the statute above mentioned.
The Union Pacific Came.
In the case of the. Union Pacific, how
ever, the - situation has become especially
and Immediately urgent Proceedings have
been instituted foreclose a first mort
gage upon those aided parts of the main
line upon which the government holds a
second and subordinate mortgage lien. In
consequence of these proceedings and in
creasing complications, added to the default
occurring on the 1st day of January, 1897,
a condition will be presented on that date,
so far as this company is concerned, that
must emphasize the mandate of the act
of 18S7 and give to executive duty under
its -provisions a more imperative aspect
Therefore, unless congress shall otherwise
direct, or shall have previously determined
upon a different solution of the problem,
there will hardly appear to exist any rea
son for delaying, beyond the date of the
default above mentioned, such executive
action as will promise to, subserve the pub
lic interests and save. tb,e government from
the loss threatened by further Inaction.
THB TARIFF.
The President's Defense-of the Wilson
' Bill.
, '- ---'-: -; - ' -i"-. - " '..--. ;
I- desire ta refer to the; liataman.t else
where, made concerning the government re
ceipts and expenditures for the purpose of
venturing upon some suggestions touching
our present tariff law and its oseration.
This statute took effect on the 3th day
of August 1894. " Whatever may be Its
shortcomings as a complete measure of
tariff reform, it must be conceded that it
has opened the way to a freer and greater
exchange . of commodities between "the
XTrdted.-. States- and- other countries, and
thus furnished a wider market for our prod--I
ucts ana manufacturing. The -only entire
fiscal year during which this law has been
in force ended on the 30th day of June, 1896.
In that' ytar our Imports increased over
those of the previous -year - more than
$6,600,000, "while the value of the domestic
product w exported and which found mar
kets abroad was nearly $70,000,000 more than
during the preceding year.
Those who insist that the coat to our
people of articles coming to them from
ab-jctad for their needful use, should only
be increased through tariff charges to
an extent necessary to meet the expenses
of the government as well as those who
claim- that tariff charges .may be
laid upon such : articles beyond
beyond the necessities of the' government
revenue and with the additional purpose
of so increasing their price in our markets
as to give American manufacturers and
producers better and more profitable oppor
tunities, must agree that our tariff-' laws
are only primarily -justified as sources, of
revenue' to enable the government to meet
-the neeessary expenses of its maintenance.
Considered as to : its 'sufficiency in this
aspect, the present la w . canr by no means
fall under Just" cori'demnatibriiDurlng-the
only complete (fiscal year, of its operation,
it has yielded nearly ..$8, 000,000 more revenue
than- Was. received from tariff' 'dotleoVto the:
pre.ee ding. year. 'nThere was,, nevertheless.- a'
deficit Between, .our receipts arid ' expendi
tures --of a? -little more than '$25,000,600. v ,.'
The situation was .sufch in. December,
seven months before the close of "the fiscal :
year,' that the1' 'secretary" of -the treasury-
fore'tota-a- deficiency of $17,O0OJ!9O. ...The
-great and increasing" apprehension : and'
timidity., Jn business circles iand::the'.-de-pression
in all activities. Intervening since
that :thne;-resulting from causes perfectly
. well -understood arid entirely- disconnected,
with our tariff law or . its operation,, .seri
ously checked the imports we would nave
"Otherwise received and readily account-for
' the. difference between the estimate of the
secretary and the actual deficiency as well
as for a continued deficit. -JEndeed it: must .
be confessed that we could hardly have had
a. more., unfavorable period than the' last
.two years for' the- collection of - a. tariff
revenue. ' ... . ' 1:
- We cannot reasonably hope that our re
cuperation from this business depression
will be sudden, but it has already set in
with a promise of acceleration arid con.
tinuance. . ' . ,;. : .
Use of the Snrplns..
. I believe our present tariff law,- if allow
ed a fair opportunity, will in the .near
future yield a revenue- which, with reason
ably economical expenditures, will over-C
eome all deficiencies. In the meantime, bo
deficit that -has occurred, or may occur,
need excite or disturb, us. TO meet any
such deficiency; we have in the treasury, in
addition to -a gold reserve of $100,000,000, a
surplus of more than $128,000,000 applicable
to ' the .payment of -the 'expenses . of the
government and which must, unless ex
pended for that purpose, remain In ...use
less hoard, or, if not extravagantly wasted,
must, in any event, be . perverted from
the purpose of Its exaction from our people.
