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About The Sunday Oregonian. (Portland, Ore.) 1881-current | View This Issue
TITE SUNDAY OKEGOXfAX,- PORTLAND, JANUART 27, 1918.
6I6EL0W PLANS TO
UNIVERSITY OF OREGON CADETS ARE LEARNING THE BUSINESS OF WAR FROM
THE GROUND UP FROM COLONEL JOHN LEADER, 23 YEARS A SOLDIER
From a Corps of Raw Revruita Oregon's Military Instructor Has Produced Efficient Regiment With Surprising Amount of Knowledge of ( Actual Work Carried On on Modern Battlefields,
AH in Space of Three Short Weeks.
Ordinance Aimed at Car Com
pany to Be Submitted to
S-CENT FARE RESPONSIBLE
Commlxlnnrr Ib-HeTe Move Will
Krull la Company IlMnrnln( to
Vrritoa Rale Railter Than.
, Lose I'rrtuils to Operate.
Revocation of kit the rt nllinj
'ranehtsea of tbe rortland Railway,
Light Tower Comtuny la provided In
a proposed ordinance which will be
submitted to tbe ltr Council Wedixi
day by City Commllotrr Itlgelow. Tha
ground for te revocation, accord In to
r. I'.tgeiow. I the company's violation
of tta franchise provisions by the In
crease In atreetcar farea.
Mr. Hla-elow says hp believes the
move will result In the company re-
turnlnc lo the S-eent fare rather than
lose It.e i ranehlae. He aaya he does
rot know jnt how the company will
le forced lno the reduced fare propo-
aitlon. but believes his scheme ultl
mateiy will bring about the desired
It la admitted that the plan will en
counter difficulties. Should the fran
chises be revoked, the company would
l-e precluded from operating cars In
1'ortlenJ. Whether the city or the com
pany would have the advantage under
- such an arrana-ement Is a question.
Without franchtftes. It is said, the com
pany could ba prohibited by the city
from operating or the company could
refuse to operate or could operate only
aura cars as It desired.
Blselaw'a Act lea "ars-rtxe.
Mr. BlloW action came yesterday
as a surprise, inasmuch its lira cruee
tmn ot violation of franchise provisions
ty the company Is- the main Issue In
a suit now be In a; Instituted by the city.
.in which two special attorneys have
'been retained. In addition to the legal
force of the City Attorney's office,
llow passage ot the ftlgelow ordl
ranee would alter the situation Is not
seen, unless the company should fret
frightened and arbitrarily reduce' its
fares. The Council may revoke fran
rhises for cause, but the company would
bare a rU'ht. It is said, to disprove In
the courts the existence of the alleged
cause. The only cause mentioned in the
enrlow ordinance la that of Increasing
fare. Thla Is Identically the same
Issue Involved In the leiral action now
being insiltnted. and it la said th
same method would have to be followed
in reaching the facts In either esse.
City Attorney La Hoc he was unwilling
to comment on the new move yester
dav. but admitted that the Hlgelow
ordinance waa not Inspired by the at
torneve representing the city In the
appeal ease riow beinc Instituted.
Pars ssi ef Move DtoeataaeaV
In some circles the move on the part
f Mr. Blcelow Is looked on as his
means of disproving charges made pub
licly lately to the effect that he. with
the rest of the City Council, except
Commissioner Kellaher, Is controlled
by the streetcar company.
Mr. Hla-elow said yesterday that ha
waa not prepared to make any state
ment on. tbe legal side or the Issues
Involving such questions as tbe ability
of the company to itlve service for the
-cent fare, in face of the decision of
the 1-ubllc Service Commission to the
effect that thorough Investigations cov
ring a period of four years showed
the t-cent fare Insufficient to keep
the company out of bankruptcy. Also
aald be did not know what conflict
there might be between his action and
the pending suit against the (-cent
Ksseraeaey Claaee laaerfed.
The ordinance as prepared carries an
emergency clause, whlcii would put Its
provisions Into effect Immediately' If
passed by-unanlmoua vote of the City
Council. The ordinance reads' as follows:
Whereas, In and by the" erdinnee and
r-anriiles anrfer hi-h the Portland Rl
We. he Poarvr Company maintains and
e-rsti-s a trei ralla-er svstem la the -llr
el frttaml. tt ta provided ss a rondnioa
t.poa M:a thm granieee therein and tnetr
lc:fSHr er aa.sna were permitted to ec-
eupr stid uee tbe streets or lbs oltv of Port.
