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About The Sunday Oregonian. (Portland, Ore.) 1881-current | View This Issue
THE . SUNDAY OREGONIAN, PORTLAND, FEBRUARY J 8, 1017.
INTERNATIONAL LAW IS DISCUSSED IN GERMANY BREAK
PORTLAND. Feb. 17. (To the Edl
tor.) The basis for the authority
of international law is the same
as the basis -for early lawsGf every
character, namely, the general consent
of those to be bound thereby, strength
ened by custom and continued ac
quiescence. There is no common su
perior among nations to promulgate
principles of international law, and on
the other hand no single nation can
introduce a new principle into .this
The Supreme Court of the United
States said on this point in the case of
the Antelope (10 Wheaton, 122): "As no
nation can prescribe a rule for others,
none can make a law of nations."
Again, in a later case (the Scotia,
14 Wall, 1S7) the same court said: "Un
doubtedly, no single nation can change
the law of the sea."
The law is of universal obligation,
end not a statute of one or two nations:
It rests upon the common consent of
civilized communities. It Is of force,
not oecause it was prescribed by anyi
superior power, but because it has been
renerally accepted as a rule of con
duct. The United States Supreme Court in
the case of Ware vs. Hylton says:
Tlie law of nations may be considered of
three kinds, to-wit: General, conventional,
r customary. The first is universal or es
tablished by the general consent of mankind,
and binds all nations. The second is founded
on express consent, and is not universal, and
only binds those nations that have assented
to It. Th third is founded Upon tacit con;
cent, and Is obligatory on those nations who
nave adopted It. I
The following enumeration of the
Bources of international law has been
trlven by George B. Davis, Lieutenant
Colonel and Deputy Advocate-General,
U. S. A., professor of law at the United
States Military Academy (1900):
The Roman Law. The Jus Gentium. Cus
tom and Usage, Treaties and Conventions.
The Municipal Law of States. The Judgment
of International Courts, or Boards of Arbi
tration. The Decisions of Municipal Courts
Upon Questions of International Law, The
Diplomatic Correspondence of States, State
Papers. Foreign Relations, etc.. General
Histories: The Histories of Important
Epochs. Biographies of Kmlnent Statesmen.
The Work: of Text Writers, International
Among the earliest branches of inter
national law to receive attention was
that relative to commerce on the sea.
During the Middle Ages & number of
codes or systems of rules on this sub
ject were developed. Many of the prin
ciples have stood to the present day.
though touching such' questions as the
mutual rights of neutrals and belliger
ents on the sea in time of war. Minor
on Conflict of Laws, sec. 2, says:
It is true that occasionally individuals are
Interested in the questions raised and are
intereHted in the cause of international com
plications, perhaps of war. but it is not as
individuals that public International law In
terferes lu their behalf or condemns them.
It is because Individuals jiecesnarily form a
constituent part of every state, part of
tvhich the nation ts a whole is made up;
Hnd aa no injury can lie Inflicted on one part
of the body or by one member without the
participation of the whole, so no member of
the body politic can be injured without
dimaCfl to tiie material Interest, the dtg-ntty
and the honor of the whole. It is because
of this blow to or by the state that public
international law interferes in such matters.
ConRicss only has authority to de
clare war under the provisions of the
Constitution. The President can put
down en insurrection or resist an in
vasion, but cannot declare war upon a
foreign nation. He can resist force
About all the progress made relative
to the capture of- private property on
water has been to abolish privateering
and greater protection for the rights of
neutrals. The law on this point at the
present frme is found in the Declaration
of Paris (1S56), which is as follows:
3. Privateering Is, and remains abolished.
Neutral fluff covers enemy's goods,
With the exception or contraband of war.
Neutral goods, witli the exception of
contraband of war, are not liable to capture
Under the. enemy s flag.
4. Blockades in order to be binding, must
be effective, that is to say. maintained by a
force sufficient really to prevent access to
the coast of the enemy.
Both United States and Spain abided
ty the provisions of the Declaration of
Paris during their recent war.
Davis on International Law, page 46S
The most extensive, snd In some respects
the rrost effective, restraint which the law
of nations permits a belligerent to impose
upon neutral commerce is that Involved in
he exercise of. the right of blockade. By
the establishment of a blockade, he may not
only prevent the introduction of contraband
articles, but may absolutely prohibit access
to nis enemya coast, and so. lor the time
Interrupt all commercial intercourse with
the outside world.
In order to render a blockade binding it
nut bo effective. A "'paper" blockade is
Bo longer recognized.
The text writers on International law all
greo that war is not an absolute confisca
tion of personal property of nn enemy, but
pimply confers the right of conTiscatlon, but
that the richt to them revives on the
restoration of peace. This is of course
very modern doctrine. In almost every com
mercial treaty an article is inserted stipu
lating for the right to withdraw such prop-
crty in case or war.
A permanently neutralized state Is one
the integrity of whose territory and inde
. pender.ee have been guaranteed by the
larger powers, and who, in consideration
thereof. Ui is surrendered the right of. en
Killing in war, or making any treaty which
might involve it In war. Belgium. Switzer
land and Luxemburg, also the Congo Free
taie in Africa, are neutralized states. En
cyclopedia of Law.
Germany's violation of the neutrality
of Belgium has reference to this form
of agreement which she entered into to
protect these email countries.
According to the accepted laws of na
tlons Germany became an outlawed na;
tion upon her violation of the neutrality
of Belgium and being such outlawed
nation she had nothing to lose by vio
lation of international law upon the sea
jn time of war. The time for one na
tion to break .diplomatic relations is
when it commits the first offense, arid
not wait until it had committed the of
- Jcnse a hundred times. It only goes t
frhow how patient we have been With
derraany in those matters. I hope Ger-
aiiany wuj mouiry tier policy to the ex
lent of not violating international law
further. MARK T. KADY
Ml'MTlOXS TRADE IS OPPOSED
AMI son Held to Have F.rred In Permit
PORTLAND, Feb. 10. (To the Edi
tor.) Those who have the best inter
est of our Nation and of humanltv a
heart cannot but feel profoundest re
Kret ana sorrow at the present crisi
which must almost certainly lead to
A recently published article by a ccr
tain person declares that the President
made a fatal and irredeemable blunde
when he did not send a warship an
a destroyer to protect the Lusitania
and deliver an ultimatum as to what
would take place were she attacked.
