The Sunday Oregonian. (Portland, Ore.) 1881-current, December 01, 1918, SECTION FIVE, Page 3, Image 61

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    3
REVIEW OF WORLD-WAR ONE OF GREAT HISTORICAL VALUE
TIIE SUNDAY- OREGOXIAN, PORTLAJTO, DECEMBER 1, 1918.
time to prepare for defense. The land
ing; waa made on narrow, exposed
beaches near the tip of the peninsula
by the British and French, farther east
on the north side by the Anzacs. under
an Intense fire, in which terrible loss
was suffered. The allies fought their
way by i ieer bulldog tenacity anddar
lns; up the cliffs, but, they could" not
sain the heights during; the next three
months. '
On August 7 another expedition land- j
ed at Suvla Bay. farther east, while
the Anzaca made an attack In concert. 1
The Turks were surprised and held the -place
lightly, so that If the British had
pushed forward vigorously they could
have a-alned the straits and cut off the j
TnrV lh armv from th mainland. Aomin '
there waa blundering, both by the
transport officers and the Generals, the
advance was delayed, the Turks occu- j
pied the hills in force and the oppor
tunity was lost. After vain efforts to
advance, the entire army was with
drawn in becember and Januarv with
out loss of a man. the Turks being '
caught napping. Never was such valor
displayed as at Gallipoli, but all the i
s honors of the campaign went to the :
soldiers and sailors, noae to the Gen-
ersla
Saea Caul Attacked.
The Turks and Germans took the of
fensive against Egypt and In February
made an attack on the Suez Canal, but
were quickly routed. Turkey proclaimed
a holy war, which stirred the Sensussl
fanatics of the desert west of Egypt to
hostilities, but they were .routed, and
dispersed by a flying expedition, in
which armored motorcars played a
prominent part, especially in the final
pursuit into the desert.
The British expedition up the Tigris
made such good progress that Kut-el-Amara
was taken in September and.
gainst his protest that his force was
not strong enough. General Townabend
was ordered to push on to Bagdad. On
reaching Ctestphon. about IS miles from
that city, about November 21. he de
feated the Turks, but lost heavily, and
the arrival of large reinforcements fo
the enemy caused him to retreat down
the river to kut, where he encamped on
e Pecember I to await relief. The Turk
laid siege to him and blocked the wa
of relieving forces by holding stron
positions extending from the nort
bank of the river to the marshes. They
could not be taken by frontal attack,
as several attempts proved, and. every
effort at relief failing. Townshend tar
rendered with about 0l0 men on April
31. ll. An Investigation of the ex
pedltion exposed serious mismanage'
ment by officials in both England and
India, with horrible neglect of wound
ed and sick.
Having destroyed the offensive now
r of Russia for the time, the central
powers now turned their attention to
their original purpose the opening of
the gateway to Turkey oy the con
quest of Serbia- The blindness of al
lied diplomacy to the real situation In
the Balkans made all circumstances
favor this situation. At the outbreak
of the war Greece was ready to Join the
allies, but they chilled her enthusiasm
by saying they preferred that she re
main neutral. Thus they played Into
the hands of the pro-German King
Constantlne, who had been deeply Im
pressed with German Invincibility when
shown all or the Ivalsers hideous de
vices In Berlin in March. 1914. who
had learned that Austria was to be
split Into several kingdoms to be ruled
by the Kaiser's sons and who was anx
ious to become a tributary of Germany
and to have his kingdom enriched with
German capital.
Fro-ally sentiment was at first so
strong that the king did not venture
to oppose it. but when Great Britain
asked help for Serbia In November
1314. no guaranty was offered of pro
tection against attack by Bulgaria.
When they decided to attack the
Dardanelles, the allies re-opened
the matter and offered territory
in Asia llnor. venlieloe wa
willing to accept, and proposed to Con
stantine that Bulgaria should be given
.tasters Macedonia as the price of neu
trallty. but the king betrayed the let
ter, which contained remarks irritating
zo jtuawia. to tne uxar.
Balgarla Gets Leaa.
A few days later Bulgaria obtained
a loan from Germany, and the Greek
Premier gave "P hope of her remaining
neutral. When the naval attack on the
straits began, he proposed to the king
that 10.000 troops be sent, being con
fident of success, as there were only
(000 Turks on the peninsula and It was
not wen fortified, but Constantine re
fused his consent. The proposed army
was reduced to 15.900, but again the
Xing refused. Though Russia had ob
jected to Greek aid In the expedition,
Britain and France finally trot her con
sent, but by that time the pro-German
party at Athens was so strong that the
cnanc was lost. Veniselos resigned
on March and won the election of a
new Parliament on the war issue on
June 13. but the king delayed his re
turn to office till the middle of August.
Throughout that year the allies were
striving to reconstitute the Balkan
league in support of themselves by ob
taining cessions of territory from both
Greece and Serola to Bulgaria. Though
those two states knew that Bulgaria
was already secretly allied with Ger
many, they consented finally. While
the negotiations dragged on. the allies
wltheld military aid from Serbia,
though the army which was wasted at
Gallipoli might have saved her.
