IS ALASKA. Hoiv tlie Land Looks to an Old Scout and miner. San Frinclycr-nne In. An old pioneer Carfornian writes to a friend and former mining partner in th's city, from Granville, Burrard In let, B. C. It mav- be said, by way of preface, that the writer has had a most extraordinary and varied experience. About the year 1S44, he resided in one of the then border states of the west, and was a student of medicine, and in very poor health suffering from "consumption,'" the doctors sa:d. and it was agreed that nothing would save him bat a trip arross the Rocky Mountains. He joined a party of trap pers and came through to Oregon in that year. Afterwards he drifted down into Mexico, and was hunting Ai aches for the state of Chihuahua. He was on Mexican so 1 when the war com menced in 1846, and was brought close to death's door with a severe at tack of fever. During his sickness he was 1 1 ken care of by an old Mexican woman, who managed to keep him hiuden from the civ.l and mil tary au thorities till he became convalescent, when he eluded the officials and maiic his way to the American lines, convey ing some mportant information to Gen. Taylor. He then ent red the spy service and was kept busy till the close of the war. often running terrible risks. In i4S he came through to Califor nia wilh Co!. Graham's command, an 1 encountered the usual viciss tu.les of a miner s life in the pioneer days, in the counties of Calaveras, Tuolumne and Mariposa. He went north in the lirst Frnsor river excitement then to Cariboo. R turning to Cal.fornia. he jo'ned an expedition and went to Sou h America, crossing two range of the Ai.de-, for the purpose of prospect tig the headwaters of the Amazon. The enterprise panned out rich in ha r i:rt; :lth escapes fiom huge serpents, ev 1 d sposed wild beasts, venomous insect and mountain torrents but add ed nothing to the wealth of the party. He afterwards tried Arizona, failed, and then turned his attention to the fro ten- north, oinng the Russian tele graph expedition as head explorer, and subsequently engaged in several pros pecting excursions under difficult and dangerous circumstances. l or several years his whereabouts has net been known to his California fri nds till the reception of the letter above ment oned. After a brief ac count of a logging camp, where lie had been putting m his time for eighteen monUiB, he gives a chapter of his pros pecting and mining experience in Brit ish Columb'a and Alaska. He went tj the St ekeen or Cassiar mines in 1874, whenhemtt with an ace'dent get ting his right aim dislocated, in conse quence of wh ch he came to Californa for repairs afterward returning to Cassiar. After two or three seasons -of unsuccessful mining, he took up a farm near the head of navigation on the l-tickeen. The land proved pro ductive, and he had good crops of po tatoes, cabbages, turnips, oats and barley. Hay was his principal crop. About the time he was fairly under way in his agricultural venture, the mines fa;led and the packers had to take the trains out of the country ut terly ruining the hay market, and as turnips and potatoes would not sell for ruonev his three years' labor as a tiller of the so l went for nothing, ex cept to add to the sum of what he knew about farming. He then went to the Alaska mines at Harrlsburg, between Sitka and Chil cot. There were some very fair placer m nes in this nelgeborhood, along th" side of a mountain on the mainland and also on Doiiglass Island, but their extent was very limited, and they were all taken up before he reached the place. He writes that the climate in that region is "horrible everlasting rain and snow." It is the worst place in all Alaska. The mines arc up Cras tenant Inlet. The great glacers near the coast condense the clouds as they come up the inlet, so there is rain or snow nearly all the time. On Douglass Island there are some good paying quartz mines, and a big mill is now being built there. In the Basin mines, on the mainland, there is a great deal of galena united with the gold in quartz, and some very beautiful spec. mens have been found. The Indians are employed in the mines and they an good workers. They are accustomed to the raius and m nd no more about being wet than beaver- and niuskrats. "In their houses," -ays the writer, "there is a very strong odor some thing like that of wet dog rather un pleasant till one gets used to it," The Indians al! along the Alaska coast get plenty to eat; their bill of fare including herring, salmon, hali but, codfish, seals and whales. Fine black tailed deer are very plentiful along the coast some of them being marvels cf fatness. In the woods there is a great abundance and varie ty of berr.es. The bears get so fat they "can hardly get about." Moun tain sheep, marmots, minks, martin, ermine, weasels, otters, foxes, and all other fur-bearing animals are plenti ful. Of the feathered tribe there are geese, ducks, loons and divers and other water birds, several varieties of grouse, eagles, hawks, and jay birds. In sumnrng up his experience in that territory, he concludes that Alas ka is a rough looking country, but is