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TIIE SUNDAY OREGOXIAX, PORTLAND,' MAT 15, 1921
EW CUTS IN WAGES
BASED ON COST CU
Employers Held Ignorant o
WIDE PROBE IS STARTED
Agents of Bureau of Labor Starts'
tics Are Col lectins Accurate,
BY RALPH BARTON,
frnmrrirht. 1B21. by The Oronian.)
WASHINGTON. D. C May 14.
(Special.) Agents of the bureau of
labor statistics, department of labor,
have begun work on the collection of
accurate and up-to-date data on nv
ing costs in order that reliable in
formation may be available for wage
Perhaps the principal labor prob
lem today at least from the employ
ers' point of view is this very mat'
ter of wafce adjustment. The em
ployer, though he lacks definite evi
dence on the point, nevertheless con
tends that living costs are diminish
ing and as a result wage reductions
are being out Into effect generally.
The employes on the whole feel that
the adjustments are being made ar
bitrarily and with little regard to
lowered expenses in the family
budget, and the result is friction and
lavemtfgatlona to Be Made.
The bureau of labor statistics will
end investigators into about 30 cities
to pursue inquiries along the same
lines as those followed during the war
and after the armistice. These in
vestigators will collect actual figures
as to family expenses covering every
necessity of life and making fair al
lowances for the requirements of rec
reation, education and health,
The work will be started not later
than June 1. as the department
1 realizes that this is a hurry-up job
and that in many parts of the country
peace may depend largely on the
rapidity with which it is performed.
Workmen are much more ready to ac
cept reductions, if reductions must
come, when they can be convinced
that the purchasing power of their
wages will not be reduced.
War Situation la Cited.
During the war the adjustment of
wages to living costs was determined
on the basts of figures collected by
the bureau, and enforcement was pos
sible through the war labor board and
other governmental agencies. Most
of the governmental supervision has
now been withdrawn, but the division
of concilation in the department ordi
narily has little trouble in bringing
about voluntary agreements in dis
putes, if both parties can be con
vinced that justice is being done
It is certain that wage reductions
will be resisted vigorously unless
workmen are shown that their stand
ard of living is not being lowered.
To the employer reductions in food
costs and clothing costs appear ample
reasons for cutting wages in drastic
Other Expenses Stay T'p.
But while these items have been
lowered, rents, car fares, light and
heat and other items less prominent,
yet bulking very large, have re
mained in general stationary, or have
been increased. The workman is
fully conscious of this, and the data
obtained by the bureau of labor sta
tistics probably will help greatly in
interpreting the workman's view to
the employer, and vice versa.
An interesting experiment con
nected with wage reduction, but more
important as a measure for stabilizing
Industry, has been undertaken in
Cleveland, where the garment manu
facturers and the international
women garment workers' union have
entered an agreement for a wage re
duction of Shi to 13 V4 per cent, on
various jobs, on the condition that the
manufacturer guarantee 40 weeks of
employment during the year in two
periods of 20 weeks each, with two
thirds pay for any week in those
periods when employment is not of
Fund Must Be Provided.
The employers must provide a fund
to cover this guarantee, and the
workmen receive one week's vacation
with pay. The agreement has been
held by many persons to constitute
a great advance in the stabilization
of industry and solution of labor
The prospective revolutionary
moves In Great Britain have been con
sidered by labor union leaders here
as due to unemployment, maladjust
ment or wages to living costs, and,
while the American Federation of La
bor feels that its withdrawal from
the labor Internationale has been jus
tified by conditions abroad, these
same conditions have been regarded
as a warning against unwise attacks
on labor in this country.
tion' to discuss commerce between
Maryland. Virginia and Delaware."
This convention, forerunner of that
held in Philadelphia shortly after
ward, agreed that no restriction of
any sort should be' placed on the
commerce of the three states.
Realizing that the agreement was
worthless unless supported by the ad
joining states, Washington and his
conferees determined, it is said, to
make the question of commerce a
feature of the Philadelphia meeting.
It is the contention of some author
ities that the section written into the
constitution was the outcome of a
deliberate effort to take away all
legulatory powers over commerce
from the states. Others maintain
that the school of thought headed by
Hamilton and Marshall was decisively
beaten In this endeavor as In several
others fostered to establish a strong
central government and that congres
sional regulation of commerce was in
tended to cover only the movements of
goods over the state lines without
handrance of tolls and tariffs.