JnJ letriae4 ta alJ traata. that tbe rate
tax ui.rtH abou:d not elrr4 0 cents
J r each passencer abits traveling In any
ne continuous routs over any Itne or lines
f said street rallwaTs; whU-h' provision prior
i e arescn tnereot nereinaller maulloasd
Ce"t'tte4l a bioulna- contract: ana
Whereas. TTie Portland Railway. I.lsht A
T"sr Company la noar and snre the l.'.t-i
s or January. IIIV has b-o vlolatln
as i1 terms and eonittlons In each of said
vrdiniiK'M le charting paesensera a cents
J.' tne seelc which under the terms of
said errfinanreaaini fra n.-n i -s It la obliged I than Government requirements call for,
s. itn5i''X '
11 '- - a" ' - v ' If " r- s f
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N1VERSITT OF OREGON. Eugene.
Jan. IS. (Special.) Lieutenant
Colonel John Leader, command
ant of the University KattaJion and In
structor In military science at the uni
versity, wants 1000 men. bright, ener
getic, physically sound young Ameri
cana, to prepare themselvea as efficient
soldiers in the cause or democracy
against Trusslan kultur. Three hun
dred of these he already has and day
by day he la moulding them Into' the
type of soldiers that the L'nited Stales
Is going to nerd most before the flags
Of the allies fix over Berlin fighters
trained In every detail of modern warfare.
The making of soldiers Is a new
function 'for tbe university, an Insti
tution In the peaceful order of things
economic before the" war whose object
waa to train the young men and young:
Women' of the state in' constructive oc
cupations, but It Is a function which is
being performed with the same-degree
of efficiency as the making of doctors.
lawyers. Journalists, artists, teachers,
merchants, bankers and the hundred
and one other type of professional
that go to make up the modern civilised
state. .This semester for the first time.
ar Is being taught as a profession.
military science becoming a major de
partment Instead of a side issue.
Keeagaltlea la Expected.
Within the next week or ten days It
Is expected that the university will be
recognised bv the War Department ns
reserve officers' training camp and
the work, which la now more Intensive
7Xc? iStdxZfZ So ,y;J
drill and their regular studies the men
are piling; extra work In the military
:Z'.. S c
. ye Vrie-'
: I vision of the War Department. Appn
Oectin 1 That all rights and franchises cation for the training camp rating has
maintain ana operate a streetcar line or I K.. ma.le and ia reported to have been
I ! Ha In h .'I. ... !..-... k. A "
t f.r ifihtitl br ih cut of Horti.nd and I It-ToraDiy Tci9n in ,BBnin8wn
w ni by th PorInd Railway. Llartati
V l ottr t omMDT be and brbv aj fn
-tvt. rrkr4 and anuilvd; pruvtu d thai
Ho ordlnanr Kranttnc any richta to main-
tun w opril iMrf. riiilwa to ih city
r fort i nn brturor r(aid aoa.1 ua r
Vivd bv Ihia orrilaatac.
i'titta S -lnaatno-h as this rdlnanr la I
rcn-ary for th luarn-Mlat prvavvrvatloti of
public htltb. paw and safety of th
r-tr ov Kort.aco. in inia: That tna (nral
T-uhtto la tha cny ut Port. and la btn
rr-d an ftcMif rat of atrratcar far
In vijiaf'on of th letmi of frmnchiMa under
whwh aald itrvs-icart ar orraid In
cra-fa of tha my of Portland. thrfor an
f.-MrivncT la dc'ard to asiat and thla
tf.aataca amtl b in foreo and fTct from and
U.C4T iia fawact by th Cvunni,
UNION PIONEER IS DEAD
3Jri. llanna Rogers Came to
Grande bjr Ox Team la 18S.
LA GRANDE, Or.. Jan. .. Spe
cial. One of the most unique char
acters among the ranka of the pioneers
ef I'nlon County died In La Grande this
week. Her name Is Hannah Kogers.