better than it looks. There is an abundance of mineral wealth, but it is a hard country to prospect. The gla o'ers, the fallen trees, the moss, but, worse than all, the cold rains, are enough to discourage the stoutest prospector. Nevertheless, there are likely to be many important discover ies made, now that the civil law is es tablished in the territory. Sometime in the near future we may expect from the writer something of interest regard ing the interior of Alaska. cinnamon, and the faintly t;nted blush rosa. The damask rose, with its leaves like velvet and its yellow heart, in variably grows beside them. By and by, as the season advances, here and there, in such a garden, blue, white and pink larkspurs and manv-colored, tall hollyhocks spr'ng into bloom, and variegated "f -ur-o clucks" open the r eyes each dav at the appointed hour. Verbenas run helter-skelter in this gar den, the old-time hardy, purple varie ty never ceasing to bloom till frost comes, and even after that putting out dowers. There are great yellow marigold-, and 1 t.'le brown and gold ones. There is a bed of "johnny-iump-ups" in some shady port on of this garden, bunches of "in c forever, " of pungent "old-man,"' and thorny sweetbrlar bush.es. There are single petunias, heavy with pcifume, growing sturdily even amoai' the gra-s for the petun a is a bohemian, and nourishes wher ever it chances to find itself, rapidly degenerating from a state of double pelated. br lliant lined aristocrac," to a single-leaved, plain, white flower, without a home. It will lift its hetid up among the rankest growing nettles to look the sun in the face. The earth is carpeted in some places in this garden with deep-green myrtle. "Bachelor-buttons" grow whereso ever they will. On the edge of the garden the caraway and dill send up the r stalks. There is a place some where in the beds for the scarlet flow ering bran and the morning glory. Even the wild cucumber-vine is not scorned, and it twines itself along the fence. The fashionable garden of the period is quite another atiair. It is orderly, to begin with, above all things. No stragglers are allowed there. It is close clipped, arranged on a certain pattern, looks as ,f it were rolled out on occas on and taken indoors when it rained to keep it from getting damp. It has a ct form, made of perfectly" gra led hues, and is called the "orien tal carpet style of , gardening." This style is sa d to have originated in Eng land, but it has been universally adopted througout France and Ger many, as weil as in this country. The plants u -ed m;:st largely to produce the effects desired are geraniums and those com vised under the head of "foliage plant-," and small border growers of various kinds. Lobelia is utilized for outside borders to a gp-at extent bec-au e of its brilliant blue blossom and continual (lowering. "There is far les- attention given to the cultivation of flowers in America than there is in Europe," sa d a Ger man l'orist. "In Germany, France and England gardeners are always ex perimenting to produce different ef fects in gardening. They give great att rut on to producing new varieties of plants. Wealthy people there are willing to pay large si.ms for rare flowers. In this country people who have fine country places think more of a broad sweep of green lawn than of the linest flow r beds on earth." THE SAME OLD STOfiY. An Educated Chimpanzee. I was once the owner of a highly educated chimpanzee. He knew all the friends of the house: all our ac quaintances, and distinguished them readily from strangers. Every one treating h'm kindlv he was looked up on as a personal friend. He never felt more comfortable than when he was admitted to the family circle and al lowed to move freely around, and open and shut doors, while his joy was boundless when he was assigned a place at the common table, and the guests admired his natural wit and practical ,'okes. He expressed his sat isfaction and thanks to them by drum ming furiously on the table. In his numerous moments of leisure his fa vorite occii! at'on consisted in investi gating carefully every obJe-.-t in h s reach; he lowered the door of the sto. e for the purpose of watching the fire, opened drawers, rummaged boxes and trunks and played with their con tents, provided the latter did not look suspicious to him. How easily sus pic'on was aroused in his mind might be illustrated by the fact that, as long as he lived, he shrank with terror from every common rubber-ball. Obedience to my orders and attachment to my person, and to everybody caring for h.m, were among his cardinal virtues, and he bored me with h's presistent wishes to acc-. mpany me. He knew perfectly h s time for retiring, and was happy when some of us carried him to Irs bedroom like a baby. As soon as the light was put out he would ;nmp into the bed and cover him elf, because he was afraid of the darkness. His favorite meal was supper with tea. which he was very fond of. provided it was largely sweet eced and mixed with rum. He sipped it from the cup, and at i the dipped bread slices with a spoon, having been taught not to use the fingers