The Albany register. (Albany, Or.) 1868-18??, December 18, 1869, Image 1

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NO. 15.
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a,if.Jrl.:'TU Dollar
Single Copies... ...
..Ten Cents
, Tcaaaiaot-.axlvwtiMinenta per Square of ten
liana rj less,' first irtkjn, $3 j eaea aabMqnant
insertion, $1.
Larger advertisements inserted on the most
liberal terms. .
Ilaring received new type, stock of colored
Inks, sards a Gordon Jobher, etc.. we are pre
pareoTto execute all Viods of printing in a better
manner and fif.est, cheaper than ever be
fur offered in Ujia oil jr.
" Agents for the Register. -
foflewiBrj genemeBt- ass, asitliorixed to re
ceive and receipt for subscription, advertising,
eo$ for tli.BoisTKa : r .!-, .-. , ; ,
II I RAM SMITH,' Esq.."..'...'......'.narrUlnrg.
arneirv B.-.' OLArCrHTONu .Lebanon.
PETER HUME, Rsq..,..;....BrownsviDe
E. E. WHEELER. E(J. ..Scio.
T. H. REYNOLDS Esq . Salem.
ao. W. CANNOX, Esq. . .. Portland.
J4. P. FISHER, Esq . 'Frisco.
. . , - UJk. . . . 1
Nota x- y -IP ublic.
JL4 made and attested.. Conveyances and col
lections attended to. . . .
. Atterney aai Coxuaaallor at Itw,: : ;
Brick. 1
Main street, opposite Foster s
, , BUtabidel & Co
visions. Wood and Willow Ware, Confec
tionery, Tobacco, Cigars, Pipes, Notions, etc.
Main street, adjoining the Express office, Albany,
Oregon. 1
E. A. rreeland,
School. Miscellaneous and Blank Books,
Stationery, Gold and Steel Pens, Ink, etc., Post
efnee Building, Albany, Oregon. Books ordered
from Kew York and San Francisco. ; 1
. 1 ' !- OL IKealey &s Co,
a tai alt ktsds. ef Fumitnre and Cabinet
Ware. First street. Albany.
ttf.A'. S. B. Clan? htoo, s
il AGEXT. Office in the Pest Office building.
" r. ... Jtoao, Oretpm.
Will attend to making Deeds and other convey
ances, also te the prompt collection of debts en
trusted to my eare. I
j. m. rrcHEXL.
j. x. Dotri.
' ' , . . imtchell, Selph & Smith,
Sli4tnrt to- ehaneery and Proetora in Ad
miralty. 'Ofllce wver the old Post1 Office, Front
street, Portland, Oregon. . - I
.T.' TtlLU-' i - '.-.i-.-.-'T r L, JPLISH.
Powell Sc. Flinn,
A TTSRNEYS a counsellors at law
Jjmad Solicitors in Chancery,
(! Flum, Notary Public,)
Albany, Orgtn:ri?CoIleetions , and conveyances
t,It, Attorney land. Counselor at law,
l VTILL prmetire in the superior and inferior
y T eonrts of Marion, Linn, Lane, Benton and
Pulk counties. . . .
, fc'ive per cent, charged on , collections when
raatle without sueing. . . . . . j!9-9 ;
StaOSIBLD- '-. ' !. . P. W. 8 PIU K.
;,;vaF. H REDFIELD A CO ' tl v
GOXSrAJiTLY' on hand and receiving, a
; laga ateek of . : . , ... : , -,
' ;-; Groceries ' ana ' Prorlsiona,
Wood xnSj "tTillow Ware, Tobacco, Cigars, Con
fecUonery, Yankee Notions, e.. Ac, Wholesale
and Retail, opposite R. C. Hill A Son's drug
store, AJbaay Oregon. ' - 5oet9 -
nnse,Sfgiai t' Carriage Painter,
raperhanging-, "Glaging, KjUsomine, &c.
Country orders punctually attended to.
-Tirst street, next; door to Tweedale A Co.'s.
May 8, 186 9-3 it
. fully inform the citizens of Albany and vi
cinity that ho has takes charge of this establish
ment, and, by keeping cleaa rooms and paying
tnst attnxK to business, expects to suit all
those waeasay favor him with their patronage,
slaving heretofore tarried en nothing but ...
- First-Claao Bate Dresainc Salooaa,
ie'expees to give entire satisfactioa to all.
Children and Ladies' hair neatly rut and
Jfeasxpooed.' ; JOSEPH WEBBER.
....r. i :r'"."ny
11 K bussell, "'
(OSeeia Paxrrsh A Co-'s block. First street,)
... .. . ;TalAT,: Orern: '
.SHIP Jauks Ei.mss,.Esg., ex-Clerk of
Liun county, we are enabled to add to our prao
ce tit Umw od Collections, superior facilities for
Conveyancing-, Examining Records, .
aut-aOag to Probate boSiness. -, - -
;Dls, Bouds, Contracts and Mortgages eare
tUy idrawn. t,- . .
Uoauesteasl and Pre-emption Papers
fnsVIe, end elahns secured.- -
-?"!eI nf K.?'1 K,a, gotiatel. and -loans
effected on collateral securities on 'reasonable
rstes.'-s" .,? ,.t 1, ..., ,.-., t ,u
-' ABuwsinese entrusted to theu faithfully and
promptly executed. , : . ......... ...
,-Alhany.Oct, 10, '6S-5y
OF Auli KIXDrJ, printed at the very lowest
ratesy as ordered, at this office.
FORMERLY . :...rf
Corner First an Morrison streets, " '
Portland, Oreg-on. ;
Messrs. SMITH A COOK bare taken this
well known house, refitted and refurnished
it throughout, built a ; large addition, making
thirty more pleasant rooms, enlarged the Dining
and Sitting rooms, makipg it by far the
It est Hotel In Portland.
