The Sunday Oregonian. (Portland, Ore.) 1881-current, March 07, 1920, Magazine Section, Page 6, Image 94

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From the End of His Nose to the Tip of His Tail This Newly Discovered Prehistoric Monster Measured 178 Feet He Was Thirty Feet Four Inches in Height The Weight of the Bones Alone Is 76 Tons Some Idea of His Enormous Size May Be Gathered by a
Comparison of the Photograph of the Reconstructed Skeleton With the Automobile and Also the Block of Houses in the Background. Photographs by Courtesy of the American Museum of Natural History, New York.
struclion, offering at th uni time
How Remarkable Discovery of
an Enormous Petrified Skeleton
Buried in the Utah Desert Has
Revealed the Prehistoric Exist
ence of a Dinosaur Twice as Big
as Any Other Known Mammoth.
SIXTY MILLION' years os so ago a
gigantic quadruped, a dinosaur of
almost unbelievable height,
length and weight, stretched himself
out on a desert In that portion of the
United States covered today by the
state of Utah. And there he died.
In the course of time the dinosaur's
bones became petrified, scattered and
buried under deposits of sand, rock
end gravel due to geological changes,
and there they rested undisturbed un
til a very short time ago, when a
party of scientists probing Utah's pro
lific soil for prehistoric specimens of
men and animals for the American
museum of natural history, accident
ally located the grave of the giant
American dinosaur.
Thigh Done Welga Etalf a Ton.
Today men are digging up the re
mains of that mighty animal. In or
der to locate every one of the scat
tered bones from head to tail Is has
been necessary to make an excapa
tion 600 feet long and almost 100 feet
wide. In depths the excavation varies
from 60 to nearly 150 feet. As fast as
the various bones are found they are
Drought to the surface where they
are Identified and checked and pre
pared for shipment to the American
museum, where they will be asscra
fcled and reconstructed to form the
skeleton of the dinosaur. In no other
way can a clear Idea be gained of the
enormous size of the mighty animal
which roamed across the'face of this
country countless ages ago.
This particular dinosaur was the
biggest animal of which any trace
ever has been found on this earth.
From the size of his thighbone, which
weighs 1140 pounds, anatomical sci
entists engaged in excavating and re
assembling the syeleton have been
able to figure out to the very Inch
Ms length and height as be actually
appeared In life..
From tip to tip the dinosaur meas
ured 17S feet. His height was SO feet
4 Inches. The total weight of the
skeleton when completed will be
about 152,000 pounds, or 76 tons. In
life the animal must have weighed
at least twice thut much.
In spite of its enormous bulk the
dinosaur had a very tiny head. There
does not appear to have been suffi
cient space Inside the skull for a
brain very much larger than a wal
nut And so, under the universally
recognized rule of the survival of the
fittest, the dinosaur may have been
classified as unfit and quickly wiped
out of existence. Few remains of '
these prehistoric monsters have ever j
been found. In fact, before the re- i
cent big find in Utah the largest skel
eton of any animal known to have
lived upon the earth was the dlplodo- ,
cus Carnegie. This skeleton was dis
covered In Iowa more than 20 years
ago In a remarkable state of preser
vation. The Immense work of reas
sembling the skeleton was carried on
by Dr. William J. Holland, director
of the Carnegie institute, who is now
superintending the unearthing of the
big Utah skeleton.
Discovery Was Kept Start.
When the discovery of the dino
saur's bones was made the news was
not made public Instead scientists
working under the direction of Dr.
Holland proceeded to the place and
quietly began their arrangements
for excavating the entire skeleton.
They were quickly interrupted by the
appearance of a claimant to the land.
He was a prospector and farmer
without the slightest Interest In dino
saurs or any other specimens of pre
historic animals. He ordered the
scientists to get off his land. The
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Scientists Have Estimated That it Is Sixty Million Years Since the Dinosaur Roamed This Earth Although the Creature's Bulk Was Enormous
, Its Brain Was No Larger Than a Walnut Shell.
this great weight along the ground
would have endangered the artery.
Incidentally the huge animal had no
means of protecting its tail from the
attacks of smaller and more agile
enemies which were In the habit of
biting It In comparatively safety
from attack The head of the dino
saur meanwhile would be half a city
block or more away.
The dinosaur was a giunt lizard
with a prodigiously long tail. The
backbones of these animals con
tained 194 vertebrae, some 73 of
which were In the tail alone. The
skeleton Is a marvelous piece of con-
matter was taken up at once with the
government authorities at Washing
ton. Secretary Lane laid the case
before the president. So Important
did Fresident Wilson consider the
research work that he directed that
the entire area containing the pre
historic remains should be set- aside,
for the present at least, as a National
Dinosuur monument. The work of
excavating the skeleton was re
sumed. The first scattered remains of an
animal of this general species were
discovered as early as 1877 near Car
son City, Colo. In 1884 the head, ver-
terbrates and pelvis of the same or a
similar skeleton were discovered.