in eating; he poured his wine from the bottle and drank it from the glass. A man could hardlv be have himself more geantlemanlike at table than did that monkey. Flower Gardens. Chtcaro Xew. The old-fashioned flower garden, with its beds of Iragrant, straggling posies, is seen no more except in some quiet country spot. There can still be found the tall, sweet-scented syringla, with its bloss.m like orange flowers, golden lemon lil.es, delicate lavender and fawn tinted fieur-de-1 s, the spicy Hints on Summer Diet. The Cook. Milk is a very important summer diet, but should be used in moderation or it is liable to pioduee ill elects. Drink it in small mouthfuls and rest a moment between them. Dyspeptic persons are advised to beat the milk a few moments before drinking. That treatment breaks the butter globules and renders digestion easier. We strongly recommend skimmed milk and fresh buttermilk as summer drinks, instead of ice water. The ice water dyspepsia, a common malady during the summer months, may be entirely relieved by using small quan tit es of freshly-churned buttermilk, ac companied by what is known as a mod erated dry diet. Breakfast should not bo a heavy meal and hot food should be used in moderation. Hot tea and coffee liber ally partaken often prevents one from feeling comfortable all day. Radishes ice cold, oatmeal crackers and milk, a dainty slice of cold lamb, fresh fruit and cold asparagus, present a break fast that makes hot weather a luxury. Oil fever has broken out in Morris vi le. N. Y., over the d scoVery of pe troleum oozing from a s' ring a short distance nor th of the village. Expert are said to have announced the oil ta be of fine qual.ty. Hew Live Stock in Different Paita of the Country Came Through the "Winter. The. long, cold winter is at last over, and farm animals are being turned into the pastures. We are now re ceiving reports from the various state boards and from the national depart ment of agriculture in regard to the present condition of farm animals and the losses sustained by the owners during the winter. The reports read like reprints of those of former years. They show that farm animals are in the best condition, and that the losses by death have been the smallest in those states where the climate is most severe, and where food suitable for them is obtained with the greatest difficulty. The animals are in the poorest condition, and the losses are the heaviest in state and territories where the winters are mild, and where green forage can be depended on dur ing most of the year. In all the New England states the losses of cattle amounted to less than 2 per cent., but in Louisiana 8 per cent, of all the cat tle died. In the southern seaboard states the loss of cattle during the winter was from 5 to 7 per cent. Texas suffered a loss of 345,566 head of cattle, which amounted to 7 per cent, of the whole number. Massachu setts has the best record, the losses amounting to only 1 J per cent. The losses were quitesruall in the north western states. From several counties in Georgia very heavy losses are reported. The followingare the worst cases: Charl ton count-, 33 per cent. ; Wilcox, 25 to 65 per cent. ; Worth, 20 per cent. ; Brown, 18 per cent.; Emanuel, 20 per cent. ; Dodge, 15 per cent. ; Col quitt, 20 per cent., of range cattle. In many counties the losses range from 10 to 15 per cent., but in a large num ber they are under the lower of these rates, while in many there have been none. In Florida the losses rate is high, rising in Baker county to 30 per cent. In Alabama and Mississippi they appear to be much lower than in Georgia, but this may be due in part to the greater care "on the part of correspondents to discriminate be tween deaths from exposure and deaths from starvation, and to report only the former. In Saint Tammany par ish, Louisiana, a loss of 50 per cent, is reported, and a loss of 20 per cent, in Bienville parish, in the same state. A correspondent in St. Mary's parish re ports considerable loss among cattle ranging in sea marshes. In Texas the losses among range cattle have in many cases been very severe, ranging from" 20 to 40 per cent. In Virginia the losses rise as high as 10 per cent, in a number of counties, and in some they are reported as very heavy, but without attempting to express them definitely in figures. In this state, however, the losses from exposure are complicated with those arising from in sufficient food, and the same remark applies to all the other southern states. Several correspondents in Virginia ex press an apprehension of further loss, or a loss where none had occurred up to the date of their report, as a result of increasing scarcity of feed, due to the backwardness of the spring. In the Carolinas the loss reaches 10 per cent, in a few counties. The secretary of the Kansas board of agriculture in his last quarterly report says: "There have been during the fall and winter heavy losses among cattle. There is hardly a county in the state that does not report serious loss from turning cattle into stalk-fields, where an in sufficient amount of water and salt was provided. In