REED PRESIDENT CONDEMNS THE PAID i t Z ' it ll ii 3f UK. WILLIAM T. FOSTER, Ircsidetit of Reed College. in Atlantic Monthly for November. ATHLETICS are conducted either for education or for business. The old distinction between ama teur and professional athletics is of little use. "When athletics are conducted for ed ucation the aims are these three: (1) to develop all the students and faculty physically and to maintain health; (2) to promote moderate recreation, in the spirit of joy, as a preparation for study rathep than as a substitute for study: a) to form habits and inculcate ideals of right living. When athletics are conducted for business the aims, are these three: (1) to win games to defeat another person or group being the chief end; (2) tc make money as It if impossible other wise to carry on atHetics as business: (3) to attain individual or group fame and notoriety. These three, which are the controlling aims of intercollegiate athletics, are also the aims of horse racing, prizefighting and professional basebal Two Purponett Contra Med. - These two sets of aims are in sharp and almost complete conflict. Roughly speaking, success in attaining the aims of athletics a. education is inversely proportional to success in attaining the ai'ns of athletics as business. In tercollegiate athletics today are for business. The question is pertinent whether it is a legitimate function of schools and colleges to promote ath letics as business. .Nearly all that may be sard on this subject ahout colleges applies to sec ondary schools. The lower schools, as a rule, tend to imitate the worst fea tures of intercollegiate athletics, much as young people in i raterrtities tend to imitate the empty lives of their elders that till the weary society columns of the newspapers. If the objection arises that intelcol legiate athletics have educational value, there is no one to deny it. . "Athletics for education" and "athletics for busi ness" aro general terms, used through out this ciscussion in the sense already defined. ;. Many Believed Neglected. Exceptions there may be. Only the main tendencies are 'here set fortn. The whole discussion is based on my observations at no less than 100 uni versities and colleges in 38 states dur ing the past five years. Opposed to the three educational aims are the aims of athletics as busi ness winning games, making money and getting advertised. To achieve these ends the dominant Idea is excessive physical training for a few. especially those who need it least, to the neglect of the many, es pecially those who need it most. Th; coach is the embodiment of this ideal; it is the first article of his creed; he succeeds in the work of managing ath letics for business to the extent that ho neglecs athletics for education. The ' ends of intercollegiate athletics are best j served by the neglect of those In great- ! est physical need. ! AllliiKton Rfinark Quoted. In our country we often quote the remark of the Duke of Wellington, that Waterloo was won on the playing srouuds of Kton. It is well for us to observe that the Duke of Wellington did not maintain that Waterloo was won on ihe grandstands of Eton. A graduate of Cambridge University, England, on a visit to Syracuse Uni versity inquired how many crews there were. "Three, possibly fcur," was the an swer. "Is that so?" said he. "At Cambridge, in my day. we had 105." At some collores all students are re quired, to pay fees for the support of intercollegiate athletics. The biUs are rendered and colltcted by the college, with tuition and laboratory ciiarges, but students are not required to-participate in games for their own benefit. Thus, in such colleges, athletics foi business are compulsory; athletics for education are elective. I-ok of Grounds Condemned. If our universities had grown up with the ideal of athletics for educa tion they would not have been content with athletics by proxy. What do we nnd? One university with 3000 a omen students and no playground for women, another university with 5000 students and less than 40 acres of campus in fact, only a fev large universities in all America with fields sufficient for conducting athletic games in the inter ests of the bodily health and develop ment of all their students. When we add to all this the fact that the ideals of athletics for the select few are ant igoniblic to the ideals of ath letics for everybody, we understand why. as a matter of fact. Intercollegiate athletics have failed to promote the in terests of athletics. But intercollegiate athletics are everywhere defended on the ground v.JZ 7h,zr " . jT I X; I sJrrrrC Acya az'e cr. 1 - i 11 till ' . v H r r x I il - '.-s- j" If, 4 jAjtfitLi.. I'l M'-.TiV;.;. ' ..i.Z,, . ilV ' - If sssw-- I lfefPKfigpjail , ' :ilife5:r;---tv- ,;--.