Bulgaria began to throw off the
mask by making a treaty whereby
Turkey ceded the railroad to the Bul
garian port of Dedeagatch on the
Aegean Sea with an adjoining strip of
territory. That mask was lifted higher
when the Bulgarian army was mobil
ized on September 1. The allies then
awakened, and Britain pledged military
aid to Serbia on the 28th and obtained
from Veniselos consent to the landing
of an army at Salonika. Russia forced
a-tlon by sending an ultimatum to
r'j'fia on October 4. and the following
day the first allied troops landed at
Salonika. The Greek Chamber adopted
a resolution In favor of the allies, but
the king refused to act on it. and on the
tth Veniselos resigned. M. Zaimis was
appointed Premier, the Chamber was
dissolved, a proclamation of "benevo
lent neutrality" toward the allies was
issued on October IS and the king dis
solved the Chamber and began absolute
rule In defiance of the constitution, on
November 13. The allies had guar
anteed Greece constitutional rule
when she became independent, and
would have ben Justified in com
pelling the king ' to call an im
mediate election, but they did noth
ing. In deference to the prejudice of
Russia. Constantino mobilised the
army, ostensibly to preserve neutrality,
but actually to disqualify the soldiers
from voting when an election should
be held.
Dsssbe Is Creased.
The Germans and Austrlans crossed
the Danube on October t. In spite of
strong resistance from Serbia, and took
Belgrade on the 9U and Semendri on
the 11th. the French advancing into
Eerbia along the Vnrdar River on the
8th. Bulgaria declared war on the 14tb
and attacked Serbia on the flank, while
her army was being driven back by
superior force from the north. The Bui
gars cut the railroad at Vranj on Octo
ber 1 and Captured Uskub on the 24th
and Nlsh on November 6. The French
were fighting their way up the Vardar
Valley in an effort to link up with the
Serbs at Babuna Pai on the west, but
the Serbs were driven from Prilep and
the pass on November 17 and had no
alternative to annihilation except re
treat to the wet, for a wedge was
driven between them and the French,
who had not been able to advance be
yond Krlvolak. while the British had
not been able to reach the border north
of Lake Dolran. Prlsrend and Monastlr
were lost on November . 30. and the
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GENERALS WHO COMMANDED THE ALLIED ARMIES IN THE FIRST YEARS OF WAR.
Serbs, worn, hungry and without trans
port, marched through the fresh snow
of the Albanian mountains to Durazso,
abandoning their artillery, but taking
all the boys who were. old enough to
march. On December, 10 the allies with
drew from Serbia to a line of entrench
ments Just south of the border and to
an entrenched camp around Salonika.
Macedonia, east of the Struma River,
was occupied by the Greeks. The
Serbian refugees were taken by allied
warships to the Island of Corfu, where
their wants were relieved and they
were re-equipped and reorganized to
Join the army of Salonlkl.
Xeateaea-rw la Iavaded.
Invasion of Montenegro by the Aus
trlans began on December 1 and,
though the people fought with their
traditional bravery, they were swamped
by auperior force. On January 11. 1916,
they were driven from ML Lovchen,
the peak which towers over the Aus
trian port of Cattaro. and on January
14 they lost Cettinje. their capital. King
Nicholas and the remnant of his army
fled to the coast, whence the allies car
ried them to the Italian island of Sardinia.
This campaign opened the corridot
through the Balkans, which Serbia had
blocked, and Pan-Germany, stretching
from the North Sea to Bagdad, became
fart. On December 9, Chancellor
Von Bethmann-Hollweg said to the
Reichstag that it was time for the al
lies to ask for peace, but that terms
must be based on the military map.
That boast ignored the fact that the
western allies had not yet developed
their full strength; that Russia was
still fighting and that the blockade had
made the food situation in Germany so
serious that the government took over
distribution of the food supply In Oc
tober. The allies met the suggestion
,-ith defiance, and the war went on.
In the west the year 1915 began with
reverse for the French, who were
driven from the north bank of the
Aisne opposite Soissons. When Spring ,
opened they began a determined attack
cn the German positions on the hills of
Notre Dame de Lorette north of Arras,
and by savage fighting which contin
ued to the middle of June, drove th
enemy thence and from an intricate
svstem of trenches to the east, called
the Labyrinth. The French also tried
n April to cut out the St. Mlhiel sallen
and stormed Les Eparges on the wes
but made little progress on the south,
and lost some ground in the Argonne
forest, farther west.
The British began operations on
large scale by a drive from Ncuve Cha
pelle northward to Ypres on Marcn iu,
in which they took the former town
and won and lost Hill 60, south ol
Tprcs, In deadly fights.
First Gas Attack Made.