the western coun ties "range cattle" suffered a heavy loss from exposure and lack of feed, probably the largest for several years, owing to the unusual severity of the winter. Cattle were particularly free from disease during the pst winter, the only loss being from bad manage ment, as above stated. They are in fair condition, although unusually thin in flesh, resulting from the severity of the winter and the lack of sufficient food and shelter." In the states where cattle went thrcugh the winter in good condition, and where there were few losses, sheep are reported as inline order. In Massa chusetts there was a loss of but 4 per cent., against 14 percent, in Mississip pi. Texas is credited with a loss of 1,133,769 sheep out of 7,338,461. The statistician of the department of agri culture says: "Losses have been heavy in those states where sheep are pro vided with no shelter, but permitted to run at large all winter, subject to the varying climatic changes. The winter just closed has been especially severe, and the lack of good pasturaga in the fall ill prepared the flocks for Buch vicissitudes. As a consequence, and exposure, united with short food, have caused considerable loss in num bers and more of condition, especially noted in Virginia, Georgia, West Vir ginia, and Kentucky. In New England, the middle, and western states, where sheep are housed, there has been but little loss from cold. "The losses among hogs have been heaviest in the states where the largest number of cattle and sheep have died, and the same cause is assigned for their death. The losses of noises and mules that are attributed to exposure, want of care, and lack of sufficient food are comparatively small in any of the states. As these animals are more valuable than cattle, sheep and swine, and as they are constantly required for work or pleasure, they are furnish ed with shelter, and supplied with suit able food, while they receive good, or at least fair, attention. Shelter is generally provided for a horse that draws a plow or wagon, though the cow that supplies milk for the familv is constantly exposed to the cold and 3torm. Tne money value of shelter for animals has yet "to be learned in many parts of the country. Much has been written about the advantages of the "sunny south" for keepingstock of all kinds. Still it is evident that the raising of any kind of animals there will never be very profitable till the farmers provide better shelter, furnish a more liberal supply of food to be eat en during he winter, and give the an imals better care. Texas may be a very excellent state in which to raise sheep, but no flock-master realizes the profit he should who has his flocks re reduced to the extent of one-sixth of the number during every winter. Economic as well as humanitarian considerations demand that domesti cated animals be sheltered during the winter and provided with an abund ant of suitable food. Chicago Times. 0PPJSB CANADA. Industrial Brevities. Prof. J. W. Sanborn, of the Missou ri Agricultural college, at Columbia, appends to the report of one of his in teresting experiments the following comment: "This farm, during the hard season just passed, paid its manager, and paid every other bill, and gave a balance of $1,280, although without the equipment for successful manage ment. But schools of instruction, to serve their purpose, should not be ex pected to be sources of profit in agri culture more than elsewhere. The re ceipts of the farm are necessary for experimentation and illustration, with out which the work is comparatively useless." There are at present in Mexico 87 cotton-mills, with 249,750 spinners and 9,758 looms; there are 10 wollen-mills, with 9,364 spinners and 369 looms. In the state of Puebla there are 21 mills, with 72,000 spinners. Steam-power is used in 8 mills, water-power in 35 mills, and water and steam in 54 mills. There are employed 12,728 operators, of whom over one-third are women and children. The production of prints of these mills amounts to about 23,000 pieces, but the entire industry is so clumsily managed that American and European makes are being successful ly marketed. Orchard grass is a robust grower and very tenacious of life. It masses its roots' so as to resist the encroach ment of other grasses, covering much of the ground with its large pendent leaves, that spring out near the base of the plant, to shade, nourish, and en rich the soil not occupied by the plant itself. This, perhaps, accounts large ly for its ability to endure excessive drought. It "will produce two large crops of good hay on rich soil, and submit to more abuse than any other forage plant, except blue-grass, which " r 1 , . 