The payment therefore, , of any deficiency
in the revenue from this fund is nothing
more than its proper and legitimate use.
The government,' thus ' applying a surplus
fortunately in Its treasury to the payment
of expenses not metty its current reve
nues. Is not at all to be likened' to a man
living vond his income, and- thus incur
ring de! or encroaching on his principal.
It is not one of the functions of our gov--ernment
to accumulate and make addi
tions to a fund not needed tor immediate
expenditure. With individuals, it. is the
chief, object -of struggle and effort The
(-application of an accumulated fund by the
government to the payment or its running
expenses is a duty. An Individual lishg
heyond his income- and embarrassing him
self with debt or drawing upon his ac
cumulated fund of principal is either un
fortunate or improvident The- distinction
Is as between a government charged with
the duty of expending for the benefit of the
people' and for proper purposes .all the
money it receives- from any source and
the individual who Is expected to mani
fest - a natural desire to ivoid debt or
to accumulate as much as possible and
to live within the income derived from
such accumulations, to the end that they
may be increased, or at least remain un
impaired, for the future use and enjoyment
affection who riiay survive him.
It is Immeasurably better to appropriate
our surplus to the payment of Justifiable
expenses than to allow It to become an
invitation to reckless appropriations and ex
travagant expenditures. -'
- I suppose It will not be denied that under
the present law our people obtain the neces
saries of a comfortable existence at a
cheaper rate than formerly. This is a
matter of supreme importance, since it Is
the palpable duty of every Just govern
ment to- make the burdens of taxation as
light as possible. The people -should not
be required to relinquish this privilege
of cheap living, except under the stress
of their government's necessity made plain,
ly manifest - . ':
FINANCIAL MATTERS.
The Weakness and Vice of Our Prea-
.-"'"-;..' " ent Methods. -
' This reference to the condition and pros
pects of our revenues naturally suggests
an allusion to the weakness and vices of
our financial methods. They . have been
frequently pressed upon the attention of
congress in previous executive communica
tions, and the inevitable danger of their
continued toleration pointed out Without
now reDeatinsr these details. I -cane-"- re
frain from again earnestly presenting th
necessity of the prompt reform of a sys-
tem opposed to every rule of sound finance,
and shown hv e-rrw-rienoe toe fraueht with
and shown by experience toe fraught with
the gravest peril and perplexity.
The terrible war which shook the founda
tions of cur government more than 30 years
ago brought in its train the destruction of
property, the wasting of our country's
substance and the estrangement of breth
ren. These are' now past and forgotten.
Even the distressing loss of life the con
flict entailed is but a sacred memory which
fosters patriotic sentiment and keeps alive
a tender regard for those who nobly died.
And yet there remains with us today
in full strength, as an Incident of that
tremendous struggle, a feature of Its finan
cial necessities not only unsulted to our
present circumstances, but manifestly a
disturbing menace to business security and
an ever-present agent of monetary distress.
Because we may be enjoying a temporary
relief from Its depressing influence should
not lull us Into a false security nor lead
us to forget the suddenness of past visita
tions. ,
DEPARTMENT OF AGRJCt'LTXRE.
.. Export! of Firm Products.
.The secretary reports that the 'value of
our exports of farm products during the
last fiscal year amounted to $570,000,000,
an increase of $17,000,000 over those of the
year immediately preceding. This state
ment is none the less welcome because
of the fact that notwithstanding such .in
crease the proportion of exported agricul
tural products to our total exports of all
descriptions fell off during the year. The
benefits of an Increase in agricultural
exports being assured, the decrease In the
proportion to our total exports is the more
gratifying, when we . consider that It Is
owing to the fact that such total exports
for the year Increased more than $75,000,-
000. - :.
The large and increasing exportation of
our agricultural products suggests the
giAt J usefulness of the organization
lately established In the department for
the purpose of giving to those engaged In
farming pursuits reliable Information con
cerning the condition and needs arid "ad
vantages of - different foreign markets.
