L P Fisher VOLUME V. ALBANY, OREGON, FEBRUARY 28, 1873. NO. 26. I " THE IONT ARTS." K XTR ACTS FROM A LECTl'RE BY WENDELL PHILLIPS. 'Hie following lecture on "The Lost Arts," by Wendell Phillips, is replete with entertainment and instruction, and is well worth read tag. Mr. Phillips, during the pres ent lecture season, has delivered this interesting review of his sub ject before crowded houses in the principal cities east of the Kocky Mountains : EVE!UT1II; IS UOP.ROWED, You may glance around the furniture of the palaces in Europe, and you may gather all these uten sils of art and use, and when you have fixed the shape and forms in your mind, I will take you into the .Museum of Naples, which gathers all remains of the domestic life of the Homans, and you shall hoc find a singb one of these modern forms of art or beauty or use, that was not autici(ated there. We have hardly added one single line or sweep of beauty to the antique. Take the stories of Shakspeare, who has, perhaps, written his forty odd plays. Home are historical. The rest, two thirds of them, he did not stop to invent, but he found them. 7'heso he clutched, ready made to his hand, from the Italian novelists, who had taken them be fore from the Fast. Cinderella and her slipjiers is older than all his tory, like half a dozen other baby legends. 7'he annals of the world do not go back far enough to tell us from where they first came. All the boys' plays, like every thing that amuse the child in the open air, are Asiatic. Rawlinson will show yon that they came some where from the banks of the Ganges or the suburbs of Damascus. Bul wer borrowed the incidents of his Roman stories from legends of a thousand years before. Indeed, Dunlop, who has grouped the his tory of the novels of all Europe into one essay, says that in the na tions of modern Europe there have been 250 or 300 distinct stories. 1 le says at least 200 of these may lie traced, before Christianity, to the other side of the Black Sea. It this were my topic, which it is not, I might tell you that even our newspaper jokes are enjoying a very respectable old age. 7ake Maria Edgeworth's essay on Irish bulls and the laughable mistakes of the Irish. Even the tale which either Maria Edgeworth or her father thought the best, is that famous story of a friend writing a letter as follows : "My Dear Frienti : I wou'd write you in detail, more minutely, if there was not an im pudent fellow looking over my shoulder loading every word." ("No, you lie I've not read a word you have written !") Laugh ter. This is an Irish hull, still it is a very old one. It is only 250 years older than the new Testament. Horace Walpole dissented from Richard Lovell Edgeworth and thought the other Irish bull was the best of the man who said: "I would have been a very handsome man but they changed me in the cradle." Great laughter. 7'hat comes from Dou Quixote, and iR Spanish ; but Cervantes borrowed it from the Greek in tho fourth cen tury, and tho Greek stole it from the Egyptian hundreds of years back. liREEK JOKR8 IN THEIiJ DOTAMK. 7'hcie is one story which it is said Washington has reated of a man who went into an inn and asked for a glass of drink from the land lord, who pushed In ward a wine gluss about half the usual size the tea-eups also in that day were not mure than half the present size. The landlord said, " 1 he glass out of which vou are drinking is 40 years old." "Well," said the thirsty traveler, contemplating its diminu tive proportions. "J think it is the smallest thing of its age lever saw." Renewed laughter. T hat stery a told is given as a story of Athens 375 years bofore f'hrist was born. Why! all these Irish bulls are Greek every one of them. G reat merriment. Take the Irishman who carried around a brick as a specimen of the house he had to sell laughter; take the Irishman who shut his eyes and looked into the glass to see how he would look when he was dead renewal laugh ter; take the Irishman that bought a crow, alleging the crows were re ported to live 200 years, and ho meant to set out and try it. Laugh-, ten Take the Irishman who met a friend who said to him, "Why, sir, I heard you were dead" "Well," says the ma:i, "I suppose you see I'm not '' "Oh ! no," says he; "I would believe the man who told me a good deal quicker than I would you." Great merriment. Well! those are all Greek. A score or more of them, of a par allel character, come from Athens. Our old Boston patriots felt that tarring and feathering a Tory was a genuine patent Yankee firebrand Yankeeism. They little imagin ed that when Richard Ceeur de Leon set out on one of his Crusades, among the orders he issued to his camp of soldiers was that any one who robbed a hen-roost should be tarred and feathered. Many a man who lived in Connecticut has re peated the story of taking children to the limitR of the town and giving them a sound thrashing to enforce their memory of the spot. But the Burgnndians in France, in a law now 1,100 years old, attributed val or to the east of Frauce because it had a law that the children should be taken to the limits of the dis trict, and there soundly whipped, in order that they might forever re member where the limits came. So we have very few new things in that line. Laughtei. But I said I would take the subject, for instance, of this very material very substance glass It is the very best expression of man's self conceit. TEACHINGS FROM CLASS. I had heard that nothing had been observed in ancient times which onld be called by the name of glass; that there had been mere ly attempts to imitate it. I thought they had proved the proposition; they certainly had elaborated it. In Pompeii, a dozen miles south of Naples, which was covered with