At tha age of 14 aha and ber family
crossed the plains with ox teams, com
ing to what later became La Grande
The family squatted a homestead,
where ramp waa struck that night and
never left It. Her maiden name was
'Williamson. In 1MI the married
oland J. Kogers. . Mrs, Rogers, af- all of the British colonies.
fectionately known aa "Aunt Hannah,
lived amidst her fellow townsmen a
highly revered citiien. Peattt occurred
at tha home of her son. Adna B.
Kogers. of this city, and the funeral
was held from the Methodist Church
Hood Riser Keeks Minister.
TTOOD RIVER. Or. Jan. iPpe
ciaL) At a session yesterday the board
of trustees, of tbe Asbury Methodist
Church Instructed District Superintend
ent I'emberton. of The Dalles, who was
tie re for the meeting, and Bishop Mat
thew ri. Hughes, of Portland, to pro
cure a pastor for the church. The local
Methodist pulpit has not been supplied
since Rev. E. H. Longbrake. who ac
cepted, a- call to a Wisconsin church,
lei t here. Just before Christmas.
There Is little glamor to the military
training the university men have been
getting since the arrival- of Colonel
Leader to take charge of the work, it
is serious, gruelling, hard work. Colo
nel Leader is on the campus to make
soldiers and his every thought and act
are directed toward that end. It Is
doubtful If any other college or uni
versity In America can boast of a mili
tary instructor so well qualified to
teach the science of modern warfare aa
Colonel Leader. He Is a soldier by pro
fession and one whose record of serv
ice has been long and brilliant. Ha is
teaching the cadets, the same things
that are being tauKht the men of
American expeditionary forces In
Prance the things which he. himself.
learned from two years of experience
In the front liha trenches.
C'oloael Leader Bora Soldier.
Colonel Leader is one of that type
which is quite common in England, but
almost unknown In America. He Is a
soldier by birth, the ISth of a line of
John Leaders who have ranked high In
the King's service and the 16th master
of the Leader estate in tlie aouttAof
Ireland. He was born In India, but re
ceived his early schooling In England
and later graduated from the Urltinh
Military Academy, going at once into
the army, where ho has seen IJ years
of service. He participated in the
Boer war and the Boxer uprtslng and
baa been In active service In practically
Russian-Japanese war he served as a
military observer with the Japaneae
and on military missions for the Brit
ish government he has done active
work In practically every country of
Europe and Asia.
When the present war broke out
Colonel Leader was located In Van
couver, B. C, and was one of the first
to return to England for active duty.
Single-handed he raised and trained a
regiment from among; the men around
hia old home In the south of Ireland.
They were the men he commanded at
the battle of the Somme. where he re
ceived the wounds which incapacitated
him for further service at the front
and kept him in the hospital for sev
last racier la .Mad eat.
This Is the man who Is directing the
unassuming and modest, a strict disci
plinarian and a "demon for work," as
one of the cadeta remarked after the
Colonel had been on the campus for a
Iu three weeks Colonel Leader has
converted the 300 men in the I'nlversity
Battalion, who hardly knew the rudi
ments of the manual of arms, into a
unit working with precision and accu
racy. When he arrived wooden guns
were the only equipment which the
military department had on hand, and
the men were receiving Instruction in
nothing but the manual of arms and
simple squad and company formations.
There Is a big change In the situation
Colonel Leader has no intention of
turning the men under him into the
Army as privates in every one of the
cadets he sees the possibility of a com
missioned officer and he is giving them
the work that will fit them for officer
ships. The crying need of the Inited
States In this war, according to Colonel
Leader, is not going to be that of pri
vates, but of First and Second Lieuten
ants, men trained In the fine points of
military science. From the first he has
been training the men as they would
be trained In an officers' school. When
the reserve officers' training camp Is
secured the same course of Instruction
will go on.
Clght Hours' Work Required.
' Of every man in the university who
Is physically able to shoulder one of
the discarded Army rifles that have
been secured, is demanded at least eight
hours of military work each week. Five
hours of this Is devoted to drill, and,
if ever one of the cadets had the idea
that drill simply meant an hour's
parade before admiring co-eds, he has
been disillusioned. The other three
hours are devoted to lectures by Colonel
Leader. There is little need, however,
for the word "compulsory" In connec
tion with any part of the military pro
gramme. The cry of the students is
for work and more work.
