THE SUNDAY OREGOXIAN, PORTLAND, JULY 11, 1920 J fit j By Admiral William Sowden Sims AMERICAN NAVY ENTERS WHOLE-HEARTEDLY WITH ALLIES TO SPOIL GERMANY'S HOPE OF SUCCESS IN MARCH, 1918, It became appar ent that the German submarine campaign had failed. The pros pect that faced the allied forces at that time, when compared with the conditions which had faced them in April, 1917, forma one of the most Impressive contrasts in history. In the first part of the earlier year the cause of the allied powers, and con sequently the cause of liberty throughout the world, had reached the point almost of desperation. On both land and sea the Germans seemed to hold the future In their hands. In Europe the armies of the central powers were everywhere In the ascendant. The French and Brit ish were holding their own in France, and in the Somme campaign they had apparently Inflicted great damage upon the German forces, yet tbe dis integration of the Russian army, the unmistakable signs of which had al ready appeared, was bringing nearer uA Aw whan thev would have to meet the undivided strength of their enemy. At the time in question, Rumania, Serbia and ' Montenegro were conquered countries, Italy seemed unable to make any progress against the Austrians, Bulgaria and Turkey had become practically Ger man provinces, and the dream of a great Germanic western empire was rapidly approaching realization. So strong was 'Germany in a military , sense, so little did she apprehend that the United States could ever assemble her resources and her men in time to make them a decisive element in the struggle, that the German war lords, In their effort to bring the European conflict to a quick conclusion, did not hesitate to take tne step which was destined to make our country their enemy. Germans "Were Confident. Probably no nation ever adopted a war measure with more confidence in Its success. The results which the German submarines could accomplish seemed at that time to be simply a matter of mathematical calculation. The Germans figured that they could sink at least 1,000,000 tons -a month, completely cut off Great Britain's supplies of food and war materials, and thus end the war by October or November of 1918. Even though the Uuited States should declare war, what could an unprepared nation like our own accomplish in such a brief period? Millions of troops we might Indeed raise, but we ctmld not train them in three or four months, and, even though we could perform such a miracle, it was ridiculous to sup pose that we couldi transport them to Europe through the submarine dan ger zone. I have already shown that the Germans were not alone In thus pre dieting the course of events. In the month of April, 1917, I had found the British officials Just about as distressed as the Germans were Jubl lant. Already the latter, In sinking merchant ships, had had successes which almost equalled their own pre dictions; no adequate means of de fence against the submarines had been devised; and the chiefs of the British navy made no attempts to disguise their apprehension for the future. Kaval Situation Completely Reversed. Such was the atmosphere of gloom which prevailed in allied councils in April, 1917; yet one year later the naval situation had completely changed. The reasons for that change have be'en set forth in the preceding pages. In that brief twelve months the relative position of the submarine had undergone a marked transforma tion. Instead of being usually the purbuer It was now often the pursued. Instead of sailing jauntily upon the high seas, sinking helpless merchant men almost at will, it was half heartedly lying in wait along the coasts, seeking its victims in the ves eels of dispersed convoys. If it at tempted to push out to sea and at -tack a convoy, escorting destroyers were likely to deliver one of their dangerous attacks; if It sought the shallow coastal waters, a fleet of yachts, sloops and subchasers were constantly ready to assail It with dozens of depth charges. An attempt to cross the Strait of Dover meant almost inevitable destruction by mines; an attempt to escape Into the ocean by the northern passage Jn vclved the momentary dread . of a similar end or the hazard of passing through the difficult Pentland Firth. In most of the narrow passages al lied submarines lay constantly in wait with their torpedoes, a great fleet of airplanes and dirigibles was always circling above ready to rain a shower of bombs upon the underwater foe Already the ocean floor about the British Isles held not far from 200 sunken submarines, with most of their crews, amounting to . at least 4000 men, whose deaths involved perhaps the most hideous tragedies of the war. Bad as was this situation, it was nothing compared with what It would become a few months or a year hence. American and British shipyards were turning out anti-submarine craft with great rapidity; the industries of America with their enormous output of steel, had been enlisted in the anti submarine campaign. The American and British shipbuilding facilities were neutralizing the German cam paign in two ways; they