-;.; I' h that only by such contests can interest in athletics be maintained. The theory is that boys from 16 to 25 years of age cannot be induced to play out-of-door games for fun or for their bodiiy de velopment, but will play if there Is any hope of "making a varsity team." This theory, is flimsy. In the first place, it is sn affront to youth. A boy, un spoiled by athletics for business, would rush that theory off the gridiron. In the second place, the theory is in consistent with known facts. A "busi ness proposition' coach can quickly eliminate the greater part of a student body as unfit for his purposes. Although the present system of ath letics by proxy has had unbounded op portunity to demonstrate what it can do for the entire student body and has proved, on the whole, a failure, ath letics have had no fair opportunity in America to demonstrate what they can do without the hindrance of business aims. ' Educational Experiment Favored. This, alone, is a sufficient reason why a few institutions should experi ment. No theory of education at vari ance with popular practice can ever be tested while institutions are confined j to imitation.. The fact that all schools pursue a given policy in athletics or in anything else- does not prove them i right. We all know that, but we find J It difficult to act in accord with our , belief. The history of education is one long story of educational procedure univer sally accepted as sound by one genera tion and condemned by another. Doubt less the schools of this generation teach various matters besides our ab surd spelling, which will some day be discarded. Doubtless we are worship ing some false gods: one of these may be Intercollegiate athletics. Why not overthrow it and see what happens? Nearly Every Student Participate. Reed College has ventured to do so by adopting this settled policy out-of-door games in moderation for all stu dents and faculty, especially those who need them most, instead of the ex cesses of intercollegiate athletics for a few students, especially those who need them least. This plan for athletics was adopted by Reed in 1910. when there were no buildings, no students, no fac ulty, no alumni, no traditions. Last year every student in Reed Col lege, men and women alike, with but six exceptions, took part in athletics for recreation, health and development. Last Spring 60 per cent of the men of the college played baseball in a series of intramural games; 95 per cent were engaged in some form of out-of-door games. About 74 per cent of the men and about 60 per cent of the women took part in some form of athletics five or six days out of six. All but seven of the total of 234 students took part in athletics at least two days out of the six. CoMt of Systems Compared. How much does it cost the student body to enjoy athletics by participation instead of by proxy? Let us ask first what it costs students to pay for inter collegiate games in institutions famous for grandstand athletics including membership tickets, subscriptions and special assessments to say nothing of taking trips and making bets to "sup port the team." Is it less than $5 per student? In some colleges it is more than 520. At Reed College last year there were series of football games, basketball games, baseball games, track meets, tennis tournaments, hand ball tournaments, games of volleyball, gymnastic exhibitions, a tug-of-war and other athletics. There were not a dozen students in the college who failed to participate in these games. In payment for all this the average amount collected from the students and expended, according to the report of the treasurer of the athletic associa tion, was 16 cents. Total Expense 16 Cents. No money for trainers, coaches, ban ners, badges, silver cups or other trinkets, no money for training tables, railroad fares and costly uniforms to be carried away as trophies; no money for advertising, grandstands, brass bands and, rallies. The "necessities" of athletics for business would have cost the Reed College Athletic Association $16 per student instead of 16 cents. Fortunately, it is the unnecessary ex penditures that pile up the burdens "the foolish squandering of money," as Coach Courney says. The amount that need be spent annually on athletics in the interests of the health, recreation and character of all the students comparatively small. The economical policy is athletics for everybody; the wasteful policy is athletics by proxy, Almost invariably -the arguments of students in favor of intercollegiate games stress the business aims and ig nore all others. "Win games! Increase the gate receipts! Advertise the college! These are the usual slogans. Thus THE SUNDAY OREGONIAX. PORTLAND, OCTOBER 31, 1915. Drl Foster, in Atlantic Monthly, Says Colleges Must Break Away 1 M ' 8 I i I , n' "1 .... N S'tirissn . oeffa . vo . I -SIT- .'. u V S " o 34y.