The reconstructed skeleton is In the
National museum in Washington. In
1897 the next Important discovery was
made when the tall bones and other
bone fragments were unearthed at
Como Bluffs, Wyo. This skeleton
now occupies a place of honor In the
National History museum in New
The most familiar of these skele
tons was discovered in Wyoming In
1900. There were. In fact, two skel
etons, or the greater part of them.
These giants stand side by side in the
Carnegie museum in Pittsburg. A re
plica of one of these has been pre
sented to the British museum. The
future home of the great giant which
eclipses all others of Its kind has not
yet been selected.
It Is not generally known that this
species gains Its name of diplodocus
from the fact that Its tail was double
beamed. The tall was enormously
long and heavy and dragged upon
the ground. The double beam or bar
Was a peculiar formation of the bones
of the skeleton which protected the
artery or veins. Without some such
arrangement the friction of dragging
great strength and comparative light
ness. The skin was probably scaly
and covered with hardened akin sim
ilar to the crocodile. It Is believed
that the dinosaur was hatched from
an egg.
Extinction of the Dlnoaanr.
It Is Impossible, of course, to tell
Just when these monsters roamed the
earth, but the distance In time from
our own period could probably be
measured by millions of years. The
dinosaur had one remarkable distinc
tion among all other animals which
have lived on this planet. It Is be
lieved that his species lasted longer
than any other form of now extinct
animals. Millions of years probably
elapsed from the time he first ap
peared on the earth until he became
extinct. It Is not known, of course.
Just how he was wiped out so com
pletely, for at one time there may
have been many of them scattered
over the earth. One theory to ac
count for their destruction Is that
some animal appeared which fed upon
their eggs and thus gradually oblit
erated the species.
Tho dinosaur must have appeared
in almost endless variety. The earli
est fossils have been found in Ger
many, but this does not mean that
they were of German origin. The
skeletons or fossil remains have been
discovered in North and South Amer
ica, Europe. Africa, Madagascar, Aus
tralia and India. The giants waded
'or swam, but their movements must
have been cumbersome and alow.
Their teeth were spoon or poncll
shaped, indicating that they fed on
vegetables. There are many Indica
tions that they also ate meat or at
least they fought and devoured one
another. A battle between two or
more of these creatures, each nearly
a city block In length, must have
been an mazing spectacle.
The Ave of the Dinosaur.
There Is a wide difference of opin
ion as to the period when these mon
sters enjoyed the distinction of being
the largest and most powerful ani
mals on the planet. The estimates
vary from 60,000,000 to 600.000.000
years. The age of man becomes an
Infinitesimal fraction by comparison.
Some authorities believe that the
first animals which succeeded In
leaving any signs of their existence
behind them probably lived 350.000.
000 years ago. Thcro was animal life
upon the planet, however, much
earlier, ponslbly 200,000,000 before
this. When we Blend In the prex-nre
of one of these skeletons, such as Is
being unearthed In Utah, our measure
of time becomes cenfused and we feel
extremely modern In comparison with
this biggest animal that ever lived.
In Order to Locate Every One of the Scattered Bones of the Gigantic Dinosaur it Has Been Necessary to Make an Excavation 600 Feet Long and Almost 100 Feet in Width.
Women Wage Earners Behind City's Bright Footlights Must Possess
Many Brains and Much Beauty.
(Continued From First Page.)
The standard of the chorus in Port
land Is unquestionably high and Is
getting In better repute from day to
Another thing that is attracting
more and more home girls to the
stage Is the fact that of late years
there Is little wearing of tights as
was the general rule In the past. How
far this will be carried is a matter
of question, but there Is being more
and more reliance placed every day on
shows that do not feature the femi
nine form but more of her graces and
other charms. The public Is getting
more wholesome in this respect and
It raises the tone of the stage.
Conventions! There are none on
the stag as a rule. Formal Intro-
auctions are unknown and impossible.
The girls are young, full of life and
attractive. It is a wonder that they
remain in the chorus as long as many
of them do. The chorus girl of over
30 is unknown here, and the career
of the younger ones is a short one,
for they either ascend- the ladder of
opportunity or drop out to a home.
The professional chorus lady, in the
sense that they exist in the east, is
unknown In the wholesome west. The
public demands youth and elasticity;
In Portland choruses they get it in
good measure and it is difficult to
Imagine a prettier or more talented
group than are the girls on the Rose
City stage.
Last, for the girl who thinks it is
easy. She cap, always be Xouc-dj agd
thinks that chorus girls are "Just any
one." It's not so; they are skilled
little actresses and their roles call
for careful training and study. Not
anyone can step in and make a suc
cess of this work. One untrained or
awkward girl will spoil the entire
picture. Not any girl who can kick
and dance can fill the bill. It re
quires special training and aptitude.