were not only constructing war vessels on a scale which would soon drive all the German submarines from the sea but they were building merchant tonnage so rapidly that, "in March, 1918, more new tonnage was launched than was being destroyed. Thus by this time the Teutonic hopes of ending the war - by the submarine had. utterly col- &s?v tr k-jWpx- fett ' Jf L wxtofo i were to winl n to obtain a be disastrous, lapsed; if the Germans the war at all, or eve peace which would not some other programme must be adopted quickly. Germany Turns Again to the Land. Disheartened by their failure at sea, the enemy therefore turned their eyes once more toward the land. The destruction of Russian military power had given the German armies a great numerical superiority over those of the allies. There seemed little likeli hood that the French or the British, after three years of frightfully gruel ling war, could add materially to their forces. Thus, with the group ing of the powers such as existed in 1917 the Germans had a tremendous advantage on their side, for Russia. which German statesmen for 5 years had feared as a source of In exhaustible man-supply to her ene mies, had disappeared as a military power. But a new element in the situation now counter-balanced this temporary gain; that was the daily Increasing importance of the United States in the war. The Germans, who In 1917 had de spised us as an enemy, immediate or prospective, now despised us no longer. The army,, which they de clared could never be raised and trained, was actually being raised and trained by the millions. The nation which their publicists had denounced as lacking cohesion and public spirit had adopted conscription simultane ously with tbelr declaration of war and the people whom the Germans had affected In regard as dovteed MODERN BUSINESS MAN TURNS CITIES INTO BOWERS OF BEAUTY Almost Overnight Residents Fail to Recognize Their Home When It Is Changed by Festive Dress to Receive Company. (Continued From First Page.) window drapes, the huge collection of' emblems and all of that vast collec tion is packed and shipped several times. It is difficult to estimate Just what the Investment la in this stock but the probabilities are that Good man carries with him on his average invasion of a city after a big con tract some quarter of a million dol- necessary adjuncts to the trade. Labor Problems Met. In common with most other busi nesses in these times of scarce help Goodman has his labor problems, but he Is at an advantage In that his con cern, at least so far as the heads are concerned. Is a family one. It seems to be a logical solution for difficul ties of this sort, raise a family and train them up In the business. It pays, for not only do the Goodman boys take charge of the outside work and direct the efforts of the crews that Install and remove the decora tions, but the women of the family have their departments also, three charming ones and just. as efficient in their lines, designing, bookkeeping and details, as are their men folks in the heavier work. Speaking on loss of decorations some interesting angles were devel oped. For a nice collection of fun loving boys It would be hard to dupli cate the avera-sa Shriner Irrespective of his age, and as they are just out for .1 good time and are going to have it no matter what the reason, they naturally go the limit. One of the queer traits of .college boys has always been the collection of souvenirs, some of them of queer origin, but ihe fezzed nobles can give them cards and spades and get an easy win at this skilled game, for some of them have devoted years to the pesfectlon of the art of pilfering. At Seattle some 76 of the new and then novel crescents and scimitars were claimed surreptiously as tokens by tbe visitors. The committee In charge cheerfully, faced the loss for t -.'if- TU "GEE . I r 4 f f ry , 5 only to the pursuit of gain and pleasure had manifested a unity of purpose which they had never before displayed and had offered their lives, their labors and their wealth with out limit to the cause of the allies. Up to March, 1918, only a compara tively small part of the American army had reached Europe, but the Germans had already tested Its fighting quality and had learned to respect it. Yet all .these manifesta tions would not have disturbed the Germanic calculations except for one ; they figured that it Was merely an in reality, a sincere tribute that was Deing paid them, that their -visitors should wish somo little thing to re mind them of their happy visit. IS'oblea Loot Portland. If this be a criterion of popularity then Portland takes all tha cakes and other confectionery In the bake-shop. for the pilfering was unparalleled In Shrine annals while the jrane was here. They must have all taken some little remembrance with them, the gifts which they bestowed on them selves ranging from several life-sized camels, & live bear, & whole forest of palms and some of the gang are understood to even have designs on some of the fair daughters of the Rose City. Anyhow the committee In charge of the trimming up of the city