They were soon compelled to concen
trate all their force farther north, for
on April 22 the Germans Intro
duced - a new weapon when they
began a mass attack on the line
extending several miles eastward
from the Yser Rive-, northeast of
Ypres. This was poisonous gas, dis
harged from tanks and rolling witn
the wind close to the ground to the al
lied trenches, where it choked the sol
iers. filled their lungs and caused
eath In acute agony within a few
days.
The attack was directed at the
French colonial troops, who fell back
n panic gasping for breath. The way
was open to Tpres, but the Canadians,
who were to the right, swung back al
most to right angles and, fighting
furiously against tremendous odds, held
the enemy. it bay while reserves were
rushed forward. The battle extended
all around the Tpres salient and con
tinued with great fury until May 7,
hen the Germans abandoned this sec
ond attempt to break through to the
channel. It was followed by counter
attacks. In which the allies regained
some ground, and on May 22 the in
domitable Canadians captured several
uns.
Only minor engagements and raids
ere made until beptember Z4. wnen
determined effort to break througl. th
German lines was made by the British
Loos and Hulluch. south of La
Bassee. and by the French in Cham
pagne from Souain. east of Rheims. to
Massiges. The British captured Loos
and the supposedly impregnable Hohen
sollern redoubt and held most of their
gains. Though the over-eager troops
went beyond their objectives at some
points, reserves came up too slowly to
help them and they bad to fight their
way back. But they beat back all
counter attacks and inflicted terrible
losses, though they lost heavily.
In Champagne Castelnau carried the
whole first line, and at places pen
trated the second line, but could not
hold the gains. He took 2S.000 prison
ers and 155 guns. The object of these
battles, it was announced, was not to
break through, as Germany pretended.
but to take pressure off Russia, and
it succeeded In checking the Russian
retreat. The French pushed forward
through the Vosgea Mountains into Al
sace till they held the eastern slopes
secureiy.
In fact, the main effort of the two
western allies was to hold the Germans
while Great Britain developed her man
power and industrial resources to the
point where they could take the of
fensive successfully. Germany's main
effort In that quarter was to hold the
allies while she demolished her eastern
foe.
Maay British Volunteer.
Britain began the war by making
Lord Kitchener, her greatest military
organizer. Secretary of War and by call
ing for volunteers, who flocked to the
ranks faster, than they could be clothed.
boused and equipped. All the colonies
and India rallied to the flag and did
likewise, and strife In Ireland ceased
for a time, Unionists and Nationalists
vying with each other in devotion. But
an attempt was made to do "business
as usual" and it was not realized that
war had become a business of manu
facturing vast quantities of munitions,
wiUiout which, tne soldiers would be
defenseless. Many men whose knowl
edge and skill would have made them
worth a thousand soldiers were en
listed and killed as privates, this being
the result of the unscientific volunteer
system. The ranks in France and el-
glum were stiffened witn a contingent
of about 70,000 Indian troops, with the
European troops from India, whose
went through the first line, while the
French progressed south of the river
to within three miles of Peronne.
Fighting to gain woods infested with
machine guns continued, and on Jul
14 the second advance began by the
British and continued till they won the
village of Pozieres. On August 15
the French had gained the third line on
December (, but his note only drew
forth some lame, mendacious excuses.
Germany showed that no law could re
strain her by sinking the British hos
pital ship Anglia with 100 wounded
soldiers on November 17, and the liner
Persia In the Mediterranean on Decem
ber 30.
At the same time the United States
nlr. rmH h now natives and I waa ivarmlni with German consDlra- I the south and on the lgth the British
with th. rir mnMnianta from Canada tors and destructive agents, who blew I took the great Leipsig redoubt on the miles of Galatz early in December.
and Australia. These, added to the ter- up ships and munition factories, ana ". ocun.ucr o lUcIO Roumanians Are Defeated.
rltoriais, formed the bulk of the rein- with agitators who supportea tne tier- u, Roumanians had menaced his
forcemeWsent to the front In 1915. man cause by championing neutrality allies had I ga ined the rest : of the . hills I"?TtonZl
A reverse suffered in May at estu- or meir own Kino, ana oy mUn. Rnstohuk on October 2. but were driven
bert. attributed to lack of artillery. striKes. rne initiative oi inese acn k..t . i j. i.u. n n.nh.r 1 a
and narticularlv of high explosive shell was traced to the embassies of the for tne tnira line Degan, ana tne no- ---- - I.T r" Vn
central powers, ana ur. Nemours, "",-" , V" ;-, " p.,,,ni,.m Lttrkrt th Roumans in
and trenches, caused a demand for rad- German. .was sent nome on mar r". "w.h h p.nh .hn h.H Transylvania, drove them back Into
Bulgarian army to attack It He took
the fortresses of Turtukar and Silistrla
on the Danube, ' pressed the outnum
bered but stubbornly resisting Roumans
back through the Dobrudja, captured
the port of Constanza. was only pre
vented from crossing the river by the
destruction of the ' great Czernavoda
bridge, and was not halted until he had
taken Braila and was within a few
ical reorganization of industry, for vast recall of Dr. Dumba, the Austrian Am-
expansion and for government control; I bassador, was demanded on September
also for a national coalition Cabinet 9. and that of Captains Boy-ed and
of all tiar-1 Von Papen. attaches of the German
ties in place of the Liberal Cabinet otiemDassy. on uecemger o. x.ii uucui,
Rarhcrt H. Asauith. The coalition was agent of the Hamburg-American line.