Inasmuch as the success of the farmer
depends upon the advantageous sale of
his products and inasmuch as ' foreign
markets must largely be the destination
of . such -products, it is quite apparent
that a knowledge of the conditions and
wants that affect those markets ought to
result In sowing more Intelligently and
reaping with a better prba nroflt.
Concluding- Remarks.
In concluding this communication,- Its"
last words shall fee. an appeal to the con- J
gress for the most rigid -economy in the 1
expenditure of the money it holds in trust ' :proposea match between Corbett and
for the people. The war Jo -perplexing;.?,.. , MMa
extravagances Is easy, but a return to
frugality is difficult. When, however, it
is considered that those who can bear
the burdens of taxation have no guaranty
of honest care, save in the fidelity of their
public servants, the. duty of all possible
retrenchment Is plainly manifest When
our differences are forgotten and our -con'
tests of political opinion are no longer re-membered,--netlfiiig.
In ' the' retrospect , of
our public service will be -as fortunate
and comforting as "the recollection- of of
ficial duty well performed, and the mem-"
ory of a constant devotion to the Interests
of our confiding fellow countrymen. -GROVER
CLEVELAND.
Executive Mansion, Dec. 7, 1895.
IHE NEWS OF THE WEEK
From All Parts of the
World and the "Old.
New
OF INTEREST TO OUR READERS
Oomprahansive Review of the Import
ant Happenings of the Pant Week
. Called Vrmm the Telegraph Column
'A' Constantinople dispatch says r
massacre has -j occurred at Evock, it
which 100 Armenians are reported to
have been killed.
-;.; Murray, Idaho, a cave-in of the
.Smpll Hopes mine, killed Gua Holmes.
Holmes , was -working in a el pe and
fired, a blast -which probably caused tha
cavel''1''" ' ' :t - j
.M- .:...- r
.. Several members of '"the -Miners'
Union1 'of - Leadville, Colo., have been
ai rested under indictments by the spec
ial grand jury, lor their alleged con
nection with the attack on the Corc-.nado-and
Emmett mines a few months
ago.' l. . ' : ' '
- The New York Herald has a dispatch
from Havana which states that Antonio
Maced has crossed the trocha with a
large force. It is reported according to
this dispatch, that Captain-General
Weyler has been wounded at the front.
All. news from the scene of the engage
ment is suppressed by the officials at
the palace".
- Robert Fitzsimmuns and Tom Shar
key fought for a purse of f 10,000 in
San Francisco before the National
Clab. The contest was to be ten
rounds, bnt Sharkey was knocked out
in the eighth round. The referee,
however, 'gave the- fight to Sharkey,
claiming that Fitzsimmons deliberately
fouled Sharkey by striking him below
the belt
: United States Minister Denby, at
Peking, has informed the department
of state that the Japanese government,
has officially and formally renounced
that part of the treaty between China
and. Japan, made at the close of the re
cent war, which provides that all. ar
ticles manufactured by Japanese sub
jects in .China shall stand upon the
same footing as those imported by Jap
anese subjects, into China.'
The fighting cruiser . Brooklyn, the
newest addition to the United States
navy, has been tested and uccepted by
the government. - "
John Abel, a workman at the Nelson
Morris dressed beef works, St. Louis,
Mo., was horribly burned : while at
work. ' The flesh on the right leg was
parbbile'di" ;2bel tripped on the greasy
floor in the rendering-room, and fell
into a vat of boiling grease. .-; '
Jane Shelly, the 14-year-old daugh
ter, of : Joseph Shelly, a farmer living
bine miles south of 'tjiyihpia,"Washrr
was reaching for some object on the
mantlepieoe, when her o'othes cangbt
fire from the fire in the fire-plaoe. She
was terribly burned and died after a
few days of suffering.
Delbert Crawford, a young man 19
years old, was found twelve miles
from Pendleton, dead beneath an over
turned' loaded wagon. He was hauling
grain to the city, and the wagon ran
off the grade into a canyon. His four
horse team stood all night hitched to
the wagon, and were found the next
morning covered with snow.