- or nstr-cicCton Sorjll 5 u Li - ? " - i i I the editors of one coilegre paper In the State of Washington reprimand the fac ulty for even hesitating to approve a trip of 1500 miles for a single gams of football. Importance Considered Small. It is' a typical football argument. It attempt to prove the necessity of the proposed trip by showing that It would tend to perpetuate the thin the value of -which is under dispute. In like vein the students of Cornell complain because the faculty did not grant an additional holiday in connec tion with the Pennsylvania football :ame. Theirs is the familiar cry 'Support the tea-m! Win games! Adver tise the college." After all, how important is this end for which such sacrifices are made? To hear the yelling of 20.000 spectators one might suppose this aim to be the only one of srreat importance in the life of the university. .Yet, who wins, who loses, is a matter of but momen tary concern to any except a score or two of participants; whereas, if there is one thing that should characterize a university it is its cheerful sacrifice of temporary for permanent gains in Dr. Eliot's tine phrase, its devotion to the durable satisfactions of life. S7,tem Declared Curse. The making of money through inter collegiate athletics continues a curse not only to institutions, but as well to individual players. - Only innocence or blindness need - prevent American colleges from seeing that the rules which aim to maintain athletics on what is called an "amateur" basis, by forbidding players to receive pay in money, are worse than useless because, while failing to prevent men from play ing for pay, they breed deceit and hypocrisy. There are many ways of paying players for their services. Only one of these, and that the most honor able, is condemned. Hundreds of boys know that they are paid to win games and keep silent; they -are hired both as athletes and hypocrites. The sporting editor of one of the leading daily papers said recently: "It is well known that the Northwest col leges, are at present simply outbidding one another in their lesire to get the best athletes. . Money is used like waiter. It is a mystery - where they get it, but they do." Gate Reeelpta "Hoot ( Evil." Xo eligibility committee knows where all the money comes from or even has the right to question motives. But the objectionable motives themselves can be eliminated by one act. With the subordination of winning games as the chief end in athlellcs falls also the money-making aim and its attendant evils. All the serious evils of college ath letics center about the gate receipts, the grandstand and the pakl coach. Yet the aim of nearly every college appears to be to lasten these evils .upon the In stitution by means of a costly concrete stadium or bowl and by means of more and more money for coaches. When the alumni come forward, to "support v 5 ts thelr team" tney usually make matters worse. The extent to which interest in ath letics lu deadened by paid' coaches was Hhown last Spring when a track team from one university, after traveling more than 25" miles at the expense of the student body to compete with the team of another institution, took off their running shoes and went home be cause the coaches could not agree on the number of men who should partici pate 1n the games. Paid Coach Blamed. Could there be a more abject sacri fice of the educational purposes nf ath. lelics? Consider the spectacle. A glo rious afternoon in Spring, a perfect playground, complete equipment in readiness, two score of eager youth in need of the health and recreation that come from sport pursued in the fine spirit of sport. Could anything keep them from playing? Only the spirit of modern American intercollegiate ath letics and the embodiment of that spirit, the paid coach, who knows that he can commit but one crime that of losing a. contest. The athletic policy of many an insti tution is determined by a commercial aim the supposed needs of advertis ing, much as the utterances of many a newspaper are dictated by the busi ness manager. But' does the advertis ing gained through intercollegiate ath letics injure or aid colleges? At one railroad station 1 was greeted by a real estate agent who offered to sell me "on easy terms a. lot in the most beautiful and rapidly growing city in America." (Thus I safely- cover its identity.) Advertising Considered Costly. Among the attractions he mentioned the local college. He was proud of it; he said it had the best baseball team in the state. . Apart from' that he had not an intelligent idea about the in stitution or any deaire for ideas. The only building he had ;visited was the grandstand. He could not name a member of the faculty or a course of Instruction. College advertising which gets no farther than this is paid for at exorbitant rates. ; The people of Tacoma discovered re recently that college athletics con ducted as a business are too costly. They brought college students 1403 miles to play a football game at Ta coma on Thanksgiving day for tha benefit of the Belgian refugees. Th charitable object or the .game was widely advertised and there was a large attendance. After they had paid the expenses of the "amateur" teams, the coaches and the advertising they announced that there was nothing left tor the Belgians. . The condicta frequently arising be tween ' faculties and students over questions of Intercollegiate athletics are the natural outcome of the inde pendent control of a powerful agency with three chief aims winning Karnes, making money and getting adver tised which are antagonistic to the From "Athletics for Business. ;.. ... "wy. , fv .r?ss ik v.