Be that as It may,' under recent
decisions of the supreme court, "com
merce" has been Interpreted to cover
not only the movement of goods, but
of men and women as in the white
slave act. In the Peterson case, the
court held that a man handling bolts
intended for u!.e In a bridge over
which Washington-New York trains
passed must be considered to be "en
gaged In interstate commerce."
Within the last few weeks, no less
than a dozen cases involving in soma
way the commerce section, have been
docketed in the supreme court. The
Wisconsin and New York rate cases
will determine whether the inter
state commerce commission has the
right to fix purely intra-state railroaj
rates. A case from Texas will decide
whether the commission can authorize
the abandonment of a railroad's lines.
Other suits turn upon obscure pointb
in the federal employers' liability act
A new low-price mark on
Hart Schaf f ner & Marx Suits
SCHOOL FOLLOWING FLAG
ADEQUATE AMERICAN EDUCA
TION WANTED IN PEKIN.
Lccion Post Starts Movement
Secure Per Capita Appropriation
From United States Congress.
LITTLE PARAGRAPH MAKES
-rower conferred, on Congress to
Regelate Trade at Home and
Abroad Enriches Lawyers.
"WASHINGTON. D. C, May 14. The
old axiom that "commerce is the life
blood of a nation" could be amended
to read, "and of Its- courts," accord
ing to attorneys of many years' ex
perience before the United States
Inquiry of a number of experts on
constitutional law as to the section
which has been productive of most
litigation, brought the unanimous re
sponse: "Section 8. paragraph 3." This
section, one of the shortest in the
immortal document, declares that con-
iress anau nave xne power to reg
ulate commerce- with foreign nationl
and between the several states."
From that brief clause, however,
has arisen all the rate cases, those
involving public utilities, the inter
state commerce commission, child
labor, federal employers' liability act
the lottery laws, the white slave act
and. more recently, the numerous pro
hibition statutes preceding the amend
Chief Justice Marshall asserted In a
Judicial opinion that "commerce"
must be Interpreted to mean "inter
course." and. lawyers say his wide
interpretation was the progenitor of
the whole family of legil battles turn
ing upon the commerce section.
"Washington showed his foresight
edness immediately after the revolu
tionary war." said one constitutional
law expert recently, "and placed his
finger on the most glaring weakness
of the articles of confederation,
when ho called the 'Annapolis couven-
PEKIN, Mav 14. A campaign is in
progress in Pekin to establish an ade
quate American school to be housed
In its own building and capable of
accommodating 250 pupils.
A movement has also been launched
by the Pekin post of the American
Legion to secure a grant of o0 per
pupil by the American government to
promote education among American
children in the far east.
The existing American school In
Pekin will complete the second year
of its existence in June of this year.
Last year there were 120 pupils en
rolled and the budget was approxi
mately J15.000. This year the attend
ance has increased to 150 and the
budget to $21,000. The school has out
grown its temporary quarters and the
trustees plan to have a complete mod
ern building ready by September,
1922. if the necessary funds are forth
coming. A staff of 12 teachers has been en
gaged for next year. Charles R.
Crane, the American minister, and
most of the prominent Americans in
Pekin are taking a lively interest in
the project. Organizations at pres
ent supporting the school and rep
resented on its board of trustees are:
The Young Men's Christian associa.
tion. the Methodist Episcopal mis-
cinn Phina mpriinal board. Pekin
Union Medical'college, Pekin Mothers
club, Scottish Rite Masonic bodies,
the American Association of North
China, the American Legion, the
American College Women's club and
the American chamber of commerce.
Julian Arnold, commercial attache,
has prepared data in support of the
project, showing that there are 8500
Americans in China exclusive of mili
tary and naval forces in Tientsin and
Pekin. Of these 3400 are men. 2700
women and 2400 children, living chief
ly in Shanghai, Pekin, Hankow. Can
ton. Tientsin. Nanking. Foochow,
Tainan and Chengtu. in the order
named, with the larger numbers
Shanghai and Pekin.
u. nn ntq nnr tne inau.euuav.-y
native educational facilities both in
China and Japan.
If you've "been asking
""When will clothes prices
come down?' here is your
answer. We have put them
right down to bedrock.
Here are fine all-wool Hart
Schaffner & Marx suits,
made by master tailors.