T. J. Henry, living on the Apple-J
gate, near Jacksonville, Or., onNovem
ber 23 last went over to one of the min
ing camps to look for a job cooking for
the miners. He started home over the
Watkins trail.- A storm started up
and he wandered about in the moun
tains and froze to death. The whole
community turned out to search for
him, and suceeded in finding his body.
He bad orawled into a brush pile and
was frozen to deatn. tie leaves a
i , , - ,., j
' dow and six children practically des
titute.
Jennie Ward, a well-dressed young
woman, created a sensation by walk
ing along Wabash avenue, Chicago,
smoking. People turned and stared at
the woman, but she paid no attention
to them, and continued to send blue
clouds of smoke heavenward. She
was placed under arrest by Detectives
Woolridge and Schubert and locked up
at the -Harrison-street station, charged
with disorderly condnot, and when her
case was called for trial in Justice
Richardson's oourt she failed to apear.
"This is something terrible," said the
oourt, "and as a warning I will fine
this woman $1 for smoking. It 'r
rible." A freight train of thirty cars loaded
with lumber and shingles from the
West got beyond control on t heavy
grade east of Mullen tunnel, on -the
Northern Pacific road, and ran away.
Twenty-six oars were scattered along a
distance of eight miles, when the en
gine left the track. Ed Jarbeau, head
brakeman, was killed. Fireman Young
bad his collar bone broken, and En
gineer John Flunn's leg was broken,
besides internal injuries. Conductor
John MoBean's thigh was broken, and
bis back wrenched. It is the worst
wreck the Northern Paoiflo has ever
had from the point of damage to track
and rolling stock. ' "
A dispatoh from Lima, Pern, says
that observers there see a probability of
another clash of arms between Peru and
Bolivia, over the new trouble which is
brewing owing to Bolivia having pro
ceeded to fix the limits of her frontiers
in the Amazonian districts without
having an arrangement with Pern fox
the delimitation.
In Dieppe. France, an enormous mass
of cliffs collapsed and damaged property
to the extent of 120,000 francs. There
is much excitement, as the cliffs
threaten further slips.
- Dan Stuart, the Texas sporting man
is .quoted as. saying in regard to the
Fitzsimmons: "The nurse will be
UciK nnn mil T want tha ficrht tn ta'tza
'"place the latter part of March or early
in ApriL , I feel confident of securing
Corbett's signatureand, '.after getting
that, shall go for Fitzsimmons, and I
feel sure of him, too. I have the bat
tleground all ready, and there will be)
no interference.!' Pc-'V.
The laboratories, museums, insti
tutes, etc., connected with the Uni
versity of Berlin cost the state $530,
000 a year. ,
'-""'-: v. '''"'"'-" i ' ' '- ----"
CONGRESS IN SESSION.
Senate. j
The Unitedt States senate began th
jeoond session of the fifty-fourth cod
gress with crowded galleries and wit);
that accompaniment of activity and oi
greeting that usually attends the reas
sembling of oongress. But the uppei
branch of congress never puts aside ita
dignity, and the meeting developed no.
demonstrations of dramatic interest.
The reading of the president's messagn
was the feature of the proceedings, and
beyond this no attempt was made tq
enter upon the business of the session.
To many of the foreign representatives
occupying the diplomatic gallery, the
message had speoial interest and sig
nificance, owing to the part they had
taken in the oonspiouous foreign events
to whioh the president referred. On
the floor of the senate printed copies of .
the message were distributed, and these
gave the senators opportunity of read
ing. There was a small attendance
after the reading had proceeded beyond
the first half hour. After the usual
formality of laying the message on the
table, the senate, on motion of Hale,
adjounred.
Boose. -
While the scenes attending the open
ing of the house were both brilliant
and interesting in the crowds that
thronged .the galleries, and the con
spicuous personages present, the pro
ceedings themselves were dull and
spiritless, being distinctively routine.
The bouse met, the chaplain invoked
the divine blessing on the work of the
session, the roll was called; and a com
mittee was appointed to wait upon the
president, and the latter's annual com
munication was read. The reading
consumed about two hours. The holi
day nature of the day was saddened by
the announcement of the death of ex
Speaker Crisp, whioh Turner of Georgia
formally made to his associates. Oat
of respect to the memory of the distin
guished Georgian, the house, after
adopting appropriate resolutions, im
mediately adjourned.