It is true that a firm stand would
have been far more effective than the
weak and vacillating one, 'and yet it
is probable that even under those con
ditions Germany would have don
eventually as she now has, for she has
taken the course pursued with the full
expectation that our Nation would
probably break with her and be added
to the number of her enemies. The
gain by such a course would have been
that we would have placed ourselves
in a position for action and not have
been caught, as we now are, totally
unprepared for the gigantic task be
Let no one deceive himself about our
not having much to do except furnish
backing and financial help for Italy
and Russia and the allies will do the
rest. Germany is not whipped by any
means nor-will she be during the
present year if her valor of past times
Mich as in the seven and thirty years
wars and. other conilicla are any. crite
rion. Before the year 1917 is num
bered with those of the past -.000,000
of the flower of our land, perhaps many
more, will have been called to the colors
to add to the butchery and in turn to
The great fallacy of the slogan, "He
kept us out of war," is now becoming
apparent, even to those who were de-
eived thereby. Matters have now
gone to the point where he could not
expected to do other than he has
done during the last week or so, and,
of course, the Nation will stand by him.
t certainly looks like it would take
greater than President Wilson to
keep us out of war now unless it be
by cowardly retreat.
However, the President did have the
pportunity of the ages and of hav
ing his name go- down to future gen-
rations with that of Washington and
Lincoln: but that was not the way gen-
rally declared for by the newspapers
nd the public. He was weighed and
He could have and the people
would in all probability have stood by
im taken a course that would have
iven us peace absolutely, made our
Nation great and proclaimed an Ideal
both Christian and moral.
Were two men engaged in a per
sonal combat with knives and I to run
up and. hand to the nearest one, beca
f th cold he offered me. a revolver
to aiK on the other. I would bQrcon
ldered in law. and would be, guilty
as the homicide. What Is trueof ln-
ividuals Is eauallv true or nations.
even though it is not usually consid
Had our President declared himseii
against furnishing munitions of war
nd the wherewithal to carry on me
utrherv for either side, and then
warned our people against going into
the war zone, he would no ooudi nave
found Congress and the people with
im, would have maintainea our pc.
v.n nn National resources to a point
where we would be no longer depend-
nt upon any other, and nave pro
claimed a doctrine to the world mat.
would have given him the undying
gratitude of his fellowmen.
But he did not. ana
. i 41... 1lannlirAl
pay for ner snare m
work, until what was true of slaver
s now repeated, ana lor every
blood shed by the innrunitii"
furnished by us we shall have recom
pensed with at least one drop from
the best in our own veins.
It is true that these wnuimni.
hot in accordance witn muse e,-...
held, but they are right, and not inc
onsistent with a lim a w"
own rights. C. c. HAiujir-i..
LASD DECISION IS CRITICISED
Money Received by State Only Port of
Ileal Purchase 1'rice.
PORTLAND. Feb. 10. (To the Edi
tor.) I note the decision oi
v.n ,.iijiin- the deeas i8
by the state to Benson ana njur.
judge holds that "there was '"r""!
that Hyde agents had obtained the land
.i h fiiH hut the fraud was
against the parties who were used ior
obtaining the land ramer ....-.
the state itself, as the slate received
the full- legal price ol me ianu .i
time." . .
,1-1, . at ljtastt two TJOinta Ol ' ' 1 " 1
t , l. . -t.in-A'a T-lllin&TS. A irsL, w'""3
admitting that the Hyde agents ob-..,i-n.a
i,. UnH tbrnuirh fraud: but tne
i .minct the nartles who
were used for obtaining the land, he
ignores the fact that the so-called
parties were fictitious, non-existent,
hence in no sense parties to the fraud.
c.a kxt wn airalnst Hide, through
his agents, direct and personal. Sec
ond, that the state received the full
nrii-. of the land at that time.
1 a t.na aa TO Tnft I 1 1 1 it II L 111 1 I i- '
given as the purchase price but not
the full intrinsic vuiue,
i .. aa Important. ACXUai seuicuici'v,
rinv-elnnment and improvement, an ii-n-
ful to the itrowtn 01 iuc tuum-.j.
essential elements of vai
ue and are made part or ins i"'t""
nrioe. With this consideration in "
the purchaser was iirautu '" ' : ,
tity and required to make oath that
i -..-, for hi., or her own use and bene-
!f. acting- on the assumption mat
-nu-n iiko and benefit" required settle
m.ni nnj imnrovement. It will there
tr. b seen that by the fraudulent
acts of Hyde and) his agents the state
received only a part of me purciiaoc
price of the lands held in contest.
