8 THE SUNDAY OREGOXIAN, PORTLAND, MARCII 7, 1920 r.-.wwwpwK.M,.LSM.. From the End of His Nose to the Tip of His Tail This Newly Discovered Prehistoric Monster Measured 178 Feet He Was Thirty Feet Four Inches in Height The Weight of the Bones Alone Is 76 Tons Some Idea of His Enormous Size May Be Gathered by a Comparison of the Photograph of the Reconstructed Skeleton With the Automobile and Also the Block of Houses in the Background. Photographs by Courtesy of the American Museum of Natural History, New York. struclion, offering at th uni time How Remarkable Discovery of an Enormous Petrified Skeleton Buried in the Utah Desert Has Revealed the Prehistoric Exist ence of a Dinosaur Twice as Big as Any Other Known Mammoth. T BT CLIVE MARSHALL SIXTY MILLION' years os so ago a gigantic quadruped, a dinosaur of almost unbelievable height, length and weight, stretched himself out on a desert In that portion of the United States covered today by the state of Utah. And there he died. In the course of time the dinosaur's bones became petrified, scattered and buried under deposits of sand, rock end gravel due to geological changes, and there they rested undisturbed un til a very short time ago, when a party of scientists probing Utah's pro lific soil for prehistoric specimens of men and animals for the American museum of natural history, accident ally located the grave of the giant American dinosaur. Thigh Done Welga Etalf a Ton. Today men are digging up the re mains of that mighty animal. In or der to locate every one of the scat tered bones from head to tail Is has been necessary to make an excapa tion 600 feet long and almost 100 feet wide. In depths the excavation varies from 60 to nearly 150 feet. As fast as the various bones are found they are Drought to the surface where they are Identified and checked and pre pared for shipment to the American museum, where they will be asscra fcled and reconstructed to form the skeleton of the dinosaur. In no other way can a clear Idea be gained of the enormous size of the mighty animal which roamed across the'face of this country countless ages ago. This particular dinosaur was the biggest animal of which any trace ever has been found on this earth. From the size of his thighbone, which weighs 1140 pounds, anatomical sci entists engaged in excavating and re assembling the syeleton have been able to figure out to the very Inch Ms length and height as be actually appeared In life.. From tip to tip the dinosaur meas ured 17S feet. His height was SO feet 4 Inches. The total weight of the skeleton when completed will be about 152,000 pounds, or 76 tons. In life the animal must have weighed at least twice thut much. In spite of its enormous bulk the dinosaur had a very tiny head. There does not appear to have been suffi cient space Inside the skull for a brain very much larger than a wal nut And so, under the universally recognized rule of the survival of the fittest, the dinosaur may have been classified as unfit and quickly wiped out of existence. Few remains of ' these prehistoric monsters have ever j been found. In fact, before the re- i cent big find in Utah the largest skel eton of any animal known to have lived upon the earth was the dlplodo- , cus Carnegie. This skeleton was dis covered In Iowa more than 20 years ago In a remarkable state of preser vation. The Immense work of reas sembling the skeleton was carried on by Dr. William J. Holland, director of the Carnegie institute, who is now superintending the unearthing of the big Utah skeleton. Discovery Was Kept Start. When the discovery of the dino saur's bones was made the news was not made public Instead scientists working under the direction of Dr. Holland proceeded to the place and quietly began their arrangements for excavating the entire skeleton. They were quickly interrupted by the appearance of a claimant to the land. He was a prospector and farmer without the slightest Interest In dino saurs or any other specimens of pre historic animals. He ordered the scientists to get off his land. The A" 3 i 4 4, J". A 4 H V4r Ai'J.i'. r-f-vtr. nmv w 4 X ? v 1 : 4 Jf $ J W II Scientists Have Estimated That it Is Sixty Million Years Since the Dinosaur Roamed This Earth Although the Creature's Bulk Was Enormous , Its Brain Was No Larger Than a Walnut Shell. this great weight along the ground would have endangered the artery. Incidentally the huge animal had no means of protecting its tail from the attacks of smaller and more agile enemies which were In the habit of biting It In comparatively safety from attack The head of the dino saur meanwhile would be half a city block or more away. The dinosaur was a giunt lizard with a prodigiously long tail. The backbones of these animals con tained 194 vertebrae, some 73 of which were In the tail alone. The skeleton Is a marvelous piece of con- matter was taken up at once with the government authorities at Washing ton. Secretary Lane laid the case before the president. So Important did Fresident Wilson consider the research work that he directed that the entire area containing the pre historic remains should be set- aside, for the present at least, as