A call from the traveling puttie will ' satisfy
them that the above statements are true.
N. B. Hot and cold Baths attached to the
house for the benefit of guests. ; - 50 '
Portland, August 15th, 1869. ';
. , " oan""oi' r,'."i"V r-" .T-.,-
Proat and Washington Streets,
Sa. P. W. Quimhy, - - - - Proprietor.
- (Late of fhe Western Hotel.) - -v
THIS HOUSE is the most commodious in the
. State, newly furnished, and it will be ths
endeavor of the Proprietor to make ft is guests
comfortable. Nearest Hotel to the steamboat
landing. - ,
r The Concord Coach will always be four
at the landing, on the arrival of steamships act
river boats, carrying passengers and their bag
gage to and from the boats free of chnrge
Jfnute mpplied with Patent Fire Extinguisher.
Front street s 1 t Portland, Oreg-on.
chased this well known Hotel, are now pre
pared to offer the traveling public better accom
modations than can be found elsewhere in the
city. . . .. .
Board and lodging !t OO per day. -
The Hotel Coach will be in attendance to con
vey Passengers and baggage - to and from the
Hotel free of ehnrue.
OfEee Oregon A California Stage Company, B.
G. Whitehocsk, Agent. 2tf
JVevr Columbian Hotel,
Nos. 118, 120 and 122 Front street,
Tit Largest, Seat and most Convenient
' Hotel in Portland
Located in the center of business and near all
the steamboat landings.
Board and Lodging
From one to two dollars per day according to the
room occupied. . - J
Rooms newly furnished and well ventil
ated. Superior accommodation? for families.
. Sr- TUa ; Columbian Hotel Coach will be
in attendance at all the landings to convey pas
sengers and baggage to and from this Hotel
17 Free ot Charge ! f9
numerous patrons that she has on hand, and
is in regular receipt of the A f ,
Latest and. Choicest Styles of Goods
JVH nin ery Lino !
of Fall Millinery-yon will bo entitled to the
Demqrest Magazine,
fur the year 1S69, as a premium en the purchase
ftih,.i A gii
Dress and Cloak Making'
in all branches.
Bleaching' and Pressing-
in the latest and best manner.
Goods Cheap and Patience Inexhaustible
i it; a .:.
Corner Main and Broad Albin streets,
November 7, 1868-9
. '. and
, X3edJingr, Etc., " ;.f-4
on, er First and, Broad Albin streets,
n hi ae. :
October ' 1868-8
rUllIIIC w, - TUltJw I1VG.
"3 t i
S :
f ,
-s - . -' - ' - . ' ":i
i kec p on Sana ana usso w rs . ,
"'- - S p i o xt 1 n g-fr! W k j 1 ; ; , .f;
Shop scar the "Magnolia if ills.'
, .i.r t:r-JOIIN M. METZLER
Albany, Nov. 28, 1S6S-12
Tira Pair Thing. Two honest mean-
inhatrl working Teutons were engaged
in splitting rails recently a short distanee
from this city. " The contract called for
ten feet rails.- U Some of the timber cat
down were extremely tough; and hard to
splitj'while others split with ease. These
honest rail-splitters,. T wishing to do , the
fair thing , by their , employer, cut the
tough timber into lengths or cuts of nine
feet, and that which split' easily into
eleven feet length's. When the contractor
or employer' came for the rails, he no
ticed the difference in the length, and
wanted to know if they called the1 mak
ing of those ' nine ' feet rails- filling the
contract ' for ten" feet " rails. With
great simplicity, they narrated the facts
as above related, stating that the number
of inches lacking in the nine feet rati
were: off-set by the extra inches in the
eleven feet rail that the two rails to
gether were twenty feet in length, which
made an. average of ten feet per rail, and
this average, they thought, filled their
contract to the letter. '
Por Puget Sound. Mr. S. Denny,
the popular furniture dealer of First St.,
has sold out his stock to Mr. Charles
Mealey, and will soon take his departure
for Seattle, or some other portion of the
Sound country that may please him. Mr.
Denny is a first class mechanic,a straight
forward, honest gentleman whose loss
will be felt in this community. We
wish him the best of success in his new
home, . 1 - -." -
Cash. One day last week County
Treasurer, Capt. Shields, went down to
Salem with about thirteen thousand dol
lars, to pay over to the State Treasurer,
in liquidation of Linn County's indebt
edness. ThU shows that our Sheriff has
not been idle, and , that tax-payers have
been punctual.
Christmus Jolarity. The Meth
odist and Baptist churches will each have
a Christmas tree, and Albany Fire Com
pany will give a ball on Christmas eve
(or night) at Ilouck & Meyer's new ho
tel."" Numerous stockings are to be hung
up in the chimney corners, for old Santa
Clans to fill, on the " night before Christ
mas' - i
Educational. The Journal of Edu
calionfor November has been received.
It is full of ablo and interesting articles.
It has gained the position as the leading
oducational organ of the West and South.
The Text Book " question is the lead
ing article for November. Address, J.
B. Merwin," 708 and 710 , Chestnut
street, St. Louis. '
- Eighth of January. A call for the
meeting of the State Central Committee
has been made for the eighth of Janu
ary, at Portland. The meeting will be
for the purpose of appointing a time to
hold the Democratic State Convention,
which will put in nomination persons to
fill the various offices, State and county
at the .coming Jane election. . " .. . v
' Arrived.- Mrs.: Duniway has re
ceived her winter styles of bonnets, hats
and millinery goods, and they make a
tempting display. The ladies will take
notice of this fact, and govern them
selves accordingly. . .