So it is apparent that Hyde and his
agents committed fraud in making ap
plication to purchase with fictitious
names. If any or tne rpin:ui
were real persons, the applicant so ap
nlvinir committed perjury in signing
the application. ine unimcouuuo
purchase were fraudulent, and a part
of the purchase' price was fraudulently
tendered, under oatns euoramea vy
rra.iHiiicnt votarial attestations. Fraud
then, was the chief factor in all the
stens taken by Hyde and his agent
and under the accepted rule or- law
nnrt eouitv "fraud vitiated ail con
tracts." W. H. ODELU
ALIEV LAND LAWS NOT BKW
Japanese Declared Kully Protected by
MARSH FIELD, Or.. Feb. 9. (To the
Editor.) While I am not informed as
to the actual content of the bill before
the Idaho Legislature restricting tne
ownership of land as against aliens
nevertheless, it seems to, mo both the
press and the Japanese are unduly ex
cited. Such, or similar laws, are not
uncommon in the states. Referring
particularly to Idaho, a sweeping stat
ute against the ownership or lands oy
aliens has existed since 1890. Section
2609 Revised Codes (1909) of Idaho
prohibits such ownership, excepting as
it mav be mineral lands, lands owned
by. railroads whose stockholders are
not exclusively ciiitzens oi tne unitea
States; with a special, proviso that one
not capable of becoming a citizen can
not acquire title save under the 1
itations provided in that section; pro
viding also for the acquisition by alie
when incidental to enforcing a lien on
realtv, and for the inheritance of lands
by alien widows and heirs who have
not declared their intention to become
citizens: and further providing tha
such lands must be sold within five
years after the acquisition of title and
in default thereof shall escheat to the
state of Idaho. Mines are excepted.
As I say, I do not know the exac
provisions of the present bill before the
Idaho legislature hut before manifest
ing so much concern, would it not be
well to consider the section that ha
been on the statute books eince 1S90
r re-enacted in 1899). It would be dif
flcult, excepting as to mines, to rftake
a more drastic law. I am informed
that the constitution of the State
Washington also forbids alien owner
ship. You will find the prohibition
in Art- II, sec. 33 of the constitution
of that state set out in Balllnger'
Ann. 'Codes & St. I have not the later
Washington code at hand, but they
should be plentiful In Portland. I am
sure Mr. Isham N. Smith can furnish
you a copy of the Idaho code. Both th
constitutional prohibition of Washing
ton and the statutory one of Idah
have existed for many years, without
protest from Japan, or fever of the
One will find a painstaking state
ment of the law regarding such prohi
bition in Vol. 2 of Corpus Juris, a
pages 1048, efseq. Referring to th
cases cited under subdivision (c)
note 57. p. 1048. therein, it will be see
that it has been. often held by th Su
preme Court of the United States tha
in case of conflict between treaties ne
gotiated by the United States and stat
statutes and constitutional provisions.
the former will prevail. Judge Flel
rendered aa able opinion on the qucs
tion In De Geofroy v. Rlggs. 133 United
States Rep. 258. . And, indeed, there
should be little ground for argument
in view of Article VI. of the Constitu
tion of the United States, which was
one of the original articles, and pro
vides: "This Constitution and the laws of
the United States which shall be made
in pursuance thereof; and all treaties
made, or which shall be made, under
the authority of the United States, shall
be the supreme law-of the land and
he Judges in every state shall be bound
thereby, anything in the Constitutions
r laws of any state to the contrary
Now, if any Japanese feels ag
grieved by legislation of the kind con-
idered, he has his remedy in the Fed
ral courts, whose pronouncements are
certain: until they are reversed, no one
as any cause for complaint.
The only question is: How sweeping
is the treaty with Japan? Until that
is decided adversely to the Japanese
laims their-protestine is intermeddling
in the. internal administration of the
United States. . Isn't It well to con-
ider actual conditions of laws nd
ies before such demonstrations?
DWIGHT E. HODGE.
iVHE WAS OREGON MADE STATE T
Pioneer's Son Thinks There la Mnch
Indifference to Early History.
PORTLAND. Feb. 10. (To the Edi
tor.) Announcement in the city pa-
Sona and Daugh
ters of Or
ion day o
g of February
n that such an
this year, in view of ofcr international
complications. It will serve to Impress
11 of us with the obligations we
re under to our state and Nation for
the privileges we eniov. each made
ossible by the foresight, independent
action and patriotic sacrifices of ".the
fathers in the days gone by.
J4ut confining this short letter to the
one question of the coming gathering
i tne native Sons and Daughters. It Is
well to remember that things in Ore
gon had a most remarkable beginning:
that here, of all our states, our fathers
nd mothers began In a countrv thnt
had no allegiance to any nation no
country seriously claimed it and that
they 'worked out their own salva-
ion" In a way that reflects greater
redlt on their independent. level-
eadedneas and courageous persistency
n the right direction than is com
monly awarded them.
If you should ask offhand a s-atherlne-
of 50 pushing and successful business
men in Portland when Oregon was ad
mitted into tha Union you would be
urpnsed to discover the puzmled ex
pression on the faces of a large per
ent oi tnem as they acknowledged
they didn't know, although they are
well up on the latest seven-passenger
touring cars. etc. etc., and among half
grown school children it is little, if
any, better. Of course this is merely
he result of indifference to a question.
which includes many related ones, that
should engage a more general consid
eration among- all our people.
But. speaking again of the approach-
ng celebration of that memorable dav
way back in 1S&9 when the dream of
the pioneers was made a reality, let,
- " . - f in i i j . 1 1 ii 1 1 ji
bered that the attendance will be of
such proportions that it will show a
patriotic realization by the younger
generation of the struggles and activi
ties of those who wrought here In the
wilderness in the days' when the Hud
son Bay people still had a grip on
the Oregon country." These annual
gatherings are always enjoyable in the
extreme, replete with valuable his
torical information, running over with
pep," and the dominating feature Is
sociability of the genuine pioneer type,
and that is going some.
T. T. GEER.
CHINOOK WIND AG, MX DEFINED
Once It Came From -Northwest, Now
From j h fVtoAthvreiit.