. . . a . r I . I I 1 . 1 hi. ail kn.fllliat.. WAP.
tormea ana a Ministry oi numuoni auu -.. . I crun nests and sDi-cadinir consternatl
was established In charge of David sent to. prison for .Ma lng 'rged P coSternat
extended their line north of the river, the mountains, trapped large numbers
won Bouchavesnes and Deniecourt. In and after gallant fighting in the passes
this lat nush the British tanks took which continued well into November
part for the first time, and did good penetrated into the plains of Wallachla.
service in smashing strongly held The City of Craiova was taken on No
houees and woods, crushing m-chine- vember 22, a stand for defense of
on Bucharest was defeated tnrougn De-
the enemy. On the 18th theltrayal of the Roumanian plans and the
was uuuii-uc. .u - i ---,-- - . - -i-l among the enemy. On
Lloyd George, who Induced the labor papers ror snips w"'" "."".V- formidable quadrileteral was carried, capital was taken on December 6, the
unions to suspend their restrictive rules, German raiders at sea ana similar id the 5th tnj aUles had won the eovernment neeln north to Jassy. A
to forbid strikes and to submit dis- prosecutions loo i'""' " villages north and south of Combles, new line of defense from the Car-
putes to public tribunals. This soon I the country. T" j'0 ecame squeezing the enemy out of that place, pathlans along the Sereth River to the
made the country a great hive of in- convert w Zt while the British took the strongly for- Danube was taken by the Roumanians,
dustry. women by nunareas OI tnou- tified ThienvaL Rain fell so con-1 h wao maintains with sltsrht rhansre.
sand taking men's places la factory pacifism and pro-rmamsm were sun stantly in October as to make move- Roumania made war in reliance on
and on farm. rue ana on j.muc. " ment over the shell-torn ground im- Russian help, which came in insuffi-
At the same time there arose a move- startea a orB , t, - "', th I Possible, but on November 9 the cient amount to save her and was de-
ment for conscription, but it made
slower progress and was favored by
the Premier only as a last resort. In
stead, strong pressure was used on
everv fit man to enlist and the Ger
mans helped by bombing the capital
and vicinity from Zeppelin airships. In
a last effort to avoid conscription na
tion-wide registration of men to be
called into service by classes when
needed was effected by the Earl of Derby,
Europe to "get the boys out of the
trenches before Christmas" an enter
I prise which, of course, . ridiculously
failed.
British Win la Africa.
weather had cleared and the British llberately withheld. She was betrayed
lintsned tneir worK by taxing tne vu- by Russia and some of her own gen-
lages ana catacomDs aiong tne river erals
Ancre, Including the strong point of The Serbian army was transported to
Beaumont .name., wnere tney got 4U0U Salonlkl In May. 1916. but the allies de-
In the course of the year the British prisoners. . layed their advance because the duplic-
South African army conquered South-I Prussian Guards . Suffer. ity of King Constantine made their rear
west Africa and received the surrender I I Insecure. His treachery vent so far
of the last German force In July, and terrible 8laugnter tnat German soldiers l.h " May 2? J?'8 ,tr?p8
the British and rTencn compietea tne rir.rtprt .. to
. . . i ui .wa vau.a i,u bv a, v mu uuiuiuo
saainsBt nf TTamAriin. wherft thfl I , , - . , . .
It produced 2,800.000 registrants after -""jVe, welcomed del verance from no gave it tne name oi tne Diooaoatn. ".
nnn nnn vnluntoora hari alreadv en- nattve" weicomeu aeiiverani-o The supposedly . invincible Prussian w
listed but U regaled hundreds of Gerraan "tal"y- , The British had a Guards iwere t and Va
L8'- ?nt 1. ..U . more difficult task in German East German eovernment B t'A the ef-
ing the Struma Valley, to the Bulgars,
who then took Drama, Seres and Ka
valla without resistance. One Greek dl
hMianria nf nnmarrlAri alaekers. I . . . . ... . j. su.ci mucin u icucu uic ci-1 . .v..