1 , i is oi mcie vaiue in a very ury season. An English officer who has seen service in Egypt states that the food of the Arabian horse consists of six pounds of barley, which is given at sunset. This custom seems to agree with the animal, and it enables his owner to carry in a bag food enough sixty pounds for a ten days' journey across the desert. The stomach of the horse is small, and for this reason it is the custom in agricultural countries to give him three meals a day. But in Arabia they make a virtue of necessity. Fast is broken but once in twenty-four hours. The number of fowls kept in France is said to be 43,858,780; the average product of chickens reared is estimated at three to each ben, and the average product of eggs per hen one hundred per annum. The estimation in which a French woman holds her pullets may be realized by the name she gives them, which is poulette, and means not only a pullet, but a darling. Thus giving her heart to her work, she suc ceeds in it and makes it profitable. This is a lesson for our poultry-keepers. Kerosene is becoming known as a valuable insecticide. Prof. A. J. Cook uses this mixture: One pint of kero sene, one quart of soap, one gallon of water. The soap and water are heated to boiling, when the kerosene is added, and all well stirred. This prevents at tacks of borers in fruit trees, kills all lice on plants, ami has been found ef fective against many insect pests. With whale-oil soap in the mixture, it has destroyed the cabbage maggot. The Cheshire Dairy Farmers' associ ation (England) is considering a pro posal to acquire a pasture farm of two hundred acres, on which to im part special instruction to the sons and daughters of farmers. ' The secretary of the association, who introduced the scheme, believed it could be made ab solutely self-supporting, and the pro posal was very cordially received by the members. Mr. W. S. Loomis, of Holyoke, Mass., recently made a seven days test of his Jersey cow Louise of Lawn field, 1451, A. J. C. C. She gave an average of eighteen and one-halt quarts of milk per clay, and made four teen pounds eleven and one-half ounces of butter from the milk of the seven days. Mr. Loomis thinks the cow can make at least sixteen pounds under more favorable circumstances. An eastern paper says: We hear of great losses of bees this winter. The assessors, at least, can find few that are strong enough to tax. What busi ness have assessors to tax bees, any how? The only bee in the hive, it there are ten thousand in it, that is old enough to tax, is the queen, and nobody knows whether she is alive or not. Over a hole from which an apple tree was dug, and which was after ward filled with rich earth from the roadside, a parsnip was grown last season that reached fully thirty inches below the surface and was otherwise large in proportion. For carrots and parsnips the soil can scarcely be made too deep, provided ic is fertile all the way down. The attempt to interest English farmers in the production of caraway seed was not successful, and almost the entire amount used in the country is brought from the continent of Europe. There is a salt lake in Hidalgo coun ty, Texas, which is one mile in length, five miles in circumference, and from three to four feet deep. Its bed con sists of crystals of pure salt. It is the opinion of cattlemen on the western slope that two-thousand stout saddle-horses more than are now used will be required for the cattle business the present season. Spring is the best time in which to move bees, because the honey does not burden the combs, and there is no danger of the combs being melted down by the heat. A Poland sow recently killed by Miller Brothers, in Illinois, weighed alive 520 pounds, and dressed 480, losing- but a trifle over 8 pounds to the j hundred. A Country Which Had Slavery Until 1793 The Days of No Stoves Ihe Old-Fasbion-ed Fireplace-Baking in the Ashes-Leeks as Food Popular Belief in "Witchcraft. In a former letter, writes a corre spondent to The Toronto Globe, I brief ly spoke of slavery as once existing in Ontario. Many persons who have not looked into the history of our country closely have been almost disposed to doubt my statement. The subject is so interesting that I will speak more fully on the point. Great Britain abol ished slavery in the British West In dies as late as 1833, and paid 20,000,- 000 for the slaves to their owners. It is difficult ai this time to tell why our forefathers in Ontario were so much in advance of the mother country as well as the United States, for we" find that they abolished slavery from Upper Canada in July, 1793. Of course there were not many slaves in Upper Canada at the time; still there were some, but it seems no compensation was ever paid to the owners for such slaves. Just think what a fearful cost of treas ure and precious lives the United States were called upon in the late war to stand, in order to rid their country of slavery. Had they abolish ed slavery at the time our forefathers did, no doubt the great war of the re bellion would have been averted, and besides, in 1793, when we abolished slavery, they could not have had very many slaves at the most, and even if they were paid for they would not have cost anything like so great a sum as Great Britain paid for her West India slaves in 1833. Then I maintain that our forefathers in Upper Canada in 1793 were far in advance in public spirit and true phi lanthropy of our American cousins, for we do not find that the Americans at this time made anyT great agitation to riu their