There is the Instinct for spacing,
the voice placing, the production of
rhythm for the eye to see, and all the
many little tricks and stunts of the
trade. A majority of the steps are
Just stock and are called for as need
ed. One girl usually drills the rest
and puts them through their paces.
She sees that the steps fit the music
and harmonize with the idea, patri
otic, sentimental or whatever it may
be. Even the girl who has been on
the stage for a long while finds her
self continually forced to master new
technique of acting. The green per
former can be spotted in a minute.
It's a hard, hard game, much more so
than most people would imagine, and
it takes Just as much brains and much
mole beauty, than. o he a -ood stenog
rapher. The girls of the chorus are
far from hoydens and they are com
ing into their rightful place in social
Bnrial Places of Presidents.
Indianapolis News.
George Washington was buried at
Mt. Vernon, Vs.; John Adams, Quincy,
Masa; Thomas Jefferson, Montlcello,
Va.; James Madison. Montpeller, Vs.;
James Monroe, Richmond, Vs.; John
Quincy Adams, Quincy, Masa; Andrew
Jackson, Hermitage, Tenn; Martin
Van Buren, Kinderhook, N. T.; Will
iam . H. Harrison, North Bend, Ohio;
John Tyler, Richmond, Va; James K.
Polk, Nashville, Tenn.; Zachary Tay
lor, Louisville, Ky.; Millard Fllmore,
Buffalo, N. T.; Franklin Pierce, Con
cord, N. H.; James Buchanan, near
Lancaster, Pa.; Abraham Lincoln,
Springfield, 111.; Andrew Johnson,
Greenville, Tenn.; Ulysses S. Grant,
New York city; Rutherford B. Hayes,
Fremont, O.; James A. Garfield, Cleve
land. O.; Chester A. Arthur, Albany,
N. T.; Grover Cleveland, Princeton,
N. J.; Benjamin Harrison, Indianap
olis; William McKinley, Canton, O.;
Theodore Roosevelt; Oyster Bay.
L, J, H, X,
Dogfish Furnish Healthy
Cod-Liver Oil.
Once Despised Varieties of Re
jected Sea Denizens Utilise for
VANCOUVER. B C With the re
sumption of active fishing operations
on this coast, the fish oil plants scat
tered In the various lonely inlets up
the coast are opening 'for business.
This industry has teen developed so
far that it is an established calling.
The despised dogfish and the loathly
mudshark, together : with other fish
that hitherto have been declared use
less. Join in being responsible for the
business. Fishermen seining or troll
ing or sweeping for ood or salmon or
other goodly fish have in past years
cursed mightily when they dragged
in a 500-pound shark or a school of
the ugly dogfish. Now they do not
mind. All fish is fish that comes to
the net.
riatfish. Pi "Clet .of sole," share
an exera dollar of profit is added,
have created a place in the affections
of the fish-eating public of North
America, and consequently are satis
factory to the fishermen, for they are
profitable. Salmon, cod, herring, are
the cream of the fishing industry.
There can never be too many of them.
But the unlovely shark or the dogfish
has hitherto been generally treated
with a blow from a heavy bludgeon
and a scornful rejection Into the sea
as a dead and useless thing.
Tpday the fish oil factories make
good cod-liver oil from the fat dog
fish or shark's livers, manufacture
good and wholesome cake foods for
cattle and horses, and supply rich and
desirable fertilizers for gardens and
farms. The utilization of the dogfish
and the mudshark is another step In
intensive fishing and adds another
source of revenue for the fisherman.
Vienna Lodgings Plentiful.
VIENNA. The lodging requisition
commission has taken over In this
city a total of 10,431 apartments and
7591 single rooms. The large number
of, apartments found available la ex
plained by the fact that many mem
bers of the old and rich aristocracy
owned several palaces, and these
hivi hftun rAnnliiftloned- One man.
Count Wahlis. is said to own 17 com
plete private residences, all of which
he used personally.
Snip's Passengers Rescued.
LIVERPOOL. Three women, six
babies and 12 men were rescued from
the American schooner Ernest T. Le
in mld-Atlantlc recently by the crew
nf the steamer Hildebrand when the
Lee was dismasted and waterlogged.
They were transferred to the steamer
with great difficulty owing to the
fact that a high sea was running. All
were landed at Lisbon.
Name "Hungary" Is Banned.
PRAGUE, Czecho-Slovakla. The
minister of education has prohibited
the use in this country of the word
"Hungary." He argues that, as a po
litical unity, the groups of races that
once were governed tinder that name
have ceased. Hereafter it Is to be
called beta "Alagyar or UagyarlanU,"