; i Africa ana remainea on iao ueicmuo i. ti,t ,oinioj. . m to vtermany, ninuus ir mc
though the total number or volunteers . oula DO 8ent from South rT.r.n Kaiser against Italy in . the Fall of
swelled to 4,000,000 berore tne ena oi .fries, and India. , , l917. The farce of Greek neutrality
the year. I Th(. vear loie was looked forward I .,.., vjj ! , .. continued until Venlzelos called on his
Italy Declares War. tn the allies aa the vear of decision. j i,.i .i i. ..n adherents to loin him in fighting for
. M. . . , . . ...... . r I uvi ...cuo, c.au li.v. i. wlc. ivca o -l 11 I . .. a . . .
jiiiw vain enures vy uiijiuiuauj i Th.v nad arrangea auring ino wmitr l. . , i-. v,i . tne allies ana tney iiocKea 10 mm ai
obtain recognition by Austria of her I for closer co-operation on the several miHion men. I Salonlkl, where the allies equipped
claims to Unredeemed Italy, Italy on I fronts and the new British army was j This battle compelled the Germans to I them and where he set up a provisional
.may 4, rvi, aenouncea in iriLiie am- to De reaay to join in niajui weaken their army at Verdun and so I government.
ance, which had already become a dead slve. Steady reinforcement was pro- relieved the pressure on the French Tlle allies gave formal recognition
letter, and on May 23 declared war on I vlded by a conscription law which waj .v., thev tnnlc th nffmisiva Tn . on October 16 and occuplei. the Pi
Austria, affording sorely needed relief introduced in Parliament on January series ef sudden springs forward, they raeus, the navy, railroads and forts,
to Russia by engaging a large part of 2, and became law on May 25, but the retook Fleury and Thiaumont on They followed this step on October
the Austrian army. THer friendly attl- first battles were to be fought by what August 3 and 4, Fort Douaumont and 25 by demanding surrender of large
tude to the allies had been shown a was named Kitchener's army. four miles of the German line on Octo- quantities of arms. After some hag
week before wir broke out by a secret The Germans, too, struck for a deel- Der 24, and forced the enemy to aban- gling he agreed, but his ministers ad
lntimation to France that she would e0n and were determined to have the ,jon Fort Vaux on November 1. Before vised that the allies make a show of
remain neutral, thus relieving tnat first blow. They began in January Winter set in the French had recovered force in order that the people might
country of anxiety about her south- with local attacks in Champagne, almost all the ground they had lost think they were not given up volun-
eastern frontier, and events had been Artois and the Vosges, and tn ebruary I east 0f the Meuse. Estimates of the I tarlly. Two thousand French and Brit-
anticipated by the occupation of I extended them to Ypres. iney retooK German losses in the Verdun battles lsh marines were accordingly marched
Avlona. Albania, on December 25, 1914, some ground on Hartmannswellerkopf, ran as high as 600,000 dead alone to Athens, despite the warnings of the
to secure control of both shores of the a mountain 4000 reel nign in Aisa.ce, i while those of the French range from Venizelists. while the king's staff se
Otranto Straits. Italy began the cam- and forced their way down tne ridge 120,000 to 400,000. Verdun was more cretly placed 10 times as many Greek
paign Dy occupying tne outlets or tne east or xpres, uui ino nau.u io- man a rortress; tt became a symbol of troops with artillery on the hills com
AlDlne Dasses in Trent and the Dolo-I took what they had lost. But the real German determination to hi-eair I manriinir th ritv. Fir a waa onennd on
mites, by crossing the Isonzo River and point of attack was Verdun, which the through, split the French line in two December 1 and a short battle followed.
taking tne coast town oi juoniaicone in istaii, now ucaucu uj vrnc.o.. iana marcn on to t-ans, ana or irencn in which 116 allies ana loo ureeKs were
a move on Trieste. An attack on Falkennayn, ooasiea it womu viuao u determination to nold fast, and France killed. Admiral du Fournet began to
Gorlzia was made on June , but failed I four days. I won. . I shell the king's palace from his ships,
for lack of positions on the command- After a bomoarament witnoui prece- in Great Britain events happened whereupon he let the marines march
ing heights. Fine deeds of daring were dent by 1500 guns, an army of 120,000 which had a profound influence on the out unmolested. The Rovalists then
performed in seizing heights across the men advanced in dense, successive course and outcome of the war. In raided the houses of the Venizelists,
Upper Isonzo and great engineering waves against positions north of the June the cruiser Hampshire was sunk killing some and imprisoning hundreds,
genius was displayed in carrying men, city, which were held by only 12,000 by a mine off the Orkney Islands, and while the allied ministers took refuge
artillery and supplies by cable tram- French. They gained the outer posi- Lord Kitchener, the great war minister, on the warships. Demands for repara-
way to tne lorty peaas ana snowiieias. i iiono, ami wem ncm m iu ... was arownea while on his way to Pe
Naval warfare in 1915 was chiefly days, lor juarsnai jouro nau neeu troarrad to confer with th Russia
confined to submarine operations by warned and had concentrated great staff. He was succeeded a month later
the Germans and patrol work by the quantities or guns ana sneu in me rear, by Mr. Lloyd George, the coming man.