Improvement. A new sidewalk has
been built on the east side of Washing
ton from Third to Pourth streets, which
adds to the pedestrian accommodations in
that portion of the city. " f ' "
The Successful Man. In the tie
vote for Councilman, between J. Gradwohl
and J. II. Hackleman, Democrats, Mr.
Gradwohl was the successful man. "
... Emigrants. Six families, en route
from Missouri to Eugene City, came up
on Sunday's steamer. Treasurer Shields
informs us that they vote the Democratic
ticket straight. .
LEGAL-Mr. J. 11. Smith has been
appointed administrator of the estate of
Samuel II. Hitter, deceased. ..... Persons
having claims against .said estate will
present them to Mr. Smith within six
months from the date of the first publica
tion. ,y ' ':"7
"Foolishness." Cows J havingi been
stolen near, Racine ( Wis), ! lately- the
Journall remarks : ."These' chaps .will
keep on foolin' tijl somebody gets hung!"
. Mrs. Partington informs Ikey thatth.!s
'.'Economical Council they're going to
hold in Borne is a good thing, as things
are awful dear since the war."- .
s . i t
. JjASt Xeuh. rlt is reported: that Fjsk
and Gould are on their blasts legs'-and
hav laid up vast sums in ' Europe,' 'pre
paratory to a crash!' '. ; - .t-.--..
. Henry- Ward Beecher's income from
the Plymouth Church is" only ?12,500
per annum. During the ; war it was but
7,500. '
s: Lawyers insure their lives in the Wash
ing of ?New York. . ...
f",:'l UiZSVr fla It.lSt '".;
To the Senate and Home of Jtepretentative -
. In coining before you for the first-time as Chief
Magistrate of this nation, it is-with gratitude to
the giver at all geed -fo the mnij henefiu-we en
joy, t we are bieasea witn peace at home and are
witnont, entangling. siiiance abroad, or trouble to
forbode. ' With 8,teTritory imsurpassed in tertilltv:
ef m area eqnal' to the abundant support of five
hundred millkODS oT oeoole. aud alnnnliB ;n ..
ery variety of useM, mineral,, in quantity suffi
cient to supply the ' world for generations ; with
exuberant crops ; with a variety of climate adapt
ed to the production of every species of the earth's
produce, ncB, anit suited to the habits, tastes and
requirements of ewfcry living thing ; with a popu
lation of forty millions of people, all, speaking
one language j with facilities for r every mortiii to
acquire an education 5 with 'institutions closing
to none the avenues :to famf.or aey : blessing of
fortune that may be eovoted 5 with freedom of the
pulpit, press and schools ; with Arcvenue flowing
into the national 'treasury beyond the ' require
ments of the Government, desjaaad-oannony . .is
being rapi.Uy restored wrthin.onr borders, mauur
facturcs hitherto unknown in our country are
springing up in ali liixectiuua, producing a degree
of uationaA .iadependcaca unaquallcd byttthat,pf
any other power. These blessings anu countless
others are intrusted to your care and mine for the
brief period of our tenure of office. In a short
time we must each of ub return to the ranks of
the people who have conferred upon us our pow
ers, and account to them for the stewardship.' I
earnestly desire thst neither you nor I .may be
condemned by a frceand enlightened constituency,
nor by our own cosseienccs. Wis are emerging
from a rebellion of sigautie magnitude, aided as it
was by the sympathy and assistance of natiuns
with which we were at peace.- Eleven States of
the Union were four1 years ago loft , without legal
State governments ;' a debt had been? contracted ;
American commerce was almost driven from the
seas ; the industryof one-half the country had
been taken from th control of the capitalists and
placed where all labor rightfully belongs iir tho
keeping of the laborers. The work of restoring
State governments ' loyal to the Union ; the pro
tecting and fostering of labor and providing
means for paying fhe interest on the public debt
have received amps attention from Congress.
Although your efforts have hot met with the
success in all particulars that inight have been
desired, yet on. ths whole they; have been more
successful than eould have been reasonably an
ticipated. Seven ot the States which passed th
ordinances of secession have been fully restored
to their places in the Union. The eighth, Geor
gia, has held an election at which she ratified a
constitution republican in form, elected a Gover
nor, members uf Congross,- and a State Legisla-
turo, with all other offioers required. The Govcr
I nor was duly installed.' and the Legislature met
and pcriornied all the acts then required ot them
by the reconstruction act of Congress. . Sabxc
quently, however, in violation of the Constitution
she bad just ratified, as since decided by the Su
preme Court of the State, they unseated the col
ored members of the Legislature, and admitted to
seats members who' are disqualified by the third
clause of the Fourttenth Amendment in the Con
stitution, an article which, tbey themselves had
contributed to ratify.; Under these circumstances
I would submit tut you-whether it would not be
wise without -delay to pass a law Authorizing the
, Governor of Gsorgia to convene the members
originally elected to the Legislature, requiring
each member ts take tho oath preserilwd by the
reconstruction act ; this done, those not to be ad
mitted who are ineligible under the od clause of
the 11th Amendment. ... . .
The freedmeo, under the protection they have
received, are making rapid progress it) learmng,
and no eomplaints arc beard of a lack of industry
on their part when, they receive a fair remunera
tion for their labor. ' ' ' ' '
. The means nrovided" for paying the interest on
tho public debt, with all other expenses, of the j
Government, aro more than ample. Thu loss of )
our commerce is the only result of the rebellion
which has not received "su8iojent atteulion from
vou. To this subject I call your earnest atten
tion.' I will not now suggest the means by winch :
this object may be eff-cted, but will if neee.rv, I
make it the subject of a special message during j
the session of Congress.