ashes by Vesuvius 1800 year ago, they broke into a room full of glass; there was ground glass, window glass, cut glass ami colored glass of every variety. It was undoubtedly a glass-maker's factory. So the he and the refutation canto face to face. It was like a pamphlet printed in London in 1836 by Dr. Lardner which proved that a steamboat could not cross the ocean, and tho book came to this country in the first steamboat that came across th$ Atlantic The chemistry of the most an cient period had reached a jxrint which we have never even approach ed and which we in vain struggle to reach to-day. Indeed, the whole management of the effect of light on glass is still a matter of pro found study. The first two stories which I have to offer yon are simp ly stories from history. " The first is from the letters of the Catholic priests who broke into China, which were published in France just 200 years ago. They were shown a g'ass, transparent and; colorless, which was tilled with a liquor made by the hinesa that was shown to tho observers and ap peared to be colorless like water. This liquor was poured into the glass, and then, looking through it, it seemed to be filled with fishes. I They turned this out and repeated i th experiment, and again it was tilled with fish 1 he Chinese con fessed that they did not make them; that they were the plunder of some foreign conquest. This is not a singular thing in Chinese history, for in some of their scientific dis coveries we have found evidence that they did not make them, but I stole them. The second story, of half a dozen, certainly five, relates to the age of I iberius, the time of "St. Paul, and tells of a Homan who had been banished and who returned to Rome, bringing a wonderful cup. This cup lie dashed upon the marble pavement, and it was crushed, not broken, by the fall. It was dented some, and with a hammer he easily brought it into shape again. It was brilliant, transparent, but not brit tle. I had a wine-glass when I made this talk in New Haven, and among the audience was the owner, Professor Sillimau. He was kind enough to come to the platform when I had ended and, say that he was familiar with most of my facts; but, speaking of malleable glass, he had this to say that it was nearly a natural impossibility, and that no amount of evidence which onld be brought would make him credit it. Well, the Romans got their chem istry from the Arabians; they brought it into .Spain eight centur ies ago, and in their books of that age they claim that they got from the Arabians malleable glass. There is a kind of glass spoken of there that, if supported by end, by its own weight iu twenty hours would dwindle down to a fine line, which could be curved around the wrist. Vou Roust the Chancellor of Austria ha? ordered secrecy in Hungary in regard to a recently discovered process by which glass can be used exactly like wool and manufactured into cloth. These are a few records. When you go to Rome they will show you a bit of glass like the solid rim of this tumbler a transparent glass, a solid thing, which tbey lift up so as to show you that there is nothing concealed, but in the center of the glass is a drop of colored glass, per haps as large as a pea, mottled like a duck, finely mottled with the shitting colored hues of the neck, and which even a miniature pencil could not do more perfectly. It is manifest that this drop of liquid glass must have been ponied, he cause there is no joint. 7'his must have been done by a greater heat than the annealing procesr, because that process shows breaks. The imitation of gems has de ceived not only the lay people, but the connoisseurs. Some of these imitations in later years have been discovered. The celebiated vase of the Genoa Cathedral was consider, ed a solid emerald. The Roman Catholic legend of it was that it was one of the treasures that the Queen of Sheba gave to Mblomon, and that it was the identical cup out of which the .Saviour drank at the Last Supper. Columbus must have admired it. It was venerable iu his day; it was death tor any body to touch it but a Catholic priest. And when Napoleon be sieged Genoa I mean the (ireat Xapolconit was offered by tho Jews to loan tho Senate $3,000,000 on that single article of security. Napoleon took it and carried it to Fiance, and travcit tothe Institute. Somewhat rlTuotantly the scholars ; said : "it is not a stone; we hardly- i know what it is." EXCELLENCE PER HE. Cicero said that lie had seen the entire Iliad, which is a, poem s large as the New 7estament, writ ten on skin so that it could be rolled up in the compass of a nut shell. Now this is imperceptible to the ordinary eye. You have seen the Declaration of Independence in the compass of a quarter of a dollar, written with glasses. I have to day a paper at home half as long as my hand, on which was photo graphed the whole contents of a London newspaper. It was put un der a dove's wing and sent into Paris, where they enlarged it and read the news. This copy of the Iliad must have been made by some such process. In the Roman theater the Coli seum, which could seat 100,000 people the Emperor's box, raised to the highest tier, bore about the same proportion to the space as this stand does to this hall, and to look down to the center of a six-acre lot was to look a considerable distance. (Considerable, by the way, is not a Yankee word. Lord Chesterfield uses it iu his letters to his son, so it has a good English origin ) Pliny says that Nero, the tyrant, had a ring with a gem in it which he looked through and watched the sword play of the gladiators men who killed each other to amuse the people more clearly than with the naked eye. So Nero had an opera glass. So Mauritius, the Sicilian, stood on the promontory of his island, and could sweep over the entire sea to the coast of Africa with his nmmcopiti; which is a word de rived from two Greek words, mean ing to see a ship. Evidently Mauri tius, who was a pirate, had a mar ine telescope. You may visit Dr. Abbott's Museum, where you will see the ring of Cheops. 