country of the curse of slave ry. If there were no other fact to be proud of in our early history or proud of our country, this act of our fore fathers is one in which we can justly take pride and makes us more fervent ly prize our peerless Upper Canada. Not wishing to be too elaborate on this subject, yet I feel that I must in sert the act abolishing slavery in full. En July, 1793, the first Parliament of Upper Canada, at its full session.called together at INiagara by Lieut. Gov. John Graves Simcoe, passed an act as follows: Chapter 7, Section L Hereafter no person shall obtain a license for the importation of any negro or other per son who shall come or be brought into this province after the passing of this act, to be subject to the condition of a slave; nor shall any voluntary contract of service be ninding for a longer term than nine years. Sec. 2. This clause enables the pres ent owners of slaves in their posses sion to retain them or bind out their children until they attain the age of 21 years. Sf.c. 3. And in order to prevent the continuance of slavery in this province the children that shall be born of female slaves after the passing of this act to remain in the service of the owner of their mother until the age of 26 years, when they shall be discharged. Provided, that in case any issue shall be born of such children during their servitude or after, such issue shall be entitled to ail the rights of free-born subjects. By this simple act of our first parlia ment our country was effectually rid of this pest without shedding a drop f blood or the expenditure of a sin gle dollar in money. All honor to our forefathers and a thrice for our ban ner free province. Our forefathers at this time and long after had no stoves in their log-houses. All cooking as well as heating was done by the tire place. A crane swung on hinges into this great fireplace, which could be 3wung out from the fire at pleasure. Attached to this crane was an iron having notches therein, and fitting over this pendant iron rod was an other shorter iron, with a link as of a chain on the end thereof. This link fitted into the notches on the lirst men tioned iron. By this means the lower iron could be raised or lowered. Now, bv hanging a pot on the lower end of the shorter iron rod it could be raised or lowered into or above the tire at pleasure. Thus our forefathers did their first choking in Upper Canada. The corn cake, or wheaten cake, when they had it. was baked in the ashes, and wonderfully sweet old persons thought it. The fact that it was cov ered with some loose ashes did not de tract from its sweetness; these were soon brushed away, leaving the tooth some cake within. The first improvement in the culin ary art of our forefathers came the bake-oven. These were tin trays, as it were, open on one side. They would be set before the fireplace, with the open side fronting the fire. Thus the fays of heat would be collected," and in a measure confined within the oven, and the bred or cake3 within were soon nicely browned and baked. It was considered an immense stride by our forefathers when they got these bake-ovens, and for years they did not aspire to anything better. Ovens out of doors were built by some of stone. Such were conical in 1 shape and open in the center. An : immense fire would be built in this i outdoor oven and. when burnt to leal : live coals, would be all drawn out. Its ! stones would thus be thoroughly heat j cd. Into the cavity in which the fire ! had been the bread "would be inserted ; and the door stopped up. Enough la i tent heat would remain in the stones to thoroughly bake at least two batch i es of bread. But this was done at a ! fearful waste of wood, which, of course, was 03 no account at that time. ; The advent of stoves changed all that, : and now a fireplace of wood in an On ' tario home is more a luxury than a necessity, and but few are to be found. Wild leeks were then used as an ar ticle of food. As soon as the snows disappeared in the spring they would be found in abundance in the forests. I and were gathered as the first spring vegetable, ineir unsavory smell, or : that imparted to the breath of the ! eater thereof, seemed to be no bar to i their use. When all partook of the I leek not one could detect the odor from the other. Likewise the cowslip a little later in the season, which grew in shallow ponds, furnished a diet of greens to our forefathers. To show how difficult it was at this early day for the poor settlers to obtain money, I will relate an anecdote of about 1807. Levi Annis, whom I spoke of in a for mer letter, was living at this time with his father in the county of Durham. During the summer and fall of 1806 fhey had chopped and burned a fallow of thirty-one acres, which they had sowed to fall wheat. As a preparation for sowing the land was not plowed at all, but was loose and leafy and ashy from the burning. The wheat was sown broadcast by hand among the stumps. It was covered by hitching a yoke of oxen to the butt end of a small tree, with the branches left hanging thereto. The oxen drew this to and fro over the fallow among