All of the military Instruction is be
ing carried on . with the Idea that flie
men will have actual use for It when
they get to Europe, and they all intend
to get to Europe. Out on what used to
be known aa the university golf course
are now being constructed trenches,
dugouts, machine gun emplacements,
barbed - wire entanglements, sapping
tunnels, first-aid pita, sniping pits and
the various other contrivances which
figure In the every-day life of the men
along the western front- This Is Colo
nel Leader's laboratory, where warfare
In its most minute detail is explained
to the cadets, and where they do the
actual work. No aort of weather Is
allowed to interfere with the regular
programme. Clad In their uniforms of
khaki coveralls and legging, the men
go Into the trenches whether it ia rain
ing or snowing.
Mark Learned Quickly.
What they have learned about the
construction of field works in three
weeks Is surprising. Aside from know
ing that a trench is a sort of ditch af-
tle conception of actual work required
to build one and the engineering prob
lems that enter into it. Now they look
at a trench as the home of hundreds of
men to be occupied for weeks, possibly
months. They nave learned to drain
them, provide for the disposal of sew
age, shore up the walls to prevent them
Caving in, construct communication
systems leading back to secondary
lines, bases of supply and rest and first
aid dugouts, camouflage the exterior to
make It hard to distinguish from the
rest of the scenery. These are but
few of the tricks of the trade which
each of the men must learn.
Stretching out in front of the first
line trenches Into "No Man's Land" are
the barbed wire entanglements that
have been woven by the cadets, dupli
eating in every detail those which the
American troops will face when they
take the offensive against Fritz.
"Oregon Spirit" Stows.
The field works are to play a double
purpose In the training scheme, tne
men learning the construction prob
lems by actually doing the work, and
later using the works In the trench,
bombing and bayonet drills. It is with
the same spirit that has characterized
Oregon's athletic teams In the past that
AFTER SCCCESSFl'L YEAR
PASTOR WILL roMIME
.J8ev ' :: I
a aWaaf aai aiairiaiiiiiii ii iiiiiiiaatlii n ii
fording protection from enemy ftre. the I
Rev. Samuel C. Long.
HUBBARD, Or.. Jan. 26. After
completing a successful year as
pastor of the Hubbard Congrega
tional Church, the Rev. Samuel C.
Long has been asked to continue
his services here and is now en
tering his second year.
Hilary m-ork .at. the .university; quiet, cadets, like civilians .generally, had lit-. I.,
the men are taking to those forms of
drill which require a degree of skill
ind offer an opportunity for the dis
play of physical prowess. When they
"go over the top" it is with the vim
that has carried Oregon's teams to
many a victory over overwhelming
odds. Lined up before a scaffold bear
ing dummies labeled "Bosehe." It does
not take many days of practice for
the average cadet to pick the vital
spots with a bayonet. He learns to
thrust for the neck, where the instru
ment will not stick, and necessitates
the nasty Job of using his foot as
pry In separating Bosche from bayonet
Already the boys are becoming ex
pert with the dummy bombs that have
been provided for their use and are
putting the death-dealing missiles out
well beyond the mark set by the aver
age "suicide squads of the British and
French armies. At first they started
out to throw them as they would a
baseball, but the first day in the
trenches cured them of that. Skinned
knuckjes testified to the fact that often
the hand containing the bomb hit the
back of the trench, and the Colonel ex
plained that bombs had a habit of ex
plodlng when brought up rapidly
against something solid. Now they
throw them somewhat in the manner
they would hurl a javelin, standing
on the firing step five 'feet below the
top of the trench and taking care to
keep the bomb well away from the
back wall not the easiest thing in the
world to do when throwing at an
imaginary enemy 25 or 30 yards away
and out of sight. Out in the open a
bomb can be handled like a baseball,
and under these conditions the Ameri
can boy is the champion bomber of the
world. Where 40 yards is a long
throw for the average French or Brit
ish soldier, according to Colonel
Leader, some of the cadets are putting
the bomb within striking distance of
an object twice that far away.