7'he signet of the ring is about the size of a quarter of a dollar, and the engraving is in visible without the aid of glasses. No man was ever shown into the cabinets of gems in Italy without being furnished with a microscope to look at them, it would be idle for him to look at them without one. He couldn't appreciate the delicate lines and the expression of the faces. If you go to Parma they will show you a gem once worn on the finger of Michael Angelo, of which the engraving is 2,00& years old, on which there are the figures of seven women. Von must have the aid of a glass in or der to distinguish the forms at all. I have a friend who has a ring, per haps three-quarters of an inch in diameter, and on it is the naked figure of the god Hercules. By the aid of glasses you can distin guished the interlacing muscles and count every separate hair on the eyebrows. Layard says h? would be unable to read the engravings on Nineveh without strong specta cles, they are so extremely small. Rawlinson brought home a stone about twenty inches lout; and ten inches wide, containing an entire treatise ou mathematics. It would be perfectly illegible without glass es. Now, if we are unable to read it without the aid of glasses, you may supjwse the man who engraved it had pretty, stroug spectacles. So the microscope, instead of dating from our time, finds its brothers in the Books of .Moses and these are infant brothers. THE OLD DYES. So it you take colors. Color is, we say, an ornament. We dye our dresses and ornament our furniture. It is an ornament to gratify the eye; but the Egyptian impressed it into a new service. For them it was a method of recording history. Some parts of then history were written; but when they wanted to elaborate history they painted it. Their cot u is were immortal, else we could not know of it. vVe find upou the stucco of their walls their kings holding court, their armies march ing out, their craftsmen in the ship yard with the ships floating in the dock, and in fact we trace all their rites and customs painted in undy ing colors. The French who went to Egypt with Napoleon said that all the colors were perfect except the greenish-white, which is the hardest for us. TTiey bad no diffi culty with the Syrian purple. The. burned city of Pompeii was a city of stucco. All the houses are stuc co outside, and it is stained with Tyrian purple the royal color of antiquity. But you can never rely on the name of a color after a thousand years, So the Tvrian purple is al most a red about the color of these curtains. This is a city of all red. It has been buried seventeen hundred years, and if you take a shovel now and clear away the ashes this color flames up upon you a great aeal richer than anything we can prod uce. You can go dowi i into the narrow vault which Nero built him as a retreat from the great heat, and you, will find the walls painted all over with fanciful de signs in arabesque, which have been buried beneath the earth fifteen hundred years; but when the peas ants light it up with their torches the colors flash out before you as fresh as they were iu the days of St. Paul. Your fellow-citizen, Mr. Page, spent twelve years in Venice studying Titian's method of mixing his colors, and he thinks he has got it. Yet come down from Titian, whose colors are wonderfully ami perfectly fresh, to Sir Joshua Rey nolds, and although his colors are not yet a hundred years old, they are fading; the colors on his lips ire dying out, and the cheeks are losing their tints. He did not know how to mix well. All this mastery of color is as yet uuequaled. It you should go with that most delightful of all lecturers, Professor Tyndall, he would show you in the spectrum the vanishing rays of violet, and prove to you that beyond their limit there are rays still more delicate and to you invisible, but which he. by chemical paier, will make visi ble; and he will tell yon that prob ably, though you see three or four inches more than 300 years ago your predecessors did, and yet 30i years after our successors will sur pass our limit. The French have at theory that there is a certain deli cate shadow of blue that Europeans cannot see. In one of his lectures to his students, Buskin opened his Catholic mass-book and said: "Gen. tlemeu, we are the best chemists in the world. No Englishman ever could doubt that. But we cannot make such a scarlet aa that, and even if we could it would not last for twenty years. Yet this is 500. years old." The Frenchman says : "l am the best dyer in Europe; no. body can equal me, and nobody can surjiass Lyons" Vet in Cashmere, where the girls make shawls worth fc30,000, tiiey will show him 30( distinct, colors, which he not Only cannot make, but cannot even dis tinguish. When I wajs iu Rome, if a lady wished to weat a half dozen colors at a masquerade, and lv them all in harmony, she would g to the Jews, for the. Oriental eye is better than even those of France or Italy, of whio!i we. titbit so highly. ANCIENT MASTER ARTISANS. Taking the metals, the Bible in its first chapter shows that man first eouqueied metals there in Asia, ami on that spot to-day he can work mow wonder with those metals than we can. One of the surprises, that the European artists received when the English plundered the Summer palace of the King of China was the curionsly.wcoiight metal vessels coCLUOKll O.N KUrt'H PAGE.