PORTLAND, IFebl 1 (To the Edi
tor.) I noticed in Tle Oregonian a
definition of a "ChinookV' Several years
ago an article appeared in The Ore
gonian giving an entirely different
definition. I attacn a copy of that
article. The article gives the same
definition that I had already received
from some of our early pioneers.
namely Tv B. Trevett and Scth L. Pop".
and I think fromGeorge H. Himes. and
it is I think the correct one. Also the
Century Dictionary gives a similar
definition. A "PIONEER."
in Its present acceptation, a
'Chinook' is the equatorial trade wind
that blows during the Winter monthn
from the southwest and. laden with
moisture, strikes the Pacific Coast from
the northern boundary of California to
the Alaskan Archipelago. .It is now the
local name for the soft, balmy south
"But It is a misnomer. In early days
In Oregon and even as late as the early
'70s our Summer wind from the north
west was called a 'Chinook,' so named
because it blew into the Willamette
Valley from the coast regions inhabited
by the Chinook Indians north of th
entrance of the Columbia. Among thj
pioneers and their descendants. a
chinook wind was a 'clearing-up' wind
Now it signifies precisely the opposite
I. e., a wind from the south, followed by
"With the past 25 years the word has
been grafted into the speech and the
written language of vast territory east
of the Cascade Mountains and circulates
rreely throughout Wyoming. It lias been
carried into Boston newspapers with
local application. Any soft, balmv wind
that springs up in Winter is called a
"Thus we see. in an age of hlsrh civ
illzation and universal knowledge, the
vicissitudes of written words. Within
30 years 'chinook' has been turned 'end
for end. '
cat Said to .Have C'ha
ruga rice by Firm Srand,
DORR. Wash.. Feb. 15. (Tn h-
lor vvouia that President Wilson
coma realize his great opportunity to
live in history as the world's great
Peace maker! The balance of power
ueiween tne two great bell nt l
still very delicate, despite the rapidly
strengtn or tne allies. Uer
many, nowever. admits in this last
note of January 31 the effectiveness
of England's inexorable blockade. The
weakness of this blockade is, of course
its long range and the unavoidable
leaas tnrough neutral European na
tions isorway. Sweden, Denmark, Hoi
icum aim owitzeriana. iaitorlal com
ment in these countries on the last
exchange of notes shows clearly the
mariced sympathy of all except Swe
den for the allies. None oC. these na
tions is economically independent, and
isortn and South America are their
chief source of supply at present
Sweden and Holland, and, to a lesser
extent, Switzerland, are doing a thrlv
Ing and profitable business with the
Teutons in reselling their surplus im
ports from America.
With these imports- from America
cut off, the economic interests, if not
the vital necessities, of all these five
nations would demand immediate
peace. The tremendous increase in our
trade with these nations since the
beginning of the war has led them more
and more to depend upon us. With
theso imports cut off they are in
worse position than Germany herself.
If Woodrow W rlson is, after all
worthy successor of Washington. Mad
ison, ilonioe, Lincoln and Kootcvelt, he
Will e e?i
S I n
will answer the Kaiser, in diplomatic
language, to be aue, but in words
to this effect:
"You will illegally destroy one Amer
ican life, one American ship, one dollar
of non-contraband American goods at
Then he will proceed to call a? once
a conference of neutral nations of the
world, and will set before them the
facts that Germany has given definite
warning that she has swept away the
right of visitation and search within
certain prescribed areas of the high
seas, in utter disregard of well-estab
lished principles of international law
and of neutral rights thereunder; that
this comes as the climax of a suc
cession of overt acts calculated to try
the patience of all neutral nations; that
in this conflict It devolves upon neu
tral nations to enforce, when the bel
ligerents are unable to do so. the rules
of war, international rights In genaral.
and the principles of humanity which
are the base of 'civilization; that the
continuance of this war. waged as It
is In utter disregard of neutral rights
by Germany, has become unendurable:
that the United States calls upon all
neutral nations to aid it in an attempt
bring this war to a speedy end.
andNo form a league of sufficient
strength and magnitude to enforce
peace In the future: that the imme
diate and specific course of action on
the part of this Government shall be
the declaration of an embargo against
all neutral nations of Europe which
do not agree to cease all trade and
diplomatic intercourse with the Teu
tonic allies, as well as against the
Teutonic allies themselves; that any
nations which do not agree to assist
us in this enterprise will be consid
ered to be giving aid and comfort to
the enemies of mankind.
That the neutral nationswould not
willingly agree to such an embargo
is unthinkable, with the possible ex
ception of the European neutrals.
These would be driven into its adop
tion by economic necessity. And when
they all range themselves on the side
of the allies in- an economic war they
soon become active .participants in
military operations In very self-defense.
That Germany foresees this fact is
evident from her concentration of
troop3 on the Dutch and Swiss bor
ders. - -
The tremendous weight of this em
bargo on the already staggering Ger
man nation, added to the tremendous
moral influence upon thetr own al
ready badly frightened people win V""
pel an early peace on terms which
m.-iii iinnoin tne riKm wi n ,
national independence and security,
and the principles of International
aw. Woodrow Wilson wouiu bo uu..
history as one of tne great "h"'
of the age. Now is ms opiio.ih,.
s he shrewd enougn to ko
trong enough tojMt
HEIGHT OF PROGRESS BEACHED
Pilgrim Fathers. Indiana ana t. oinrc
Symbolize Legislative Plan.
VANCOUVER. Wash., Feb. 10. (To
the Editor.) History records that a
few centuries ago our forebears set
sail from tlffclr native heaths far o'er
the seas for a land undeveloped, un
restricted by religious Intolerance a
prohibitive legislative enactments
In the course of time the land tha"
Pilgrim Fathers chose as a mecca of
freedom became known to the progeni
tors of the aforesaid Pilgrim Fathers
as the land of the free. etc. The un
tutored, savage red man also roamed
at will this vast freedman's domain, un
molested, unrestricted in his quest of a
livelihood: he fished the limpid streams
without fear of molestation on tne part
of the deputy game warden; ho did not
lie awake at nights pondering on tne
advisability of bonding the latest sewer
assessments; k he didn t worry about
gum-chewing legislative assemblies
enacting "bone-dry. anti-cigarette.
antt-corset. etc., measures.
But in the course, of events ana witn
the advancement of new ideas with re
gard to modern, up-to-date civilization
the habitats of the dusky red man have
been forced into retirement. So much
for progression and written history.