are certali that there Is not one single noble In the entire world that does not at least have, among his assortment of loot at the sacking of Portland, several yards of bunting. half a hundred electric erlobea. a camel or two and several luxuriant palms. The great advantage of this, and It is properly appreciated by the Portland hosts, is that the nobles in gatherings will exhibit their trophies with great glee and gusto, and the tale of their glutting the famed city of roses will never lose one Jot In the telling and they will always have some little thing with them to recall the great time they had In Portland in 1920. Goodman insists that Hella of Dallas, Tex., while in Seattle, grabbed off an entire truck load of their stuff, enough to install one of the most elaborate Initiation sets In the country. They get a great deal of pleasure gl.iating over their epi sodes and as the actual value Is not too great when contrasted with the advertising the city gets it Is not likely that Portland will arrange with tne governors of other states to ex traaite any of the criminals, though some of the members of the local com mittee did gt rather warm under the collar when they, first realized , tie extent or the peculations of the depressing fact. Even a nation of 100,000,000 brave and energetic people, fully trained and equipped for war, is not a formidable foe so long as an Impassable watery gulf of 3000 miles separates them from the field of battle. For the greater part of 1917 the German people believed that their submarines could bar the progress of the American armies. By March, 1918, they had awakened from this delusion. Not only was an American army, millions strong. In process of formation, but the alarming truth wild tribesmen who assaulted and looted the city. In closing it might be well to state that Goodman was not the only little fairy at work in Portland, for here he found a breed of pixies purely local to tha soil, of great experience and with a power fully as potent as that ho possessed. There Is George Hutchins, who must never be for gotten when It comes to creating masterpieces, for his electric parade was the real high spot In the Shrine visit an the great achievement of the Rosa Festival, just as it has been In the past before It was recreated this year. Then there are the myrmi dons of the park commission, the gnomes and elves who tickle the soil cf Portland so that It produces floral wonders that astound the rest of the world. This year they went them; selves proui m their installation in the park blocks and their formal gar dens were a real knockout and it Is doubtful if they can ever be paralleled any place on earth. But Goodman, fairy wand and all. Is the real transformer of cities, and he has established an altogether new and novel line of business and one that Is deservedly successful from the amount of time and thought that he has lavished in Its creation. Fairy wands In these real hard practical days are really nothing more than a set of good strcng hands directed by a reasoning head that can vision what it wants and then direct the achieve ment. Dislike for Germans Widespread. LONDON. Dr. Sthamer, the Ger man charge in London, is having great difficulty In establishing the German embassy here because London trades men refuse to bid for the wSrk of out fitting the embassy. This is attrib uted to widespread dislike for Ger mans resulting from the war, but the German diplomats profess to be un able to understand this feeling against them. London Buyers In Manila Market. MANILA, P. L Buyers for the Lon don trade have entered the Manil hemp market and it was announced today that one lot of 60,000 bales of United Kingdom grades had been sold to a representative of British con corns. . According to the purchaser the hemp is for cordage manufactur ing of England, and the price paid for xhe product is said to have been around J26.10 a baie4 ' 5- . : now dawned upon the Germanic mind that they could be transported to Europe. Vet the- situation, desperate as It seemed, held forth one more hope. If the German armies, which still greatly outnumbered the French and British, could strike and win a de cisive victory before the Americans could arrive, then they might still force a satisfactory peace. "It is a race between Ludendorff and "Wilson" is the terse and accurate way in which Lloyd George summed up the situation. The great blow fell on BAS-RELIEFS OF HISTORIC SALEM LIFE, WOMAN'S WORK Miss Sarah Symonds Inherits Talent From Great Uncle Who Was Potter to King of Holland Orders Received for Plaques Exceed Supply. BY MARY HARROD NORTHEND. . , SHOULD you be in the historical city of Salem you could but notice the bas-reliefs In many of the shop windows. This is the work of Miss Sarah Symonds, artist, who Inherited her talent from her great uncle, who was potter to the king of Holland. From her childhood she drew all sorts of pictures and these showed such a decided talent it was decided to finish her education In an art tchook Before she had even taken one lesson she conceived the idea of making a model of the Salem witch. This