Discipline Is Strict.
There Is also the routine of the
manual of arms to be learned and the
never-ending rehearsals of the various
squad, company and battalion forma
tions, where the strictest discipline Is
insisted upon. Bruises and sore joints
result when the meji are called upon
to rush forward In waves and -throw
themselves upon the ground in skirm-ish-Une
formation, for there is no time
to hunt a soft spot upon which to fall.
and when the command comes to drop
Add to all of this rifle practice.
which is to be instituted as soon as
the old rifle club range can be fitted
up, and you have a fair idea of the
military training that is being required
of every able-bodied man lit the uni
versity that is, of the physical part
of it. Three additional hours each
week are devoted to lectures by
Colonel Leader on tactics, field en
gineering, topography, military or
ganization, trench fighting, musketry.
morale and machine guns.
It is In the manner in which they
have responded to the optional military
courses, however, that the students
show their real determination to beat
the Kaiser. . . On top of the - required i
Kngineering Is Popular.
Especially popular is the course in
field engineering to which four hours
every Saturday morning is devoted, and
here are to be found the men who will
later try for commissions in the Na
tional Army. Their training runs more
to the technical and their work con
sists largely of practical experience in
mapping and map reading, construction
of trench systems, trestle, frame and
pile bridgss, road making and railway
work. Part of their work during the
coming months will be the construction
of bridges across the Willamette River
at Eugene and over smaller streams
and gullies in the neighborhood of the
university. This class is also the cam
ouflage unit of the battalion and later
in the year it will receive instruction
and experiments irt the use and effects
of different explosives.
In all the university is offering more
than 20 different courses in military
science, which include the following
Military organization The organiza
tion of the Army into different units;
the organization of the staff into exec
utive, record, personnel, administration,
operations, intelligence, supply, sani
tary, signal, 'engineers, ordnance and
other branches: march organization;
march discipline, supplies, billeting. F t.
camns. field cooking, transport, am- f
munition, rations, etc.: organization of t
armies by regulars. National Guard,
Military law A brief study of mili
tary law and the organization and pro
cedure of courtsmartial.
Mathematics courses for military
training Advanced algebra, plane trig
onometry, differential and integral
calculus (introductory), differential
and integral calculus (extended course
for science and engineering), differen
First Aid Tanght.
First aid Lectures in general anato
my and physiology; practice in bandag
ing and first aid to the injured; use
of a few necessary drugs; methods of
resuscitation from gas and drowning.
Military hygiene and camp sanita
tion: lectures on personal hygiene nec
essary under war conditions, water
supplies, methods of sewage disposal
and other problems of sanitation.
Economic geography Study of geog
raphy in its broadest aspects: factors
controlling commercial relations of the
various countries with an intensive
study of the more important nations,
particularly those directly engaged in
the present war. Special attention to
the geography of the war and the topo
graphic and economic factors in play I
upon the different points.
Military topography Field sketch
ing, contouring, plane table work,
practice in relief map making and ttto
study of various other special problems.
Six science coursos, designed for their
military value, are being offered. They
are general chemistry, electricity and
magnetism, sound and light, advanced
work in electricity . and magnetism.
photography, applied electricity.
Perspective Birdseye drawing, es
pecially adapted to observation from
hilltops, balloons, aeroplanes, etc.
Graphic statics A course of especial
value to engineers on emergency
bridge and other construction work.
Faculty Help Drafted.
As instructors in all of these courses
Colonel Leader has drafted into his
service all of those members of the
regular faculty who, by reason of spe
cial training or study, are best quali
fied to carry on the work, much in the
same manner that he has organized the
Each of the four cadet comoanies and
the band, an organization of 25 nieces.
has iL fatudent commander and staff of
subordinate officers, all chosen for the
ability and initiative which they show.