the stumps and thus covered the wheat. This was called bushing in and was the first har row used by our forefathers among the stumps. However, the fallow upon which the wheat was so bushed in pro duced as fine a crop of fall wheat as ever grew, falling not much below thirty bushels per acre. Now this wheat could be exchanged for store goods at will, but not for money. Levi Annis, however, took the first load of it to Bowmanville, and was told by his father that he must get $5 50 on ac count of the whole crop to pay his taxes, for he must have the money to pay his taxes, but the rest he would take store pay for. The merchant with whom he dealt actually refused to advance the So 50, saying he could get all the wheat he wanted for goods. The young man had to drive to an other merchant and state his deplor able case to him and his urgent need of $5 50, and that if he would advance him the money he should have the whole crop of thirty-one acres. Finally, the second merchant took pity upon the young man in his dilemma and advanced the money. Thus it was with the utmost difficulty that he could get $5 50 in cash out of the thirty-one acres of wheat. This shows us to-day how difficult it was for our forefathers to get money. Since the early American colonists burnt witches at Salem, their descend ants, who came to upper Canada as U. E. loyalists, brought the belief of witchcraft . with them, and many of them who came here about 1800 and before really did believe in witches. I have heard my forefathers relate a witch story in all seriousness which I think worth repeating, as showing to us that the New England people who burned witches were really sincere in the belief. About 1800 a settler in the spring of the year did not enjoy very good health. Nothing serious seemed to be the matter with him, only a gen eral want of inertia or a general seed mess. There was no medical man to consult, so he did the next best thing by consulting his nearest neighbor. The neighbor upon being tola his syin toms, at once pronounced him be witched. An old woman in the local ity was at once picked out as the be witcher. Now for the remedy to break the spell of the witchery. A ball must be made of silver, and they melted a silver coin and made a rifle ball of it. An image of dough must be made to as closely resemble the supposed witch as possible, and it was made. Just as the sun rose the bewitched must fire at it with his rifle and the silver ball, and the dough image was set upon a top rail of the fence, and as the sun rose he fired and just grazed the shoulder of the dough image. In about an hour the old witch came to the house in great haste, and wanted to borrow some article. Were they to lend her the article desired the spell would come on again, but refusing, the spell was broken; of course, like sensible men, they did not lend the article. Even they went on to say further that the witch was hit and wounded slight ly on the shoulder, where the dough image was struck by the silver ball.. However, be that as it may, they asserted that the sick man speedily got well, and was never again be witched by the witch in question, nor any other." Of the efficacy of the uner ring aim of the silver ball I do not vouch, but 1 do vouch for the real bona fide belief of the old narrators of the whole tale. Muscles and Brains. One of the strongest arguments that can be brought to bear against the present ascendancy of the athletics in our colleges is their damaging effect upon the studies of the men making up the teams. In the college offices the other day the register kindly showed the records of the university base-ball nines of 1881 to 1884, in clusive. The nine of '81 had an aver age rank of 76 in a class of 100. The nme of '82 averaged 53. The nine of '83 averaged 52, while the nine of '84 averaged 54. With the exception of '81, each nine contained two or three men of high standing, whose record showed that a man can study and play ball as well. Each nine showed also two or three men standing in the mid dle of the class. Finally each nine contained several professional ball players with whom every examination must have beenin the nature of a lotte ry. Upon the whole,however,the figures were higher than we expected, and were encouraging to one who believes that running bases does not uufit a man for intellectual work. One of the first duties of a captain is to look after the college standing of the men under his charge. A f ew teams in good stand ing will silence the critics of college athletics. Princetonian. The Richest Cabinet Lady. The richest lady in Washington now probably is Mrs". Whitney, whose husband is Secretary of the Navy, and whose father is the millionaire Sena tor Payne, of Ohio. It is said one of her brothers cave her a cool million within a vear or two, and as a trifling Christmas gift gave her a $10,000 ornament of rubies. The diamonds she wore at her first Wednesday re ception in Washington were very large and brilliant. Her earrings of solitaire diamonds and the three soli taires which were set in a bar breast pin are unusually largo and pure. Washington Letter.