was done partly as an expert--ment and partly to carry out an Idea that she had long cherished of creat ing in bas-relief, rather than photo graphs, which are so perishable, dif ferent phases of historic Salem life. The witch plaque took, and the de mand far exceeded her expectations; in fact, it became so popular that she was scarcely able to fill orders. The next step was In coloring1 choosing the right tones to repre sent the witch figure, shown as rid ing a broomstick. These plaques. In septa and colors, are in all sizes, ranging from the medallion to the large square bas reliefs that are suitable. If one wishes, to frame for wall hangings. Her first experiment was made at home, where a small kiln was used for firing, but this was only for a few months, and today she has taken over a whole house for her work, the upper part being used as a work room and the lower part most artis tically fitted up as a show room. The clerks are all dressed in 17th century costumes. Next came the modeling of the different porches .which have formed such an. architectural feature in the old historic' city by the sea. Some of them showing the rambler rose twined over them are represented In color, making them more attractive, if possible, than the sepia. Book-ends are another branch of her work. Some of them illustrate the Salem gateways, others doorways and still again we find the witch used. All of these are colored, i The "House of the Seven Gables" - ' ''iS 1 -I March 21, 1918; the British and the French met It with heroism, but It was quite evident that they were fighting against terrible odds. At this time the American army in France numbered about 300.000 men; 1 it now became the business of the American navy, assisted by the Brit ish, to transport the American troops who could Increase these forces suffi ciently to turn the balance In the Allies' favor. The Nmf' Supreme Task. The supreme hour for which all the anti-submarine labors of the pre ceding year were merely preliminary, had now arrived. Since the close of the war, there has been much dis cussion of the part which the Amer ican navy played in bringing It to a successful end. Even during the war there was some criticism on this point. There were two more or less definite opinions in the nubile mind upon this question. One was that the main business of our war vessels was to convoy the American soldiers to France; the other emphasized the anti-submarine warfare as its most Important duty. Any one would sup pose, from the detached way in which these two subjects have been dis cussed, that the anti-submarine war fare and the successful transportation of troops were separate matters. An impression apparently prevails that, at the beginning of tie war, the American navy could have quietly de cided whether IX would devote Its energies to making warfare on the submarine or to convoying American Is one of her most effective plaques, and it Is shown with the graceful elm which stands a little to one side, the branches drooping over the roof, making it much more picturesque than if some other view had been chosen. Every visitor to Salem goes to see this historic house filled with memories connected not only with Hawthorne, but with his cousin, "the Duchess," who lived here for so many years. Gardens are also shown In her work, and the bright-colored blos soms give a touch that makes them more alluring than if it had been left out. Salem gardens of the old fashioned type hidden away behind the 18th century houses are brought out so vividly that they can but ex press correctly the one path flower plots which have been carried down from our granddames' time. The beauty and correctness of de tail and coloring have attracted the attention of the summer guests, and many are the private orders which she has received to model the beau tiful houses that lie along the north shore. The time chosen for this work Is during the summer, when the flowers are in their gorgeous array. These plaques are about 2Vi feet wide and 2 feet long. This branch of the work hasbecome so popular that she is almost overwhelmed with orders. ' Not only houses, but porches, per golas and bits of the garden are or dered. These mean generally but one bas-relief, which makes it prohibitive save for the rich. There is no part of the year which is a dull time for her. Of course. during the summer months, when ex hibitions are held in all the large hotels, she is busiest. Later on come holiday orders, which are increasing every year. In fact, so prosperous has been her work that she has re cently purchased a large colonial house and this In addition to her studio. This work is unique from the fact that everything originates in her own brain. She has no understudy and claims she does not need or de sire one. . armies; yet the absurdity- of such a conception, must be apparent to any one who has read the foregoing pagea. The several operations la which the allied navies engaged w all part of a comprehensive pro gramme; they were completely Inter dependent. According to my Idea, the business of the American navy was to Join forces