At the March term Congress by joint resolution
authorized the Executive to order an election in
the States of Virginia, Mississippi and Texas, at
which was to be submitted the Constitution which
each bad previously in Convention framed,- and
these were to be submitted either entire, or in
separate parts to be voted upon, at the discretion
of the Executive. Under this authority elections
were called. In Virginia the election took place
on the 6th of July, 189. The Governor elected
has been installed. . The Legislature nu t and did
all required by this resolution and by all the re
construction acts of Congress-, and have refrained
from all doubtful authority. I recommend that
their Senators and Representatives be admitted,
and that the State be restored to its place in the
family of States. Elections were called in Slis
sissippi and Texas to commence on the 30th of
November, and to last two days in Mississippi and
four in Texas. Tho eleitions have taken place,
but tho result is not known. It is to be hoped
that the Legislature of these States, when they
meet, will bo such as to receive your approbation
and thus close the work of reconstruction.
' THE Cl RtlESl-Y.
Among the evUs growing ouof the rebellion,
aud not ypt referred te. is that-of an irredeema
ble currency. It is an evtt which I hope will re
ceive your most earnest attention. It is a duty,
one of the highest of the duties of the Govern
ment, to secure to the people a medium., of ex
change of unvarying value. This implies a re
turn to a specie basis, and no substitute for it
can. be devised. 2 It should be- commenced now
and reached at the earliest practicable moment
consistent with a fair regard to tho interest of the
debtor class. Immediate- resumption, if practi
cable,, would not b desirable. It would eompel
the debtor class to pay beyond their contracts the
premium on goli at the date of their purchase,
and would bring bankruptcy and ruin to thous
ands. Fluctuation, however, in the paper value
of the measure of all value, gold, is detruiiental
to the interest of trade. It makes the Mian of
business an involuntary gambler f lor in all sale
where future payment is to be made, both parties
speculate as to what will be the value of the cur
reuey to be paid and received..; ! earnestly ree
ommend to yon, then, such legislation as will in
sure a gradual return to specie payments and put
an immediate stop to the fluctuation in the value
of currency. The methods to secure, these m
aults ar as numerous as are tho speculations on
political oconomy. To secure the latter I see but
one wayi and that is to erder the Treasury to re
deem its own paper t fixed, prices whenever pre
sented, and to withhold from circulation all such
currency redeemed nntil sold again for gold. The
vast resources of the nation, both developed and
undeveloped, pught toJuake our credit the best
on the earth. With a less burden, of taxation
than the citrsen has endured for six years past,
the entire public debt could be paid in ten years,
but it is desirable that the people should not be
taxed to pay- it in that time. Year by year the
ability to pay increases in a rapid ratio, but the
burden of interest ought to be reduced as rapidly
us can be done without violating the contracts.
The public debt is represented in great part by
bonds having from five to twenty and ten to forty
years to run, bearing interest at the rate of S per
cent, and per cent, respectively. It is optional
with the Government to pay these bonds f any
period after the expiration of the last tune men
tioned unoa their face. The time has already ex
pired whe Krea.patof them may be taken
up, and the time is rapidly, approaching whou all
may be. It is believed that all which are tiow
due may be replaced by bonds, bearing a rater
interest Tiotexceeduig per eent; and as rapidly
as the remainder becomes due,' that theymay be
replaced ta the same way." Te accomplish this, tt
amy e neeeeiiary authorie interest to be paid
at either of three or four of the momiy eeutree of
Europe or by y- Assistant Treasurer pf the
United States. at the option of the holders of the
bonds. I recommend this snbjeet to the conaid
erationef ICeagrese simultaneously with
this, the propriety of redeeming our currency as
before suggested at its market value at the time
the law goes Into effcetr tBcrcaaing the rate at
which ewrrepey wiU be bought of told rrom day
to day or week to week at the , same rate of inter
est as tho Government pays po i' biradt.. The
subject of tarill uud iutciuul Uiatiou will Beeea.
sarily receive your, attention. The revenues, of
the country ere greater than the requirement,
and miy :vrrt. safety be redoced; bat as the
funding of the debt in four or four and a half per
cent, bonds would reduce the annual current ex
pense largely; "and then after funding, .justify a
greater reduction of taxation than would be now
expected IT suggest the postponement of. this
question until the next meeting of Congress, when
it may be advisable to modify taxation and the
tariff in instances where unjust and burdensome
discriminations -are made by the present 'laws.
But for a geueral revision of the laws regulating
this subject, I recomineml the postponement of it
for the present. 1 I also Suggest the renewal of tax
on incomes,, but at. a reduced rate, say..f three
per cent,, thbt Xul t expire in three years.
With theTundng Of the National debt t feel safe
in saying that, the ftasea and revenue' froja :fan-ports-may;
be safely xedpeed from sixty to eighty
millions per annum at .once, and a still further
reduction from year td year,, as the resources of
es 1. t it btiida
the. country are ievIopea i .
. " - t '- - . ..
The report of the ' Secretary f the Treasury
shows the receipts of tlie Govornment forthe 6 seal
year ending Jltne'Sft, 1S69, to be S370,9;r,747.
and thq expenditures,; inclndmg interest,. etc,, te
be $321t40,JtT- T rtlmaWJi f K,
yar are more favorable to the Government, and
will, no doubt, show a large decrease of the pub
lic debt. The receipts in .the Treasury, beyond
the expenditures, have exceeded the atnonnt nec
essary to place to, the credit of, the sinking funds
as provided by law.. To block up the7surius in
the Treasury and withhold it from.. circulation,
would lead to such a contraction of currency as to
cripple trado-aml seriously, affect the pos,chi of teaa f tho e,e .Tlopted by Great
the country., tnder these . circumstances, the ii;,.: j... . ::i . :.. .v.
rates of insurance, iu the diminution of exports
and imports, and in other respects to domestic
Industry 'und production ( m its cdect upon tor
icaa ReifuMics, with' which ehe is at war, having
been accepted by Spain, Peru and Chili, a con
gress has been invited to be held in Washington
during tho present winter. ; ., , r .,
A grant baa been given to Europeans of an ex
eluuiweicBauhu, tO' transit over tlie Territory ef
Nk-aragua, - to which Costa Rica has given her
assent, but which it is alleged conflicts with the
vested rights of citizens of the United States.