a National Dinosuur monument. The work of excavating the skeleton was re sumed. The first scattered remains of an animal of this general species were discovered as early as 1877 near Car son City, Colo. In 1884 the head, ver- terbrates and pelvis of the same or a similar skeleton were discovered. The reconstructed skeleton is In the National museum in Washington. In 1897 the next Important discovery was made when the tall bones and other bone fragments were unearthed at Como Bluffs, Wyo. This skeleton now occupies a place of honor In the National History museum in New York. The most familiar of these skele tons was discovered in Wyoming In 1900. There were. In fact, two skel etons, or the greater part of them. These giants stand side by side in the Carnegie museum in Pittsburg. A re plica of one of these has been pre sented to the British museum. The future home of the great giant which eclipses all others of Its kind has not yet been selected. It Is not generally known that this species gains Its name of diplodocus from the fact that Its tail was double beamed. The tall was enormously long and heavy and dragged upon the ground. The double beam or bar Was a peculiar formation of the bones of the skeleton which protected the artery or veins. Without some such arrangement the friction of dragging great strength and comparative light ness. The skin was probably scaly and covered with hardened akin sim ilar to the crocodile. It Is believed that the dinosaur was hatched from an egg. Extinction of the Dlnoaanr. It Is Impossible, of course, to tell Just when these monsters roamed the earth, but the distance In time from our own period could probably be measured by millions of years. The dinosaur had one remarkable distinc tion among all other animals which have lived on this planet. It Is be lieved that his species lasted longer than any other form of now extinct animals. Millions of years probably elapsed from the time he first ap peared on the earth until he became extinct. It Is not known, of course. Just how he was wiped out so com pletely, for at one time there may have been many of them scattered over the earth. One theory to ac count for their destruction Is that some animal appeared which fed upon their eggs and thus gradually oblit erated the species. Tho dinosaur must have appeared in almost endless variety. The earli est fossils have been found in Ger many, but this does not mean that they were of German origin. The skeletons or fossil remains have been discovered in North and South Amer ica, Europe. Africa, Madagascar, Aus tralia and India. The giants waded 'or swam, but their movements must have been cumbersome and alow. Their teeth were spoon or poncll shaped, indicating that they fed on vegetables. There are many Indica tions that they also ate meat or at least they fought and devoured one another. A battle between two or more of these creatures, each nearly a city block In length, must have been an mazing spectacle. The Ave of the Dinosaur. There Is a wide difference of opin ion as to the period when these mon sters enjoyed the distinction of being the largest and most powerful ani mals on the planet. The estimates vary from 60,000,000 to 600.000.000 years. The age of man becomes an Infinitesimal fraction by comparison. Some authorities believe that the first animals which succeeded In leaving any signs of their existence behind them probably lived 350.000. 000 years ago. Thcro was animal life upon the planet, however, much earlier, ponslbly 200,000,000 before this. When we Blend In the prex-nre of one of these skeletons, such as Is being unearthed In Utah, our measure of time becomes cenfused and we feel extremely modern In comparison with this biggest animal that ever lived. In Order to Locate Every One of the Scattered Bones of the Gigantic Dinosaur it Has Been Necessary to Make an Excavation 600 Feet Long and Almost 100 Feet in Width. PORTLAND GIRLS LIKE TO DANCE IN THEATER CHORUSES Women Wage Earners Behind City's Bright Footlights Must Possess Many Brains and Much Beauty. (Continued From First Page.) The standard of the chorus in Port land Is unquestionably high and Is getting In better repute from day to day. Another thing that is attracting more and more home girls to the stage Is the fact that of late years there Is little wearing of tights as was the general rule In the past. How far this will be carried is a matter of question, but there Is being more and more reliance placed every day on shows that do not feature the femi nine form but more of her graces and other charms. The public Is getting more wholesome in this respect and It raises the tone of the stage. Conventions! There are none on the stag as a rule. Formal Intro- auctions are unknown and impossible. The girls are young, full of life and attractive. It is a wonder that they remain in the chorus as long as many of them do. The chorus girl of over 30 is unknown here, and the career of the younger ones is a short one, for they either ascend- the ladder of opportunity or drop out to a home. The professional chorus lady, in the sense that they exist in the east, is unknown In the wholesome west. The