The Chinese also sougnt mis country
to carry out his ideas of exploitation;
sometimes in conducting a laundry, a
legitimate mode of procedure; some
times conducting a system of selling
lottery tickets, an illegitimate voca
tion, inasmuch as our lawmakers have
expressly decreed that gambling be
and is prohibited. But then. John has
not as yet developed witn tne aavance
ment of civilization to th extent th.-it
he. is able to draw the line of de
marcation between a fluctuating Chi
nese lottery ticket and the outcome of
a Presidential election.
Doesn't It seem as if we had Just
about reached the moral heights of the
U. R. WRIGHT.
AMERICA SHOULD STAND ASIDE
Contention Made That Honor Consists
In Keeping Off Sea,
PORTLAND, Or., Feb. 15. (To the
Editor.) The editorial entitled "Light
on Germany's Action" and your im
plication that the present peace propa
gandists "are in effect traitors" leaves
the Impression that The Oregonian
prefers war against the Germans, even
at this crucial- time, to a peace with
honor, as has to a fair extent been
maintained during the critical period
of the last 30 months.
By stating that "the food situation
is becoming more and more serious"
and that "there is barely enough food
of any kind to sustain the population.
you admit it to be your belief that
the British policy of starving the
civilian population, which includes the
women snd children of the. Germans is
being carried out. Now, the right of
self-defense of a man or a nation is
Inalienable. And In case of a riot or
ther uncontrollable disturbance, the
on-combatant fares best If he. bo-
cause of the seriousness of the sltua
tion. temporarily waves his rights and
assumes the role of a benevolent or
Kverv impartial and fair-minded man
will advise his family to avoid places
where riot reigns and instruct hi
children to use the less dangeroiv
crossings Those seeking damage sul
will court instead of trying to a Void
injury. Our imperative duty wasand
is to advise our citizens, whether
native-born or recently naturalized, to
avoid exposing their lives needlessly
by keeping off the ships of the bellig
erents and especially those carrying
ammunition. The crime of carrying
passengers on ammunition ships (s cer
tainly no more justifiable than It Is to
transport ammunition on passenger
The Germans have made a peace of
fering and . the allies have flatly re
fused to engage in negotiations. This
leaves the Germans with nothing to
da but to defend as best- they ran.
While our interference with their
methods of defense may be warranted,
according to the letter of the law, a
great majority of Americans. Including
many of British origin, fall to see any
manifestation of genuine patriotism
In any attempt to precipitate our coun
try into that deplorable conflict, be it
on one side or the other. All German-Americans
of any prominence or
influence h ve steadfastly and consist
ently refrained from any attempt at
embroiling our country In a war
against the allies during the present
conflict. And British-Americans owe It
to the country of their adoption and to
their fellow-citizens of every deriva
tion to abstain from attempts nt get
ting us Into war sgalnst the Central
Powers, or on cither side. As both
Bides are nursing grudges asaiust ue,'
t our I
the Central Powers more openly, the'
allies more secretly, no honor, abso
lutely noneand no prestige can, be
gained by hindering or helping eitner
While it may be true that the peace
propagandists have not the welfare of
Individual Americans of questionable
sincerity in view, they certainly seem
to have the future honor and welfare
of all America uppermost in their
minds. It is sometimes possible to
Koa children into
parents, even while engaged In a bitter
struggle with, others, but neither the
children nor their traducers will reap
any respect or gain.
Genuine and wisely-directed patri
otism and loyalty to the United States
demand at fuch a time as the present,
that we coolly abstain from intimidat
ing either side, because to do so would
not make us better Americans, but second-class
Germans or second csass
Being descendant and having arise
chiefly from two parent countries now
engaged In a most terrific struggle and
having taken a solemn oath to establish
and maintain here a new family,
willing and ready to adopt desirable
brothers and sisters from the two
parent and other countries, self
interest demands that we restrain our
selves, painful as It may be to stand
aside from taking rart in the striking
down, if to that it must come, of either
the, father-in-law or the mother-in
law. Family interest and family wel
fare command and cry aloud: We can
not afford It! Intercession and media
tion are our only honorable and profit
able course. U. CL. HllibCii.
Our correspondent Ignores the fact
that, while Britain Is trying to starve
Germany, Germany is trying to starve
Britain. By standing aside, as he pro
poses, the United States would cease to
be neutral, would become the prac
ileal ally of Germany and would aban
don its rights to travel and trade by
sea a right which has been undis
puted until this war began. '.It would
take sides in the mutual starvation
campaign with the nation which has
carried on the war in lawless and in
human disregard of American rights
by taking more than 200 American
lives and against the nation which has
not taken a single neutral life in the
conduct of its blockade. Having been
unable to win naval supremacy by
lawful means. Germany attempts to
win it by lawless means and warns
Americans off the sea highways under
threat of being killed. Were Ameri
cans to heed this warning, they would
dishonor their country, would abandon
their rights and would practice, gross
partiality fo Germany by aiding her
In the starvation of Great Britain. If
by exercising their well-established.
rights, Americans aid the defeat of
Germany's purpose, that fact Is due
to circumstances created by Germany.
not by the United States. The Buf-4,
ferlng which results to the German
people from our Insistence on these
rights is primarily due to the acts of
their own government.
Aspirations Voiced Long Ago by Ste-
II I Tl"',, M"ybn.' '
PofcTL.tN-l. Feb. 0. To the Editor.)
Id-tlmerslwill remember that about
40 years agoloregon had a poet "lariat"
whose naml was Stephen Maybell.
They will also remember that for years
along about that time. they were dream
ing of the day when a bridge would
span the Willamette at this point.
Maybell attempted to voice the hopes
and aspirations of the people along this
line In an alleged "poem." Since his
day we have lived to see five bridges
span the Willamette within the city
limits of Portland, and on the 14th of
this month we are to celebrate the com
pletion"of the interstate bridge uniting
Portland and Vancouver.