The Department of Slate has now this subject
under consideration., 1 , 1,
The Minister of Peru having made representa
tions that there was a state of war between Peru
and Spain, -and that Spain was constructing in
ana near New York Government gunboats which
might be ased by Spain in such a way as to re
lieve the naval . force at Cuba so as to operate
against Bern, orders were given to prevent their
departure. Whether steps have been taken by
the preventative of, :tbe Peruvian government
to prevent the departure of these vessels, I do not
feel authorized to detain the property of a nation
with wjm wearc at peace on; a lucre executive
order. "The 'matter has 'heeh "referred " to the
eourts to decide. ; (
" ' Toward tba elese of the last administration, a
convention was signed- London, for the settle
ment' of all 'outstanding claims between Great
wasnaitMitosdastinitcck Jitateai... which failed to
receive tbo advice and eonisent of the Senate io
Ms ratmcarton: s -The thne and circumstanci s at
tending the negotiation of the treaty were favor
able to its acceptance by the people of the United
States, but its provisions were wholly inadequate
forthe settlement of tho grave wrongs that had
beckr sustained by this government as well as its
citizens, toe injuries resulting to the. United
.Secretary' of the Treasury Tend myself heartily
concurred in using all this "surplus, enrrcney in
the Treasury for the purchase. Sof Government
bonds, thus reducing the interest-bearing debt of
the country, and of submitting to Congress the
question of the disposition to be made of the bonds,
as purchased. . The bonds now held bv tho Treas
ury amount to about $7i,000,t)00, including those
belonging to the sinking fund, ; .,f f
Your attention is respectfnliyi,invtterl' toJ the
recommendations of the Secretary of the Treasury
for tho creating of the office of the Commissioner
of the Customs .Revenue, ; for the increase of
salary " to a ecrtain class 'of offitnals and :
tho substitution of increased national funds
in ;.ciroulution - to replace ,rthe ..outstanding Z
percent, certificates; and most especially, to his
recommendation for the repeal ,of the laws allow
ing shares of fines; penalties, forfeitures, etc , to
officers of the Government, or to informers. The
office of Commissioner of Internal Rcvoniio is
one of the most Onorous and important uiidef the
loverninent,; It falls but little if aiy short of a
Cabinet position iu its importance and responsi
bilities. It is therefore recommended to snchJ f the United States would be benefitted by such
legislation as in vonr judgment v ill place the of
fice on a footing of dignity pMiamensuxate with its
imjiortanco- and the character - and ability and
qualifications required to All it properly. . - .
-'."";V . TRB TFBAX QUESTION. - v " .i
As tho United States is the freest of all nations,
so its people sympathize with all people strug
gling for liberty ami self-goveruineiit.: But while
so sympathizing, it is due to our. honor that, we
should abstain from enforcing onr views upon un
willing nations and front .tahjig ab .iuterettgd
part in iuitiatory quarrels between, different na
tions, between' different Governments " and their
subjects. . Our course should always bei .iu trrot
conformity with strict justice and international
law. Such has been the policy of the- adminis
tration iu dealing with these questions. Por more
than a year a valuable province of Spain -a near
neighbor ot ours, in whom all Our people Cannot
but fuel a deep , interest -has been struggling for
its independence aud freedom. The . people .and
Government of the United States, en tertuHi the
sume warm sympathies for the people of Cuba in
their pending strucele that thev manifested in the
previous Struggle between -rpir-urHl tieVcWoniesr-'
in benall ot ttio latter, nut rtne coutrfcs at no
time have assumed the couditions which amount
to. war in the scuSe of international law, or which
would show the existence of : political :organixa
tion of ieaurgeuts sutficienl to justify a recognition
of their bclliirereucy. The principle isiuuintained,
however, that this natiou is to be its own judge as
to the rights of belligerency, cither to a people
struggling to free themselves from a Government
eign commerce-of the country, in tho deci ease
rand transfer to Great Britain of our commercial
marine, in the prolongation ot our-war, and the
increased cost, both in trensnro and lives, for its
suppression could not be adjusted and satisfied as
ordinary commercial claim which-continually
arise betweou commercial nations ; and yet the
convention treated them simply as such ordinary
claims from which they differ more widely in the
gravity of their character than in the magnitude
of their amount, great even as that is. .
,'J .J.'.'- : . J
There was found a wide difference of opinion
a to the rooiproeity treaty between the ll'uitcd
States and the British provinces' "on this conti
nent whieb has not been favorably considered by
the administration. The advantages of such a
treaty would ie wholly in favor of the British
producer, except, possibly,, to a lew engaged in
tho trade between the two sections. No citizen
reciprocity. Our interual taxation would prove
'a protection to the British producer almost equal
to the protection which our-manufacturers now
receive from that tax. Some arrangement, how
ever, for the regulation of commercial inter
course between the United States and the Domin
ion should be effected. The Commission for ad
justing : the' claims wf . the- Hudson's Bay and
Puget Sound Agricultural Companies agaiust the
United States has terminated its labors. Tho
allowance of $050,1100 Jnt been made, and all the
rights and tMe of the Company ou the territory of
tho United States have been mail over, uud all
'rights' Had titles iit the company on the territory
of the United States have been extinguished.