whole-heartedly with those of the allies in an attempt to win the war. Anything which helped to accomplish this great pur pose became automatically our duty. Germany was basing her chances of success upon the submarine; our business was therefore to assist In defeating the submarine. The cause of the allies was our cause; our cause was the cause of the allies; anything which benefited the allies benefited the United States: and anything which benefited the United States benefited the allies. Neither we nor France nor England were conducting a separate campaign, we were sepa rate units of a harmonious whole. At the beginning the one pressing duty was to pnt an end to the sinking of merchantmen, not because these mer chantmen were for the larger part British, but because the failure to d so would have meant the elimination of Great Britain from the war. with results which would have meant de feat for the other allies. Our 1! months' campaign against the submarine was an Invaluable pre liminary to transporting the troops. Does any sane person believe that we eould have put 2.000.000 Americans Into France had the German subma rines maintained, until the spring and summer of 1918, the striking power which had been theirs In the spring of 19177 Merely to state the question Is to answer it. In that same 12 months we had gained much expe rience which was exceedingly valu able when we bepan transporting troops. The most efficacious protec tion to merchant shipping, the con voy, was similarly the greatest safe guard to our military transports. Those methods which had been so successfully used In shipping food, munitions and materials were now used In shipping soldiers. The sec tion of the great headquarters which" we had developed in London for rout ing convoys was Ufed for routing transports, and the American naval officer, Byron A. Long, who had dem onstrated such great ability in this respect was likewise the master mind In directing the course of the Ameri can, soldiers to France. Work at Brent. In other ways we had laid the foun dations for this, the greatest troop movement In history. In the preced ing 12 months we had Increased the oil tankage at Brest more than four fold, sent over repair ships and aug mented its repair facilities. This port and all of our naval activities In France were under the command first of Admiral William B. Fletcher, and later Rear-Admiral Henry B. "Wilson. It was a matter of regret that we could not earlier have made Brest the main navel base for the American naval forces In France, for It was in some respects strategically better lo cated for that purpose than was any other port In Europe. Even for es corting certain merchant convoys into the channel Brest would have provided a better base than either Plymouth or Queenstown. A glance at the map explains why. To send de stroyers from Queenstown to pick up convoys and escort them into the channel or to French ports and thence return to their base involved a long triangular trip: to send such de stroyers from Brest to escort these Involved a smaller amount of steam ing and a direct east and west voy age. Similarly, Queenstown was a much better location for destroyers sent to meet convoys bound for ports in the Irish sea over the northern "trunk line." But unfortunately it was .utterly Impossible to use the great natural advantages of Brest In the early days of war; the mere fact that this French harbor possessed most Inadequate tankage facilities put it out of the question, and it was also very deficient in docks, repair facilities, and other-indispensable fea tures of a naval base. At this time Brest was hardly more than able to provide for the requirements of the French, and it would have embar rassed our French allies greatly had we attempted to establish a large American force there. The ships which we did send in the first part of the war were mostly yachts, of the "dollar-a-year" variety, which their owners had generously given to the national service; their crews were largely of that type of young busi ness man and college undergraduate to whose skill and devotion I have already paid tribute. This little flo tilla acquitted itself splendidly up and down the coast of France. Mean while we were constructing fuel oil tanks; and, as 6oon as these were ready, and repair ships were avail able, we began building up a large force at Brest a force which was ultimately larger than the one we maintained at Queenstown; at the height of the troop movements. It comprised about 36 destroyers. 12 yachts, 3 tenders and several mine sweepers and tugs. The fine work which this detachment accomplished in escorting troop and supply con voys is a sufficient tribute to the skill acquired by the destroyers and other vessels in carrying out their duties In this peculiar warfare. (Copyright. 1920. by the "tVor!d Work. The copyright of these articles in Great Britain 1 strictly reserved by PearsorTs MaKaEine.. London; mtthout their permis sion no quotation may be made. Published by special arrangement with the McCture Newspaper Syndicate. Another installment AfXt Buaiiaj'.Ji .