It seems to be en opportune time to
resurrect and republish Maybell's poem,
CHARLES B. MOORES.
Behind the Tilths had sunk the sun
And darktiens hung o'er Oregon.
When on the; banks o' Willamette
A yonlU whs Keen to set anrl net
And t-t and sing unto the moon.
A wihl, yet nvveet. pathetic tune
"They're going to bulb!. I feel It yet,
A bridge acrova the Willamette.''
The flatboat drifted slowly o'er
And reached at last Ihe other shore.
The t-n plain, brave, courageous soul!
Pimhed her to bind with nehlng pole.
When, bark! from o'er the waves a strain
That youth, that voice, that will refrain,
"They're going lo buiM. T feel it yet,
A bridge ftcroui the Willamette."
Trk grew the night, the south winds blew,
hiiKit came the f.regolilan dew;
I nw n mountain widen the torrents poured.
Tli streamlets roue, the rivers roared:
Stirl aung that youth with webbed toes,
'Neath uinberell. In rubber clothes
"They're going to buiM. I feel It yet
A bridge acrons the Willamette."
A Modoc chief in pure chinook.
Cried "Klahowyah. tumtum, mamook;
liiyu tyee yah muckamuck.
Not with nika tika cuintux:
All the same white man. nika Vlonas
Cum stick mamook skookum hyaa," .
Hut silent grew bis tongue.
For high above hi war whoops rung
"They're going to build, I feel It yet,
A bridge across the Willamette."
A citizen from Yarmany
Who beard ll from tha brewery
Sang out. "Young fellow, athop dot shouet!
lint bridge, you bet. vas pout blayed ouet;
Some dingtt. I know. 1 tolo you noon.
Iem laud agi-nta vas d achmart coons;
lint eye. vas In my prldge. you bet!
Iot bridge aurosa dot Willamette!"
Pn Winter rains and Pummer flowers
Passed on with ead and pleasant hours.
Yet still pat on the river bank
A man bald-beaded-, lean and lank,
drown old. st lit singing the same tune-
"Tla coming, coming, coming soon!
They're- going lo butM. I feel It yet.
A bridge acrufcH the Willamette."
Tears passed, there came a trav'ler roua
To visit our Faal Portland town;
Aa on the river bank he stood
He saw a sight that froze bis blood:
Right ther beneath tha glowing sun
There Bat a ghowtly skeleton.
Which turned Ita hideous, fiephlesa head.
And grinned mont horribly and said:
"They're going lo build. I feel It yet,
A bridge Hcruns the Willamette."
RST STEAMBOAT IN OREGON
Mr. Itosa nrvs, Yrssl-l Wmn Columbia,
PORTLANT5. h-'eb. V- (To the Edi
tor.) In the Sunday XJregonlan. Feb
ruary 4, is published "A New Chapter
of Early Oregon Tales," by Eva Emery
Dye, in wrich she says:
"Jacob Kamm, from Switzerland, at
14 a deckhand on a Mississippi steam
boat. 12 years later built the Lot Whit
comb, the first steamboat in Oregon:
J. C. Ainsworth. of Ohio, also In his
teens a boathand on the Mississippi,
came to take command of the boat." ,
To this let me say that if Mrs. Dye's
history is correct, my memory is at
fault. My recollection is that in the
early Fall of 1850 I saw a keel laid at
Milwaukie upon which was afterward
built the steamer Lot Whitoomb.
Our family lived about 40 rods dis
tant, and from the time mentioned until
the time of her launching there were
not many days that I did not visit that
yard to see the boat "grow." On Christ
mas day of 1S50 she was launched and
christened "Lot Whltcomb."
I was a self-invited passenger. I
also reniember that a sad accident oc
curred. Captain Morse.- of a Beaufort,
N. C, brig, then lying at anchor in the
river, while firing a salute to the new
boat, was struck by a fragment of
the old iron cannon when It exploded
and was alrnost decapitated.
The Masons buried him. Father
Clinton Kelly, preached hia luneral
sermon In Mllwaukle's first school
house, and the military band from Van
couver led the procession to his grave.
But some weeks if not months, be
fore this launching, I remember hav
ing seen a small stemer plying ti e
Willamette. She was called the Co
lumbia, and had been built at Astoria
by W. H. Gray. This was the first
steamboat built in 'Oregon.
As for Mr. Kamm. his was no minor
part in the work: he installed the ma
chinery and had the name of under
standing his business. He was the
first engineer. But a Mr. 11 an scorn laid
the lines, drew the plans and superin
tended the work. To him Is due the
credit of building the boat.
If J. C. Ainsworth was only 19 years
old when he became captain of the Lot
Whltcomb. he was surely a well-grown
lad for his age, about eix feet tall, with
luxuriant chestnut whiskers and looked
to be about 26 or 27 vears old.
- EU C BOSS.
D ISSUES GROW ITRESOMX: I
stem of Paylag far Something Long
Since Extinct PrOTWe s.
FORTLAND. Feb. 17. (To the Edi
tor.) One of our dally papers recently
carried the Information that the city
was still paying Interest on bonds that
had been Issued for the construction
of the old Madison-street bridge, also
on bonds issued for tha purchase of
the old Morrison-street bridge, and
even the bonda Issued for tha purchase
of the ferry that at one time plied be
tween East and West Portland at the
foot of Morrison 'Street.
- There are doubtless cltlsens alive to.
day who remember when these bonds
were Issued, but these improvements
have long since ceased to exist, and
not even the memory of most of our
citizens can recall what some of our
bonds were issued for.
When we consider that we are pay
ing interest on three sets of bonds for
the facilities that enable us. today to
cross the river at Morrison street we
cannot help feeling that the situation
Is due either to mismanagement or In
competence on the part of our city
officials, or their wanton disregard of
the interests of the public.