Deeds for the property of the company have been
rcccivcdJ An appropriation by Congress to meet
this sum is asked.. , . . - .
' The Commission for determining, the North
western! , land boundary - between ; the. United
States and the British Possessions under tho
treaty of 1 SAO, have completed' their labors and
the commission hat been dissolved. '. -
Tn ' conformity with tho recommendation " of
jCengKw.a proposition was early inoile to the Brit
Isn tiovcrnuieut to al.ulish uiixed eourts, created
under the treaty of April 18, 1S(2; for tho sup
pression, of the slave trade. .. The. subject is still
under negotiation.
" -' .'THE MESCH CABLE. ""
It having come to my knowledge that a corpo
rate "company, organized under ' Britiah laws,
propose to laud upou the shores of .tho United
States, and to 01 .crate their submarine ruble
under concession from His Majesty, the Kiuperor
.. "7 , , . . . ;. 1 1 . . ' miner concession irom JUS .Majesty, rne tintK-ror
thev believe to bo oppressive, or to independent , , , .'.. 1 1 . . .
. . u .i - Ti . r.ti 1 ; of the-French, With an exclusive right for tweoty
nations at war with each other. The Lnitcd . -.- i.. . , J
JWMD, . ' .. t it 'II IV miUlllUUK.111'11 VClRnU IBB
shores of Fram-e ami tlie Vuiied States, with the
very ubjcctiormblo feature' of sni.jccting all incs
States have no disposition to . interfere with tho
existing relations -of Spain to her colonial posses
sions on this continent. They believe in due time
that Spain and other European nations will rind
their interests terminating these, relations and es
tablishing their prescut dependencies as independ
ent powers aud as members of the family of na
tions. . .These dependencies areno'lougcrregarded .
as subject to transfer from eno Enrbpcan po war -to
another. Wbeu the present relatiaus of; the cole- ,
nies cease, they are to become independent powers
exercising the right of ehoice and self-control in
the determination of their future; condition and
relations with ether powers. The .United States
in order to put a stop to bloodshed in Cuba, and
in the interest of a neighborin i people, preferred
their gool offices in order to bring the existing
contest to a termination. The offer not being ac
cepted by Spain on a basis which was believed
could be received by Cuba, it was withdrawn. - It
it hoped that the good offices of the United States
may yet.prove advantageous for the settlement of
this unhappy struggle. Meanwhile a number of
illegal expeditions against Cuba have been broken
up. It has been the endeavor of the Administra
tion to execute the neutrality laws in good taitb,
no matter how unpleasant the task,. may :be to
that they may , avoid the suffering we have en
dured from a lack of good faith to Che United
States by other nation, in,, regard to . os, , The
schooner Lizzie Ifnjor was arrested On the high
teas by a Spanish frigate and two passengers taken
from it and earned as prisoners to Cuba. . Repre
sentations of these facta were made to the Spanish
government, as soon as official informativn of them
reached Washington. The two passengers were
set at liberty and the Spanish government assured
the United 'Ktatet that tha Captain of the frigate
in making the capture had acted without law, and
that be had been reprimanded for the irregularity
of his conduct, And, that the Spanish 'authorities
in Cuba would not sanction any act thai eould vi
olate the rights er treat with disrespect the sover
eignty of this nation. The question of the seiz
ure of the brig Mary Lowell atone of the' Baha
ma Islands. by the Spanish authorities is near the
subject of correspondence between this Govern
ment and that of Spain and Great Britain. The
Captain General of Cuba! about May last issued
a proclamation authorising a search to be made
of. vessels on the high teat. Immediately re
monstrance was made against 'this, whereupon
tho Captain General issued a new, proclamation
limitiug the right of search of vessels of the Uni
ted States to far as antborned under the treaty of
I7'J5., This proclamation,, however, was immedi;
ately withdrawn. I have always felt that the
most intimate relations should . be cultivated' be
tween the Republic of the. United States and all
independent nations oh this continent. . It .may
be well worth considering- whether treaties ' be
tween the .United States and them niay not be
rofltably entered into to secure more intimate, re
it ions, fxiendly or othcrwisa. ; ' . iit "
The subject of an inter-ocean ie canal to con-!
nect the Pacific and Atlantic oceans throngn tne
Isthmus qf Varien, is one. iu which the, Suited
Sta.tes is greatly interested Instruotiont hive
been given, to oar minieter at tho United States, of
Columbia to endeavor to1 obtain authority Cor a
survey by this Government, iauefilcr to determine
the practicability of such air undertaking, and
charter for the' right of way, to . bo built by
private enterprise if the tuxvey irevea - to he
practicable. .... ..i--..-..
In order to cbmply with the agreement of the
United States at Ur a mixeIeomniiswn at' Lima
for the . adjustment ef claim. Jt; was -neoesmrj tj
seiid a Commissioner and Sofcrefary to' Lima lit
August -j last-jiito' approprition. having-boua
made for this purpote, i is how , asked that one
be made covering the' past and future expense of
the comiuutsiou.. , T 1 '" s tI
i ' " I'AHAOr a v. . . , .
' The condition or Paraguliy :has "mailo inters,
course with that country s diflieult that ijt-hae,
been deemed withdraw our reprosent
ettves frvm there. r, (,t ... f,rI
The gtwd offices of tlie United States to' l-rTfi; ?
sages confided to them, to the Sovereignty an.
control of the French Government, I caused
the French and British Legations, at Washington
to lie made acquainted with the probable policy
of Congress on the "subject ia foreshadowed by
fhe bill which paesed the rienate in March last.