Good styles, good patterns,
extra good values.
t Merchandise of c MerilOn ,
Everything for Cash Everything for Less
Copyright 1921 Hart Sr ha finer & Marx
A Phenomenal Success!
To Be Repeated Monday
Portland's Greatest Sale
of New Wall Paper
' at HALF Price
' Double Rolls of Side Wall Paper
at 19c, 29c and 49c a Roll
Double Rolls of Ceiling Paper
at 19c, 29c and 49c a Roll
Sam'l Rosenblatt & Co.
Fifth at Alder
HISTORIC BATTLE OF LITTLE
BIG HOB.V TO BE REPRODUCED.
War D-e-partment Will Co-operate
With American Legion in Mimic
Fight Before Unveiling Statue.
STRIKE CASE SUBMITTED
Judse . Morrow Takes Peaceful
Picketing Cnder Advisement.
The argument in the suit to make
permanent the temporary Injunction
granted to the Chief Lunch, 414 Mor
rison street, against picketing by the
unions of cooks and assistants, and
the waiters and waitresses,, was com
pleted yesterday afternoon before
Circuit Judge Morrow. The Judge
announced that he would give his
decision later, as he wished to study
the records of three previous cases of
a similar character.
There is no allegation of other
than peaceful picketing by banners
Involved. The unions contend that
they have a right to picket because
of a contract to employ only union
help which it is declared was broken
by the restaurant proprietors.
The contention of the proprietors is
that picketing will cause business loss
of 91000 a month, and that the restau
rant will be put out of business if the
pickets are not permanently enjoined.
W. S. TJ'Ren represented the unions
in the hearing and M. L. Pipes the
Kelso School Population Grows.
KELSO, Wash.. May 14. (Special.)
The consistent growth of Kelso
during the past year is shown by the
increase of the school population to
1074 thfs year from 1016 last year.
Clerk George A. Poland has just com
pleted the school census for this year.
All persons between four and 21 are
listed. The increase has been at the
same ratio for the past three years.
CARDS OF THANKS.
We wish to express our sincere
thanks for and appreciation of the
sympathy and many kindnesses of our
relatives, friends and lodees i?Don the
death of our husband and father.
MRS. W. H. WATSON'.
MR. ARTHUR WATSON.
Adv. MR. WM. WATSON.
We wish to convey our thanks to
our friends Tor their Kindness and
their beautiful floral pieces at the
death of our mother.
MRS. T. J. COO NET
, MRS. J OLIVER
Adv. AND FAMILY.
We wish to express to our many
friends our sincere thanks and ap
preciation for their kind deeds and
sympathy shown us during the death
of our beloved husband and father.
(Signed) MRS. A. J. CLARK
Adv. AND CHILDREN.
We wish to thank the many friends
Ki. extended their sympathy during
our sad bereavement and for the beau-
tifu floral pieces etriiv iu utn eu
Raymond; also we thank the little
bovs who acted as pallbearers.
Adv? MR. AND MRS. S. CUMMINGS.
We wish to express our sincere
thanks for and appreciation of the
sympathy and many kindnesses of our
frie-ds in our bereavement ot our be
loved wife and mother: also for the
beautiful floral offerings Savllla. ,
Grace. Francis, Gladys. Raymond,
Theodore and Virgil Coomer. Adv. I
BILLINGS, Mont., May 14. Pre
liminary to unveiling the Custer
monument, now under construction
in the city park at Hardin, an exact
reproduction of the massacre on the
Little Big Horn will be staged on the
site of the historic battle on June 25,
it is announced by the Custer Battle
Anniversary association of Hardin.
Approximately 500 .Crow and Chey
enne Indians will take part in the
mimic battle against members of the
American Legion and troops of cav
alry, representing Custer's handful.
Permission has been obtained from
the federal government for use of
che national cemetery for the spec
tacle and General Hugh L. Scott of
the historic 7th cavalry has an
nounced' he will attend, as probably
will Mrs. Custer. The war depart
ment also has offered to co-operate
in every way possible.