At present there are city bonds out
standing to the amount of about S30,
000.000. drawing interest at an aver
age rate of nearly 5 per cent. Which
means 1.600,000 a year, or more than
J4109 a day. including Sundays, and
still the agitation for the Issuance of
more bonds goes merrily on.
What Is to be the limit? Many home
owners are now paying installments
and interest on four or five assess
ments of various kinds against their
homes, and protests against . further
assessments seem to be in vain.
For instance, the citizens of Rose
City Park, who already have their
homes bonded four-fold, are to be again
assessed for the construction of
viaduct at Thirty-seventh and Sandy
boulevard for the benefit of the rail
road companies. Why Is It that other
cities require the railroad companies
to eliminate grade crossings at their
own expense and our officials require
It to be done at the expense of the
property owners affected la ' most
I it is ntgn time tnat tne homeowners
J.of the citv the fellowa wbn hMVA no
rkrnnprtr ttt Vi r th.n thilp littl t,nm
got together in a concerted effort
to prevent their homes being con
fiscated through the medium of taxes
and assessments. There must be a
limit to assessments and taxes some
where. And the Interest charges that
the city now pays are unnecessary to a
There is considerable money in the
varloua sinking funds of the city that
could be used to redeem some of the
outstanding bonds so as to save the
Interest to our own city that is now
being paid to Eastern bondholders.
This certainly could be managed some
way if there wero any disposition on
the part of our public officials to serve
the interests of the people, but it seems
that Instead of any relief being af
forded matters are permitted to get
The Legislature, under the Inspira
tion of the interests that prey upon
the people, is -now attempting to pass
a law that will prevent the schools
from purchasing their own bonds.
What possible excuse can there be
for such a law. except to burden
further the taxpayers for the benefit
of bond investors? If the school city
has money in its sinking funds, whv
should "t not purchase its own bonds
and save to itself the jnterest that
would otherwise be paid to private in
dividuals, and further save the com
mission for the sale of bonds? For
the sale of a recent issue of city bonds
a commission of $1200 was paid. This
would not have been necessary if the
city had used its available money In
its sinking funds and purchased the
For the sale of the borMs for the
construction of Broadway bridge, ag
gregating a par value of about $1,700.
(HiO, there was a shrinkage of about
$125,000. The city received 93 cents
on fhe dollar for this enormous bond
issue, and the taxpayers will have to
repay $125,000 more than they received
for the bonds, besides interest on the
The public is patient and long
suffering, but there is a point beyond
which patience will not go, and some
day the people will arouse themselves
sufficiently to elect public officials
who will serve the interests of the
people. In these days of a roll of but
ter and a loaf ff bread for a dollar.
the little homeowner has got to de
mand the practice of economy and
conservation on the part of public of
ficials in the expenditure of public
money. A. SHAPIRO.
PROF. ALDERMAN IS COMMENDED
Writer Says Retention Means Right
Kind ef Teaching.
PORTLAND, Feb. IS. (To the Edi
tor.) Permit me to add my congratu
latlona to the School Board for retain
ing Professor Alderman for another
Anyone who understands Mr. Alder
man's progressive Ideals cannot fail to
Inilnr, 1, 1 m rm-tltitirn 1 o fail In ia.
fain him would be merely another form
of self punishment. It is a source of
satisfaction- to know that your child
receiving a form of instruction which
Is useful to the life of the times. This
is the main issue with Mr. Alderman.
The only teacher, for Instance, who
could not agree with him would be one
of the old-line Greek and grammar
products of the mtd-19th century type
of echoolship leading to the degree of
B. A. or else to the bread-line. It was
questionable when One took his sheep
skin in those days which would be the
result. It was more a matter of after
graduation chances than pre-gradua
tion preparation. Professor Alderman
is one of the Nation's most dynamla ex
ponents of useful education and for
God's sake let everyone get In and
push and keep the grit out of the bear
ings. Portland should disgorge this
spleen Juice which ever and continually
urges our dissatisfied citizens to throw
public men into the discard for reasons
of envy or some other petty coagulation
in their soul stuff.
In the days when I was in the
grades and high school the teaching
profession and the machine itself, gov
ernment by the professional teachers,
had become isolated from the, com
munity needs. We were all destined,
according the system, to become little
shining lights, eweet baby cherubs,
modern Socrates, Platos, Jr.. and so on.
Teachers were made in school: they
in turn applied the same dose of brain
stuffing to their victims, wno grew up
to he teachers and gradually, by this
procea and tb-e support tiiruugU tai-
atlon, the entire machine became a lit- ':
tie world an to itself. The caricatures
of the long-haired, impecunious, im-
... , . c-v iiuui iancner are Ftui re
membered by the living generation, and"
the Intelleetjittl mi.nt . ;
texed tfle bread-line, adopted the soap' "
1 1 ' i living or. xvith th. h.in e
father's money became an "A. B.." Were -
w.c iceuiis. x am nrmiy or the opinion.
- i i iu ii, tnst mucn
of our so-called National discontent
and increase in the down-and-out club
arises from the absolutely foolish svs-
tem of education which American so
ciety suffered from, and which left its
finger prints on me until I got the cor
I was practiced upon by one of tha :
two rival educational machines of the -
Kmnir, Ktaln hnth ) . .