Rrltlsh aairia from tha bnmharriment kept supplies pouring In on motor Tn (Via Fall r?isa t Isfonflnn with lha r.
of the Dardanelles, after a German trucks on the rdad from Bar le Due and ganization of the government grew so
squaaron met disaster on an attempt I "an pui uc. intense that an open quarrel arose be-
to raid the British coast on January tne aeiense. n " ."""i" tween Lloyd George and Premier As
24. It was chased by the British battle hills west or tne river meuse ana inus quith. The latter resigned and the for
tion and apology followed, also for the
transfer of the whole Greek army to
the Peloponnesus, . and more haggling
followed.
Serbians Attack Bnlgars.
By August 10 the rear was held safe
enough to warrant an advance and the
Serbs, supported by the- French, at
tacked in Western Greece, driving the
Bulcars before them in several harct-
the cruisers Doerflinger and SeydHtz, assault Poivre and Talou ridgeB. After Liberals, Conservatives and Laborites I fought battles. A heroic charge up a
cruisers under Admiral Beatty. which brought a flanking fire against the mer formed a new coalition cabinet
sank thejeruiser Bluecher and disabled troops in b , T wltl1 an inner war cabinet, in which
suffering onlv the disabling of the the first five days tne uermans nau not
..rir. ir nf th. hatti. miiur yet reached tbe chief outer torts.
Tiger. Aside from the British and On February 26 the famous Branden-
hVonr h Innst In th trfllr th fArmap I DUrK xicKiniciii. iuub. run Lfuuauiuuui,
lost the battleships Formidable. Lord northeast or tne city, out its terriDiy
Nelson and Goliath and a transport thinned ranics were surrounaea ana
with 1000 men in the Mediterranean, rorcea to surrender to me equally
were represented.
Irish Cause Titrable.
One cause of this change was a rebel
lion In Ireland, which brake out on
April 24, made Dublin a scene of bat
tle throughout Easter week and
steep, rocky ridge gave them command
of the Czerna Valley. The Serbs con
tinued to gain ground among the rug
ged heights until they forced the Bul
gars to abandon Monastir on November
20, and they recovered their ancient
capital. The British meanwhile ad
vanced east of Vardar and took Doiran.
t,u. t,. pr.nK ,. k.. i..t.. famous Iron Division. During the next suppressed witn severity. It was the
Leon Gambetta and other largo ships three aay the Germans again tooK tnis result or a conspiracy Detween ice sinn They aiso crossed the Struma and
In the Straits of Otranto. A squadron ,ort also Poivre and Talou ridges, but Fein society and Germany, the latter drove the enemy out of several villages
of British submarines entered the were exposea to a terrioie lire irora senuins basement, an ansnman. wun on th0 ea8t bank. The Italians -co-op-
Baltic and on October 13 sank a num- lne n"ls on lno weBt- iney fa""" , uppy i arma. hmuimi wai cap- erated by exUnding their lines from
ber of German ships and other vessels Marcn , wnen tney reneweaine assaun iurea on isnmiig iwo uay ueiore ine AvIona acroSs Albania to Join the
Ing the Sea of Marmora and raiding " " ,,. 7k Xi- o h. ..Tp.TI. 7.knl ..,
Ion both sides of the river. By sending I outbreak and the arms did not land.
that the dead were piled thick on the I and Casementas shot after conviction
of treason, in London. The administra
tion of Chief Secretary Birrel was held
1-.lrtak .kin.
Blockade la Declared. I summit of Mort Homme Hill, but they
On the pretense that Great Britain I could go no farther, and the first stage I largely responsible, and he resigned.
was trying to starve Germany, that
country on February 4 proclaimed a
blockade all around the British Isles
and along the French coast and warned
neutrals that their ships would take
risks by entering the defined area. This
brought a strong protest from the
United States, which warned Germany
that she would be held to strict ac
countability' for any injury to Ameri
cans. The new system of ruthless war
began on February 18, and Its first
startling result was the torpedoing of
the passenger steamer Falaba in the
Irish Sea on March 28, and the shelling
of the fleeing sailors and travelers.
of the battle ended in April, having
cost the Kaiser 250,000 men.
Hob Gas Kills Own Men.
Diversions were made on April 29 at
Ypres. where the boches sent forward a
gas cloud whlcn was blown bacK and
slew their own men; at Vlmy Ridge,
in May. where allied attacks brought
little result, and again at Ypres In June,
but on May 3 the Germans returned to
the assault on Verdun. They had only
half taken Mort Homme in the first
stage, but now gained all of it at
prodigal cost, also Hill 304 to the west,
but then were blocked and had to face
Serbs.
Austria began a determined effort to I
drive the Italians from the mountains
of Trentino and to reach the Lombard
plain on May 24. They made much
progress during the first few days, but
Mecca proclaimed the Independence of
Arabia and was recognized as King. He
soon shut the Turkish garrisons in the
cities and began operations in concert
with the British. The latter reached
El Arlsh, on the eastern border of
Egypt, on December 21, and routed
and made prisoners of almost the whole
force. A force at the neighboring town
of Maghdaba met the same fate, and
the way was open to invade Palestine.