This" drew from thu representatives of tho coiu
nany an agreement to accept as a basis of their
operations the provisions of the bill, or .of such
other enactments on 'the subject as might be
passed during the ajiproachiug session of Cou
grcss; also', to use their influence to secure from
tha French Government a modification ; of their
concession to as to permit the lauding upon French
toil of a- cable belonging to any company incor
porated by authority of tha United States, or any
State in the United States, and ou their part not
to. oppose thai establishment of any such calde.
In consideration of this agreement I directed the
withdrawal of all opposition by the United States
authorities te the landing of the cable and the
working of it until the meeting uf Congress. I
regret to nay that there bas been no modification
made in tho-eompany's concession, nnr, so far as
I cofl learn,; havwtbey -ntonipted , to secure eno.
Their concession excludes the capital and the cit
izens at the United States from cometition upon'
the shores of .France.;, I recommend legislation
to' protect the rights of citizens of the United
States,; well at the dignity and sovereignty ef ;
.the nation against such an assumption. 4 I shall !
also endeavor" to nr by ncgotrations, an aban
donment of the principles ot monopolies ou ocean
telegraphic cables. Copies of this correspondence
are herewith furnished. : u - Y:-"""
'...j- ".( ;.KIVTITI01T; eiTWEJtSHIP. ,
. .The unsottled political condition of those coun
tries less- fbrtnnate than our own sometimes in
duce their citizens to come to the United States
for the sole purjtose of becoming naturalized.
Having secured this, they return to their native
country and reside there, and without disclosing
their change of allegiance they accept official po
sitions of trust and honor, which can only beheld
by citizens of their native land They journey
under passmrts describing them as such citizens,
and it it only when discord, after perhaps years
of quiet, threatens them, or their propcity, or
when their native State draws them iuto its mili
tary service that the fact ef their change of ttlle
gianw ie niadekuown. Tbey reside permanently
awnV rmm the United States r they contribute
nothing -to. its refenuet j ihoy: votd the claims of
its citiwpship. and they ouii ' muk! thcuisclves
known by asking for oer protection. I have di
rected tha diplomatic ..consular officers . of the
United States to scrutinize carefully all such
claims of protection. The cit'izeus of the United
States, whether nativoor adopted, who discbarges
his duties to" hie eonutry, is entitled to its coni
plote rotectmMi end should have a voico iu the
direction of its affairs : hot I should not conseut
to impair that eaored right by conferring it mpon
fictitious 'or. fraudulent claimants.
JUMttlBATIOX. ,' "" ," "';'"'"
JOn the aceessiou os the present administration
it,'wa fonnd that the -Miuis;ry. for North Gor
oiauy had. made a proposithui of negotiations for
a -convention for tlio protection of emigrant pas
sengers (0 which no response has been given. It
was concluded that to be effectual, all the niuri
tiuc powers engaged in trade should join in inch
measures. . Invitations have been extended to the
cabinets tf? London, Paris; Berlin, Brussels, the
ilagacv Copenhagen, Florence, and Stoi-kbeliit to
empower their representatives at Washington to
timuRsmeenrty-eutee into negntiations and con
clude withihe VuitotrStatus conveaitions identi
cal in form, tr the construction in their ports, of
vessel s to bo devoted to the use of emigrant pas
sengers ; to pretcribe the quality and quantity of
rood ana medical treatment ef the tick during the
wjr4,ria erder teeecurevenriUtien ; to proia.ite
health, to protect families,
mud provide for the establish meat of tribunals in
the several .couu trios for enforcing tuch regular
thint by tummary priteestl " i
-if .t-Wfi-'-nTuK( roRKio nATTEns. V. ' V- -vVouf
attention-is rcsneX tfuHv t jlled to' the law
about xB4ve between spaui and the bouth Amer- j regarding the tartir on hcmp.and to the
question whether to fix the charge! on Russia
hemp higher than they are fixed upon man ilia, it
not a violation of our treaty with Prussia, placing
ber productions npon the tamo footing with those
of the most favored nationt ? ; ,,
5 .': 'HAHl-riCTUttl.'.., .
Onr manufactures are increasing with wonder
ful rapidity under the encouragement which tbey
now receive, and with improvements in machine
ry already effected, they are atill inereaaing. that
causing machinery to take the place of skilled
labor to a large extent. Our imports of many
articles nin at fait off largely within a few year.
Fortunately too many manufactures are not eoa-t
tided to a few localities as formerly, and it is to
be hoped they will become more and more dif
fused, making the interest in them equal in all
sections.' They give employment and support to
hundreds ami thousands of people at home, and
retain within us meant which otherwise would be
shipped abroad. , . ' ;
The extension of railroads in Europe, mnA the
East, it bringing into competition with our agri
cultural products those of other eountriea. Self
interest it not self-preservation, therefore declares
in favor of caution, against disturbing any indus
trial interests of the country. It teaches va ads
the necessity of looking to her markets fof sale ef
WH-.Wf'.A' v.'', .V
Our neighbors tooth of the United States, and
f, J"Pn, should receive speoal attention. -
It wiU be the endeavor of my administration to
cultivate tuck relations with all nations to be
entitled to their confidence, and make them inter
ested in establishing better commerce! relations
than that hetetotore pursued toward China. It
it due to the capacity and efforts of onr own dis
tinguished citizens that the world it about to com
mence largely increased relations with that popu
lous and heretofore exclusive nation. At tha
United Statea have been the initiators of tha iml-
icy they should be the most earnest in showing
their good faith, making it a success. In this
connection I advise such legislation at will for
ever preclude the enslavement of the Chinese npon
our toll under the name of coolies, and to prevent
American vessels from engaging in the transport
ation of any coolies to any country, or tolerating
the system. I also recommend that the Misaitui
to China be raised to one of the first class, .