- - . , i. 1U Itu U BUIIVO
life. Neither engaged in nrenarlnsr .
yodng people for after life T nntin
ViC anyone In Oregon has suffered under- '
a greater number of teachers than have
I. Even today, I can almost tell which :
HT, I p m a nIA r ,.n . . J 1 :
looking at her or him. I feel that I am...
vuiui'viviiL n nai a nirrpci edu
cational system is, and Professor Alder
Am A, A. ,A 1. t . . .. . .
man is tno rignt man with the right
'We were sent out chasing buss,"
rocks, flowers and butterflies, cats in
cluded, for dissection purposes. .Wo "
. . i uta kiits viTii-iaKv inai applies to
each and the physical structure of them
all. Yi o were experts on prefixes and -
iiiir uiaiui y , tianimnr ana its excep
tions, going smd coming, we were'f
charming conversationalists, knew tha-'
enromatic scale Irom tne structure of
Greek ' verbs and secured that second,
sight by which teachers are able to tell
wnat cinakespeare meant when he said
something, which Shakespeare himself
never imagined. All this was our prepa- -
ration for making our living, and if
nvthinc wst Islrnl nrpnnfiitil rrl mn tt .
was the business which those two rival,
educational systems of the great New"
Ynrlr k t a , a .-a- Aarwlnfl- n u-1 1 1 1 lnmn
cent children as the victims. There is "
no doubt that society has paid tho -penalty
in many ways.
Mr. Alderman is probably the most"
i-v i hi miiavii ut - 1 1 13 v 1 1 r , in inia jisni, -
that he is remolding the organism to
tho needs of the times and of Oregon. -The
products of his Fystem, should ho
oe pcriuittea to iuny aeveiop it, wiji no
ablo to buy their plates of Herman fries, -
French pastry. English plum pudding.
Russian caviar, and the other neces---saries
of a struggle for daily life, and
not charge them to dear papa after
marriage to another sweet thing, just
as useless to housekeeping business a-
some of laura .lean's heroines. Tho
School Board is all right!
JOHN M'NL'LTT. -
LOAS OF RIFLES IS SUGGESTED "
Government Declared 1e Waste Mnch
of Partly Vaed Equipment.
SALEM. Or.. Feb. 12. (To the Edi
tor.) I believe It was Secretary Jlc
Adoo who suggested that tho metal '
articiesjconflscated by New Tork police
uniinio iuuih wen ue put to octter ana
more economical use than dumnlnc
overboard at a point deep enough aa
not to hinder navigation. And he is.
no doubt, correct.
It might be well also to mention tho
fact that the periodical sale at auction '
of quartermaster and ordnance sup
plies of the I'nited States Army and
Navy gets away with a good deal of
equipment that is still sufficiently
CTaaH a Ka . . . .1 I
- " - - - -j uncii iui jt-iira i y morn
thrifty men than those who comprise
the boards of survey of our military
and naval departments.
Steam launches, the orltrinal cost of "
wnicn was rrom $2000 upward, are -often
knocked down for aa low a,
figure as $200. and many another thing
is sold at a loss of 50 to 90 per cent,
when those who buy them get years
of valuable service from them.
When the Second Regiment of Ore-
, . - - - - - , -1 u 1 1 - -1 jiiiitiury,
was preparing to embark for home lo '
be mustered out of service n. board of
w ' v i 1 1 i -1 1 1 1 1 1 1 a lot oi camp and
kitchen equipment In the regimental
quartermaster's department and or
dered it destroyed. This writer saw
a pile of tents, many of which had
never been unrolled from the poles
since having left the factory, piled in
a heap about eight feet high and
burned. Also copper-bottomed boilers,
from some of which the factory wrap
ping had never been removed, were
rendered useless by cutting tho bot
toms with an ax. Extra tield stoves
were destroyed in the same manner.
These are small items when figured
as from only one regiment, but tho
aggregate destruction of perfectly good
and serviceable equipment following
the Spanish-American war and Phil
ippine insurrection would probably run
into a neat figure.
In almost every city of any size one
can find places dealing in old cavalry
saddles, bridles and other harness,
sabers, revolvers, canteensr haversacks,
etc., where he can buy articles at aa
low as 10 per cent of the original cost.
These have been replaced in use by
new equipment, when their usefulness
has by no means been exhausted.
Where are all the Merrlam packs
that were once used by the Oregon Na
tional Guard? Ono of the most com
pact and handy portions of military
equipment has been relegated to tho
discard for some other and newer
"wrinkle." and this writer has been
vainly trying to find out what became,
of these packs, thinking he might bo
able to get one to carry on hunting
jaunts in the mountains.
As a matter of preparedness, instead
of storing the displaced Krag-Jorgcn-sen
rifles, formerly used by our Army,
in two or three arsenals located t
widely scattered parts of the country,
would it not be wise to apportion them
to the various states, where they
could be made tr serve in an emer
gency until other rifles could be sun
plied? I admit the Krag-Jorgensen. to
be a rifle that is not so :'at nor ts
accurate as the new Springfield re
peater, yet the older rifle in the hands
of one who knows what the (sights are
for" is a very effectivo weapon, and it
well-placed bullet from a Krag causes
a Anemv to InxA interest in a fight
almost as readily as oue from .the
There are many husky boys ami
young men who would be only too glad
to put up security for the safe re
turn of a Krag if it were so arranged
that one could go to a repository and
be allowed the use of one of the guns
during a vacation in the mountains.
Also this would be one good way to
acquaint many with the mechanism and
use of a military rifle, who' will never
get that education in any other man
ner. True, the War Department sells these
rifles at a very modest figure to mem-'
bers of civilian rifle clubs, by which
means a person can secure for his own
a brand new. unusued Krag for $6.55
and the transportation expense from
the nearest arsenal, yet the method
suggested in the first of this para
graph would, it seems to me, be pro
ductive of much better results.
If the Government would use its
Army and Navy equipment to some
where near its limit of usefulness and
apportion the amount of money that
is unnecessarily expended for newer,
yet no better, articles out to the en
listed men of the two branches of the
service, it would be a far easier mat
ter to enlist and equip a fighting force,
of men accustomed to the use of tho
equipment should aa emergency arise.
W. 1. Z'-YKK.
Early this year the Government's
plant for the production of potush from
kelp, costing $150.ono. will bo in opera
tion nt Santa Barbara, according to an
enclneer of tho department . of agriculture.