The greatest naval battle of the war
was fought off Jutland Bank in the
North Sea on May 31, 1916. The German
high sea fleet was sighted about 2:20
P. M. by a scout of the British grand
fleet, which signaled to Admiral Beatty,
In command of the battle cruiser di
vision, which promptly gave chase to
the German battle cruisers, though
they were falling back on the main
battle fleet. At 3:4S the action began
and in Its first stage the British battle
cruisers Queen Mary and Indefatigable
were sunk. Eight British destroyers
also engaged 15 of the enemy and beat
them back, also firing torpedoes at the
German -battle cruisers. At 4:33 tbe
main German fleet was sighted, and
Beatty turned northward to lead them
towards the main British fleet, which
was approaching from that direction.
The Germans had the advantage of be
ing shrouded In mist, while the British
stood out against a clear sky, but th
battle cruiser Lutzow fell out crippled.
the destroyer Engadine set another on
fire with a torpedo and others showed
distress.
On sighting Admiral Jellicoe's fleet,
Beatty turned eastward to force the
enemy on a course where Jelllcoe
could destroy him. At this stage the
British battle cruiser Invincible and the
cruisers Defence. Warrior and Black
Prince were sunk, while the battle
cruiser Warsplte was disabled, but the
Germans lost a light cruiser and one
of their battle cruisers was disabled. -
Kalaer Claim Big Victory.
On seeing the British battle fleet.-Von
Scheer. the German commander, turned
southward In flight, Beatty tiursulng
and Jelllcoe closing up. Several Ger
man ships were seen to drop out of
line, disabled, or to heel ovar in flames,
and from 6:17 P. M. they began to re
ceive the full fire of the British battle,
ships, which made frequei t hits, though
the mist hid most of the effect, but tbe
return fire was feeble. The chase con
tinued till darkness, when proximity to
mine fields forbade Jelllcoe to close in,
and the battle was continued by de
stroyers on both sides, which fired
many torpedoes, but could rarely see
the result.
The Germans had disappeared by
morning, leaving the field to the Brit
ish. The Kaiser promptly claimed a
great victory, but gave no details of his
losses and his fleet never came out
again. The British admitted the loss
of three battle cruisers, three light
cruisers and eight destroyers, and
claimed to have sunk three dread
naughts, two battle cruisers, five light
cruisers, nine destroyers and one submarine.
Tn I Ha firmt VAar nf Ih. wat in
August 1.915, the allies reported their
total naval losses at 71 ships of 327,000
gross tons and those of the central
powers at 89 ships of 262,000 tons, the
disparity in tonnage being due to the
fact that the big Teuton ships seldom
left . port. During the year 1916 the
British lost the battleships King Ed
ward VII and Russell and the cruisers
Nottingham and Falmouth by mines and
torpedoes, while the French lost the
cruisers Provence and Gallia.
Submarine ravages continued unre
strained until March 24, when the
channel passenger steamer Sussex vaa
damaged but not sunk and several
Americans were killed. President Wil
son demanded an explanation three
days later, but- Germany denied that a
submarine was responsible. On April
18 the President sent an ultimatum to
Germany and informed Congress, tier
many then agreed not to attack with
out warning, but threatened to resume
sin-on-sight methods unless the United
States induced Great Britain to ral.we
the blockade, a condition which the
President refused to accept. Ruthless
ness continued and sinkings of ships
increased. The United States was de
fied by the appearance of the U 53 at
Newport, R. 1., on October 7, and by the
sinking of five ships on the next day off
Nantucket, almost within sight of land.
The British were exasperated by the
execution of Captain Fryatt, who had
Brussels early in the war and who had
recently been captured, and by the
sinking of the hospital ship Britannia
on November 22. The President, on
December 12, warned all the' belliger
ents that the United States was being
drawn to the verge of war and asked
all of them to state their war aims.
Almost on the same day Germany made
an offer of peace, but in a defiant tone.
The allies replied with equal defiance
and plainly stated their aims to Mr.
Wilson, while Germany's reply was
vague.
Portugal Join in Conflict.
The republic of Portugal was added
to the number of the alltes on March 8,
1916, when Germany declared war as a
retort to the seizure of 36 German and
Austrian ships which had been in
terned 1n Portuguese porfY
An armv of South Africans and In
dians was landed in Earft Africa under
command of General Smuts, . and on
March 11 began a campaign against
German East Africa I which met with
uninterrupted success, disposing of the
main enemy force and occupying al
most the whole colony. The German
commander. Von Lettow-Vorbeck, fin
ally fell back on guerrilla war, to
which tbe country is well adapted.
The review of the war from the be
ginning of the year 1917 to the sign-
ng of armistice, Including the story of
American participation, will be pub-
ished next Sunday.