On my assuming the responsibilities of Chief
Magistrate of the United States, it was with lira
conviction that three things were essential to Its
peace and prosperity and the fullest development.
First among these is strict integrity in fulfilling
our obligations ; second, to secure protection to
the person and property to the citizens of our
common eon n try. wherever be may chance to
move, without reference to original nationality,
religion, color or politics, demanding uf him obe
dience to the law and proper respect for the rights
of others ; third, the union of all the States, with
rightt undisputablo by any but Constitutional
means. To secure the first of these Congress bat
taken two essential steps in declaring by joint
resolution that tho public debt should be paid,
principal and interest, in coin ; second, by pro
viding I he means for paying the principal. How
ever, we could not secure the object desired with
out tho proper administration of laws for collee.
tion of revenues, and economical disbursement of
them. To this subject the administration bat
most earnestly addressed itself with results I be
lieve satisfactory to tho country. There hat been
no hesitation iu changing officials iu order to
secure the efficient execution of law ; sometimes,
too, where in a mere party view the political re
sults that were following from any hesltatioa
in sustaining sufficient officers against rvmone.
fiances wholly political. It may be well to men
tion here that embarrassment may possibly arise
from leaving on tho statute book the to called
tenurc-of-ofnee acts, and do earnestly recommend
their total repeal. It could not have been tbe
intention of the framersof the Constitution when
uruvidins that appointments made by theJ
I dent should receive tbo assent of the Senate;
I that the latter should hare power to retain iu
j ottiee persons displaced by Federal appointments
against tbe will of the President. Tbe law it
inconsistent with a faithful and efficient admin is.
, trntion of the; government. What faith can the
j Kxecutive put in officials forced upon him those,,
i too, whom hof hat suspended for reason 7 How
would such officials be likely to serve the adminis
tration, which tbey know does not trust them t
For the second requisite to our growth and proa
peri ty, time and m firm but humane administra.
tion of existing laws amended from time to time,
as they may prove ineffectual or harsh orunnecet.
sary, are probably all that it required. The
third cannot be obtained by special legislation,
but must be regarded as fixed by the Constitution
itself, and gradually acquiesced iu by tbe force ef
public opiuiuu. .
1ir.m tlin ftitimli, ol' tlij, vimnmMl tn ft!
.present time the management ot tlie original in
habitants of this coutincut, the Indians, hat been
attended with continuous robberies, murder and
wart. From my own experience, when on the
frontiers and in the Indian countries, I do not
1 hold either the legislation or tlie conduct of the
whites who came nearest iu coutuct with the Iu.
diuus, blameless. These deeds of the past, how,
ever, cannot be undone, and tho question mutt be
met as we now find if. I have, adopted a new
policy towards these wards of tho nation. - They
mnniil lio regarded in anv ether liirht than aa
' wurds. It has been attended with very , fair
I n. .nits an far aa baa beeeu tried, and I hnlie wilt
I be attended ultimately with the greatest aueeear.
Tbe Society uf inenVs are well known at having
succeeded iu peace with Indians in the early aeU
tiement of Pennsylvania when their white neigh
bors of other sections were constantly em broiled 4
Tbey are also known for. their opiositiou to nil
violence,. strife and war, and are generally noted
fur their strict integrity and. fair dealing. Thee
considerations induced. ne to give tbe manege
men t of a few Reservations of Indiana to tbm,
and to throw tha but di n of the selection ef agents
upon the Society itself,. The result hat prove.!
most satisfactory. , It will be found more fully
set forth in the report of the Commissioner of In
dian Affairs and of tho Superintendents. For
Indian Agents nut on Reservations, officers of the
army were selected. ...The reasons fr this are nu
merous. Tho Indian Agent! are tent here and
there. Troops mutt he sent also. The Agent
and commander of tuo troops are independent of
each other, and are subject to orders from differ,
cut departments of the government. The army
.fUcr holda a .position fur life $, the agent, one at
the will of tbe President, Tho former is person
ally interested in living in harmony with tbe In
dians and tbe- establishment or permanent peace,
to the end that tome portion of hit life may be
spent within the limits of the civilized section.
The latter has no such personal interest. An.
other reason Is an economic one, and stil another
it the hold which the government has upon tba
life of the officer to secure the faithful discbarge
uf hi duties iu carrying out a given policy. The
building of the railroads and the access thereby
given to all the agricultural and mineral regions
of their country is rapidly bringing civilized set
tlements in contact' with nil the tribes of Indians,
and not matter what ought to be tbe relations be.
tween-such settlements and the nboriginecs, tho
fact is tbey do not harmonize well, and one or the
Other bos to give way in the 01 d, A system
which looks to the extermination of a race is too
horrible for any nation to adopt without entailing
upon itself the wrath of all Christendom and en.
gendering in the citizen a disregard for human
life and tlie rightt of others dangerous to society.
I see no substitute for such a system except m
placing all the Indians on large 1 rescrvat ions aa
rapidly at can he done and giving them fi"
protection there. As soon as they are
it they should be induced to take their lands la
acvcralty. e4 to set P,3 Zn
S,r their own protection. ' For the foll at.,'.
this subject I call your tpccial J ljT
report of the Secretary of the Interior and tbo
Commissioner f Indian Affairs. ; ,
w ar
Tbe report of the Secretary or War show the
mmditurcs f the WaV. Ucpartmcnt for the
The estimate of .be next t-al ,
H is l"''"rbn carefully terutinJeed.
Bureau of 'f h7b 7a deciod preetiots
f f 4 "t owever the condition of the "country
hoKi bJ S by the besinniug of the next fiscal
should ae il.oM.(tllMult ejlti.npC. - :i