Death in the Pyrenees.
A Paris disptaoh says that a terrible,
disaster has' occurred in the Pyrenees.'
A score of Spaniards, crossing on foot,
had reached Gavarnie, in France, where
they related . with apparent remorse
that they had left a woman, unable to
procceed, with her husband and . bro
ther, two hours ' distant. ' Guides hur
ried back to the rescue and , heard calls
for help, . when a sudden avalanche
blocked the mountain pass so that the
guides were obliged to return to Gav
arnie and wait there for two:, days.
When they finally reached the ill-fated
trio, two of them were dead and th
third was-dying. . .""' ;
The Jury Didn't Bee Him Shoot.
.Tnhn Thlnl nrhrk woo annnnon if
w , , , - vino t Buuinraau .
have fired the shot", that, entered the
neaa oi a young girt at a weoams party
in Ritzville, Wash., has been aoq&tttnd
by a jury. It was Droved that be bor
rowed Tixitj gua,- ana inne uie tuim wbi
fired from the gun, but no one saw him
fire it, and so the jury discharged him.
Fatal Ending of a Fued.
A fiirhiL "between old man . Harrison
and his two 'sons' and Morgan and his'
two sons, Tom and Caleb, occurred in
one of the mountain oonnties of Ken
tucky. ' The elder Morgan is dead.
Both sons are dvinc. Both the Har
rison boys are also dead.
Struck by an Blectrle Gar.
In Denver an electrio oar struck a
carriage containing-Mrs. John C. Mont
gomery, wife of a prominent Denver
capitalist, and two other ladies. The
carriage was wrecked and Mrs. Mont-.
gomery was sr badly injured that she .
cannot recover.
Killed by Poachers.
Count Finickenstein. an intimate
friend of Emperor William, of Ger
many, has been mortally wounded on
his estate. It is supposed he was shot
by poaohers. . He was one of ' the
wealthiest landowners in Germany.
Massacred by Kurds.
A Constantinople dispatoh says that
Dnder the pretext of revenging an old '
grievance, 10,000 Kurds raided the
province of Mamouiel ul Aziz, where
they burned and pillaged the villages
and massacred the inhabitants.
French Weuld Exclude Our Pork.
At a mass meeting held in Paris,
France, of the organized Farmers'
Union, the dealers in salt meats adopt
ed a resolution in favor of the exclusion
of American pork products, in view of
the fall in the prices of swine.
Jumped From a Hotel Window.
Mrs. Eliza Cummings, aged 55, a
wealthy woman of Hillsboro, O., com
mitted suicide in New York by jump-'
ing from, a third-story window of a ho
tel. Tag Edith Horned.
The- tug Edith, of Seattle, burned
near Dofflemeyer's point, and is prac
tically a total loss. The tng was act
ing as a tender to a dregder and was
on her way to Seattle.
A Brutal Murder '
Intense excitement prevails in East
St. Louis over the brutal murder of
Christopher Ludwig, aged 52, by Harry
Sohraeltzer, ged 28. Sohmeltzer struck
Ludwig on the head with an ax, kill
ing him instantly. The murderer es
caped, but is being pursued by a posse.
On Hie Way to Mexico. "
Peroival Lowell, of Boston, whose,
astronomical researches with reference
to the inhabitability of the planet mars
have commanded wide attention, is
now on his way to the City of Mexico,
near where he has erected an observa
tory. He will have with him in Mexi
co a distinguished party of scientific
men, and it is the purpose' to continue
the investigations in that conn try for
at least two years, if the olimatio con
ditions prove favorable.
Swallowed Morphine.
Lizzie Emerson, a handsome woman,
about 25 years of age, swallowed a dose
of morphine, with suioidal intent, in
San Francisco. When discovered she
was taken to the receiving hospital, but
soon after expired. The woman came
to San Francisco from Seattle about
three months ago. . To friends She said ,
that her husband had died about two
months previously, leaving her, with a
little girl to support She could find
no means of supporting herse'f and
child,- and becoming despondent, de
oided to end her life, . -