H-H-r
A Stubborn Cough
Loosens Right Up
Mr. Lloyd George negotiated a compro- General Cadorna hurried up new forces
and by June 3 had stopped the enemy
on the plateaus south and east of the
frontier. On June 16 he con"ter at
tacked and drove them back almost to
their former positions. In aukusl,
while Austria needed every man In the
east, the Italians opened an nsinlt
along the Isonzo, took Monte Sabotino
and Monte San Michele on tne west
bank on the 7th, and Gorlzia on the
9th. They pushed on to the Carso pla
teau and took a line of hills with 8000
prisoners on the 12th and a further
stretch of the plain with 19.000 pris
oners and 30 guns on the 15th, adding
15.000 prisoners in a further drive on
November 1.
British Fleet Gives Cbase.
The Grand Duke Nicholas, who had
been given 'command in the Caucasus
when relieved of the chief command.
led the Russian army against the Turks
reparation and saying that this Na-juajor RaynaL the commander, ordered cut up the Austrian armies, took 400,-I in the snow soon after the year opened
1 K.
mlse on home rule between the Ulster
Unionists and the Nationalists, but it
fell through, owing . to the opposition
cf Lord Lansdowne, a member of the
cabinet. The Mesopotamia scandal, the
Gallipoli fiasco and the Inopportune in
tervention of Roumania In the war,
ending in her subjection, were evi
dences of Asqulth's Incompetence, and
caused his fall. -
With a reorganized army. Russia re
sumed the offensive in Bukowina on
January 1, extended it to Riga in Feb
ruary and to Lake Narotch at the cen
ter in Marcn. On June 4, the new gen
eral. Brousslloff, began a general at
tack on the whole line from the Pripet
marshes to Bukowina, drove a deep
a 4 art m -nunf or attarlr n , . I ha nnitmi.
a..o wnmo " TS , ',. "t Ridge. Another push, in which
"! B'fV """ """ waves of men pushed each other for
L.usiuania on ine -irisn coast, wnicn I .. k..n, r ri.ari i-nnr
caused the death of over 1200 non- took Thiaumont and Fleury and weige into the Austrian lines, recon
conbatants, one-tenth of whom were brought them within four miles of quered Bukowina, penetrated Galicia to
Americana ..i hut thev did not aln Fort within 30 miles of Lemberg and threat-
The United States sent a note tolvr.,,-, ,ii .ft.. f e. I fned the great railroad Junction of
Germany demanding disavowal andVarians had been shot down. Then I Kovel in Poland. He drove back and
. ! r. J ...... 1 . 1 . i L : V- " I ... A..r..v1nv. nl.B rt". 1 ifld
tion would "omit no word and no act"
necessary to defend its rights. But that
was only the beginning of a long cor
respondence, in the course of which the
pacifist Secretary of State Bryan re
signed on June 7. The crisis seemed to be
come acute when the steamer Arabic
was sunk with further loss of Ameri
can life on August 19, but It passed
when Ambassador von Bernstorff on
October 6 finally disavowed the act
hia men to retire and remained alone " prisoners ana nunareuu ui sunn, ana capturea tne great tortress
tn iirndr Shniitinlr their warrrv I Klliea or wounueu ei musij ovu.vuv ii i nrzerum Dy storm pn reornnry
"They shall not pass," the French stood tne enemy ana iorcea von ninuenours.
their ground against incessant mass
attacks, and often regained critical
points, recovering Thiaumont on
June 30.
The center of interest was changed
to the Somme about the middle of June,
when the allies began a storm of shell
at the entrenchments for about 25 miles
and promised reparation, Germany I north and south of the river Somme
who became chief of the German staff f
on August 29, to send reinforcements
from the west lust when they were
needed on the Somme.
But this campaign became merged
In one farther south. On August 27
Roumania declared war on Austria and
Germany to deliver ber brethren in
Transylvania. and sent an army
Trebizond, on the Black Sea, on April
18, and Erzingan on July 2o. lie vneri
advanced around Lake Van and took
Bitlis and Mush, but the Turks with
new forces regained those cities about
August 8, only to lose Mush again on
tbe 24th.
Turkey's last threat to the Suez Canal
was removed August 4, when the Brit
ish marched 23 miles into the desert of
having already agreed on September 1 in front of Albert The infantry attack I through the Carpathian passes to seize Sinai and routed their army at Romani,
to attack no more passenger ships. But began on July 1. by the British from that province and link up with the taking over 3000 prisoners. The British
Austria was involved when one-of her Gommecourt to the river and by the Russians farther north. The Austrlans then began to push a railroad and
submarines torpedoed the Ancona in I French thence to a point west of I withdrew to the foothills after slight! great water main across the desert, a
the Mediterranean and shelled the I Chaulnes. On the northern end from I resistance. But Roumania had left her I distance of 150 miles to the frontier of
escaping passengers. Disavowal of this i Gommecourt to Thlepval the advance I eastern flank weakly defended, and I Palestine. They won a new ally on
act waa demanded by. - Air. Wilson on was blocked, but thence to the-river ltMarsUal Von, MackenBen led a Cerraan-juae, 8, when .he, . Grand Shereef . of
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