None of the officers, however, are giv
en permanent appointments, for it is
an important part of Colonel Leader's
plan that every man be given a chance
to show what he can do in command of
a unit of men. When the work has
reached a more advanced stage per
manent appointments will be made,
but those receiving them will act in the
canscitv of instructors rather than bat
talion officers. Arrangements have
been made with the commanding of
ficers at American Lake whereby a
limited number of men whom Colonel
Leader recommends will bo admitted
to the officers' training camp there, not
as candidates for commissions, but as
students of special lines of military
science, such as bombing, bayonet drill,
musketry and military calisthenics and
setting-up drills. These men will at
tend the officers' school at the expense
of the university and in the capacity
of ex-officio stud-ems, living outside of
the cantonment. They will be chosen
from among the younger members of
the faculty and the underclass students
and will return to the university at the
close of their period of training as in
structors in the line of work in whica
they have specialized.
Men to Be Selected.
It is expected that William Hay
ward, acting head of the physical
training department, and Dean Walker,
director of intra-mural sports, who Is
also assistant siting adjutant to
Colonel Leader, will be the first men
selected to attend tha Camp Lewis
Befone rating as a reserve officers
training camp can be secured tho uni
versity battalion and the field works
equipment must be inspected and ap
proved by a regular Army officer.
With this in view, all of the military
work, is being rushed in anticipation
bf a review by the commandant of
the Western Department early in
February. In the minds of Colonel
Leader and others in close touch with
the situation here and at other col
leges where training camps have al
ready been organized there is no
doubt as to the result of the review.
They are laying their plans with the
self-assurance that the University of
Oregon will be rated as a reserve
officers" training camp within the
coming few weeks. In that case the
present courses in military instruction
will be still more intensified, and it is
probable that a Summer camp will b
established on one of the rivers near
Eugene, where cadets can come to the
campus two or three times each week
for drill in the trenches and system
of field works being constructed.
This is why Colonel Leader wants
a battalion of 1000 men instead of .100,
as he has at present. He wants a
force lapse enough to justify spreading
his operations out over the entire
country around Eugene, and he wants
to send the largest possible number of
highly trained young men Into the
fight against Germany.
Special Provision Made.
With the aim of being of the great
est possible service to the country at
this time, the university has made
special provision whereby everyone i.t
given an opportunity to secure the
unusually valuable military training it
has to offer.
To all men subject to the next draft
or who are on the reserve lists and
waiting to be called the university
is offering this preliminary training,
which will greatly increase their
chances for early advancement when
they enter service. Men of ordinary
intelligence who are eligible for mil
itary service in the United States Army
and who can give satisfactory proof
of their serious intentions are being
allowed to enten the university as spe
cial military students upon the pay
ment of a $5 entrance fee. No other
fee is required. This arrangement sets
aside the regular entrance require
ments In this particular case, but tne
right is reserved to reject on to drop
at any time any applicant who Is not
Judged capable of carrying on the
The university authorities are tak
ing advantage of every opportunity,
however, to make one point very clear,
namely, that under the present system
no commissions as officers can bo
gained through the military science
department and that no guarantee is
given that anyone will be sent to an
officers' training camp. It is simply
offering a highly specialized and
highly efficient course in military
When the officers', reserve training
corps is organized on the campu wre
will be opportunity either . in
commissions directly at the university
or to secure admission to one of the
regular officers' training camps.
Promotions will be granted according
to merit alone and special military
students will have the same standing
in the competition for commissions as
regularly enrolled students of the .
Clarke County Buys Gravel Bed.
RIDGEF1ELD, Wash., Jan. 26. (Spe
cial.) George Powell, who lives north
of town, has recently sold two acres
of gravel land to Clarke County. A
rock crusher will be installed there and
this will be of great benefit to the
roads around here. William Wlnglleld,
who is road supervisor for this district,
is responsible for this good roads move.
t --' . rv .
REDUCE YOUR FUEL BILL
The Manning Gas Maker
Makes a Hydro-Carbon Gas for
Cooking and Heating
96.5 Oxygen .
3.5 Kerosene Vapor
Can be set into stove or range
in ten minutes' time.
H. W. Manning Lighting
& Supply Co.
Inventors and Manufacturers.
63-63 y2 Sixth SL, Portland, Or.
ntri a m."iT av-
Th Ledins Feature of th Lea dine
Machine1 all harmontouHy combined tn
one handBoma New Trouble-free 'Writing'
Machine of the First Quality in which
you will find your own favorite ftatur
of your own favorite typewriter, and the
THE WOODSTOCK TYPEWRITER
304 Oak Street.