public demands youth and elasticity; In Portland choruses they get it in good measure and it is difficult to Imagine a prettier or more talented group than are the girls on the Rose City stage. Last, for the girl who thinks it is easy. She cap, always be Xouc-dj agd thinks that chorus girls are "Just any one." It's not so; they are skilled little actresses and their roles call for careful training and study. Not anyone can step in and make a suc cess of this work. One untrained or awkward girl will spoil the entire picture. Not any girl who can kick and dance can fill the bill. It re quires special training and aptitude. There is the Instinct for spacing, the voice placing, the production of rhythm for the eye to see, and all the many little tricks and stunts of the trade. A majority of the steps are Just stock and are called for as need ed. One girl usually drills the rest and puts them through their paces. She sees that the steps fit the music and harmonize with the idea, patri otic, sentimental or whatever it may be. Even the girl who has been on the stage for a long while finds her self continually forced to master new technique of acting. The green per former can be spotted in a minute. It's a hard, hard game, much more so than most people would imagine, and it takes Just as much brains and much mole beauty, than. o he a -ood stenog rapher. The girls of the chorus are far from hoydens and they are com ing into their rightful place in social appreciation. Bnrial Places of Presidents. Indianapolis News. George Washington was buried at Mt. Vernon, Vs.; John Adams, Quincy, Masa; Thomas Jefferson, Montlcello, Va.; James Madison. Montpeller, Vs.; James Monroe, Richmond, Vs.; John Quincy Adams, Quincy, Masa; Andrew Jackson, Hermitage, Tenn; Martin Van Buren, Kinderhook, N. T.; Will iam . H. Harrison, North Bend, Ohio; John Tyler, Richmond, Va; James K. Polk, Nashville, Tenn.; Zachary Tay lor, Louisville, Ky.; Millard Fllmore, Buffalo, N. T.; Franklin Pierce, Con cord, N. H.; James Buchanan, near Lancaster, Pa.; Abraham Lincoln, Springfield, 111.; Andrew Johnson, Greenville, Tenn.; Ulysses S. Grant, New York city; Rutherford B. Hayes, Fremont, O.; James A. Garfield, Cleve land. O.; Chester A. Arthur, Albany, N. T.; Grover Cleveland, Princeton, N. J.; Benjamin Harrison, Indianap olis; William McKinley, Canton, O.; Theodore Roosevelt; Oyster Bay. L, J, H, X, Dogfish Furnish Healthy Cod-Liver Oil. Once Despised Varieties of Re jected Sea Denizens Utilise for By-Products. VANCOUVER. B C With the re sumption of active fishing operations on this coast, the fish oil plants scat tered In the various lonely inlets up the coast are opening 'for business. This industry has teen developed so far that it is an established calling. The despised dogfish and the loathly mudshark, together : with other fish that hitherto have been declared use less. Join in being responsible for the business. Fishermen seining or troll ing or sweeping for ood or salmon or other goodly fish have in past years cursed mightily when they dragged in a 500-pound shark or a school of the ugly dogfish. Now they do not mind. All fish is fish that comes to the net. riatfish. Pi "Clet .of sole," share an exera dollar of profit is added, have created a place in the affections of the fish-eating public of North America, and consequently are satis factory to the fishermen, for they are profitable. Salmon, cod, herring, are the cream of the fishing industry. There can never be too many of them. But the unlovely shark or the dogfish has hitherto been generally treated with a blow from a heavy bludgeon and a scornful rejection Into the sea as a dead and useless thing. Tpday the fish oil factories make good cod-liver oil from the fat dog fish or shark's livers, manufacture good and wholesome cake foods for cattle and horses, and supply rich and desirable fertilizers for gardens and farms. The utilization of the dogfish and the mudshark is another step In intensive fishing and adds another source of revenue for the fisherman. Vienna Lodgings Plentiful. VIENNA. The lodging requisition commission has taken over In this city a total of 10,431 apartments and 7591 single rooms. The large number of, apartments found available la ex plained by the fact that many mem bers of the old and rich aristocracy owned several palaces ea.cn, and these hivi hftun rAnnliiftloned- One man. Count Wahlis. is said to own 17 com plete private residences, all of which he used personally. Snip's Passengers Rescued. LIVERPOOL. Three women, six babies and 12 men were rescued from the American schooner Ernest T. Le in mld-Atlantlc recently by the crew nf the steamer Hildebrand when the Lee was dismasted and waterlogged. They were transferred to the steamer with great difficulty owing to the fact that a high sea was running. All were landed at Lisbon. Name "Hungary" Is Banned. PRAGUE, Czecho-Slovakla. The minister of education has prohibited the use in this country of the word "Hungary." He argues that, as a po litical unity, the groups of races that once were governed tinder that name have ceased. Hereafter it Is to be called beta "Alagyar or UagyarlanU,"