Following the "battle" there will
be a basket dinner at Government
park. Crow agency, and afterward
spectators, troops and Indians will
go to Hardin where the Custer mon
ument will be unveiled with proper
Various addresses, a band concert,
a men's chorus with the Indians ar
rayed on one side and the American
Legion men and cavalry troops on
the other, will include a part of the
ceremoniaL An Indian powwow and
a street dance at night complete the
People from every part of the
state, as well as many without its
borders, are expected to attend in
view of the historis nature of the
celebration, marking the anniversary
of one of the most famous events in
House Refuses to Act as a
Chora of "oe." Greets Bill Char
acterised as Freak Legislation."
of the remarks were rather brutal
and the bill was voted down when
one of the members sugested that
the house should not act as "a matrl
He said: "We are passing too much
freak legislation here, and the time
of the house .Is being taken up with
matters that would not receive the
attention of the board of trustees
of a crossroads village. If we are
going to make a matrimonial agency
out of congress, we ought to hang
out our sign."
After these few remarks the bill
was voted down by a chorus of noes.
Warden to Talk of Agents.
"Insurance Agents I Have Known,
Officially and Unofficially" will be
the subject of an address to be deliv
ered by Louis H. Compton, warden of
the state penitentiary, before the fire
insurance exenange monthly meeting.
The meeting will be held tomorrow
noon at the Benson hotel. . A large at
tendance Is expected as important
matters, including single agencies and
loan agencies, will come up for action
by the members. H. E. Witham of
the Witham-Reed agency will be
chairman of the day, Howard
White, president, presiding.
Army Wool Offering Cat.
THE OREGONIAN NEWS BUREAU.
Washington, D. C, May 14. Senators
Stanfield or Oregon and Gooding of
Idaiho secured an agreement with
Secretary of War Weeks today to
reduce by 50 per cent the amount of
army wool to be sold at auction May
25. The sale of 5,000,000 pounds had
Council Resigns Office.
ST. HELENS, Or., May 14. (Spe
cial.) On account of ill health Coun
cilman Brower resigned and was suc
ceeded by Dr. J. H. Flynn, who has
been a resident of St. Helens for the
last ten years.
Post Announces Party.
ABERDEEN. Wash, May 14. (Spe
cial.) To raise money to erect mon
uments on the graves of soldiers and
sailors buried in Fern Hill cemetery
here, Aberdeen post American Le-
mHE OREGONIAN NEWS BUREAU,
JL Washington, D. C, May 14. The
house of representatives has refused
by practically a unanimous vote to
act as a matrimonial agency. It has
turned its- back on an appeal for the
passage of a bill which would have
united two soul mates, in such a man
ner as to give notice to all concerned
that they should not take up the time
of the lawmaking power of the na
tion. A special bill, which came from
a regularly accredited standing com
mittee, forced this important issue
upon the lower house of 'dongress,
with the result that there is -now a
well-established policy upon the sub
ject. Emil Fisher arrived In New York
city from Austria about 20 years ago
and took out first papers for citizen
ship. Before completing his naturali
zation he sailed for China 'a the em
ploy c-f a commercial concern. The
fact that he is 67 years of age did
Yiot prevent him. from falling in love
with an American girl who has been
living in China, But the girl is evi
dently 100 per cent American, and has
consented to marry him on the condi
tion that Fisher become an American
Fisher took his troubles to Rep
resentative Isaac Siegel of New York.
The member from New York lent a
sympathetic ear to Fisher and secured
a favorable report upon a bill which
would have removed his disqualifi
cations for becoming a citizen.
When the bill came up In the house
the air was full of objections. Some
HE integrity of the
Finley institution, hon
orable methods, responsible
service and a truly profound
feeling of sympathy for
those we serve, have built
the reputation which we are
Montgomery at Fifth
Border Paper Nearly AH Cut Out and
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Hundreds of home-owners are getting their supply and anticipating future needs!
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Be Sure to Bring Your Measurements!
A Wall Paper Expert will be on hand ready to inform you of ex
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carrying out of any decorative idea you may have.
Economy Basement Lipman, W olfe & Co.
oJ This Store Uses No Comparative Prices They Are Misleading and Often Untrue
glon, assisted by women of the city,
will give a card party in American
Leplon hull Saturday afternoon. May
21. In charge of arrangements are
Mrs. C. R. Green, Mrs. L. G. Isaacson,
Mrs. L. P. Pudley, Mrs. A. E. Alexan
der, Mrs. "Ross Plnckney, Mrs. W. W.
Hart, Mrs. F. O. Jones, Mrs. S. M.
Anderson nnd Mrs. H. F. Kay.
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