-. ..... . "" t: .- jK ., ....tie. 0 rt-1- iitmmr lfmrmrnTifiii chief legitimate ambitions of a uni versity faculty. No self-respecting head of a depart ment of psychology would tolerate the presence in the university of persons working in his field, in no way subject to him and with aims subversive of the aims of the department. No professor of physical education should tolerate a similar condition in his department. It is one of the hopeful signs in America that several of the -men best qualified to conduct athletics as education have declined to consider university posi tions unless they could have - control of stude its, teams. coaches. alumni committees, grandstands, fields, finances and everything else necessary to res cue athletics from the clutches of com mercialism. . I have a copy of the letter of one of the ablest teachers in America, declin ing to accept a certain university po sition under the usual conditions, but outlining a plan whereby, as the real head of the department of physical ed ucation, he might begin a new chapter in the history of American athletics. IMan Finally Rejected. His plan was rejected not because it had any defects a3 a system of educa tional athletics, but solely because it would cause a probable decline in vic tories, gate receipts and newspaper space. That university continued the traditional dual contest of coaches and physical directors with their conflict ing ideals. Recently I received a letter from the professor of physical education who did accept the position, himself one of the aolest athletes among its grad uates, declaring that he would not longer attempt the impossible In an institution that deliberately prostituted athletics for commercial ends. We hear much about the value of in tercollegiate games for the "tired busi ness man" who needs to get out of doors and watch a sport that will make him forget his troubles. It is true that for him a game of baseball may be a therapeutic spectacle. Xeed of Spectators Question. The question is whether institutions of learning should conduct their ath letics or any other department for the benefit of spectators. Doubtless uni versity courses in history could pro vide recreation for the general public and make money If instructions were given wholly by means of motion pic tures. But such courses would hard ly satisfy the needs of all students. Is it any less important that departments of physical education should be con ducted primarily for all students rather than for spectators? We do not insist that banks, rail roads, factories, department stores and Legislatures jeopardize their main functions in order to provide recrea tion for the tired business man. Uni versities are institutions of equal im portance to society, insofar as they at tend to their main purposes. Athletics for the benefit of the grandstand must be conducted. &s business; athletics for ! V si COACH y i 9 Sfi the benefit of student;. V.. ducted as education. It is when v.-e rightly estimate the possibilities of athletics as education that the present tyranny of athletics as business becomes intolerable. Is it not an f-nomaly that those in charge of our higher institutions of learning should .'cave athletic activities, which are of such great potential educational value for all students, chiefly under the control of students, alumni, coaches, newspapers and spectators? Usually the coach is engaged by the students, paid for by the students and responsible only to them. He is not a. member of the faculty or in any way responsible to the faculty. The fac ulty has charge of the college as an educational institution: athletics arc for business . and therefore separately controlled. Why not abandon faculty direction of Latin? Students, alumni and newspapers are as well qualified to elect a professor of latin and admin ister the department in the interests f education as they are to elect coaches and administer athletics in the inter ests of education. Faculties Agree In Objection, He Says. A few of the more notable coaches of the country are aware of the possi bilities of athletics controlled by the faculty for educational purposes. Mr. Courtney, a Cornell coach, spoke to the point: "If athletics are not a good thing. " he said, "they oujrht to be abolished. If they are a good thing for the boys, it would feem to me wise for the uni versity to take over and control abso lutely every branch of sport; do away with this boy management; stop this foolish squandering of money and see that the athletics of the university are run in a rational way. Have I exaggreated the evils of in tercollegiate athletics? Possibly I have. Exceptions should be cited. But I am convince I that college faculties agree with me in my main contentions. My impression is that at least three fourths of the teachers I have met the country ever believe that the Amerlcar college would better serve its highest purposes if interccllegiate athletics were no more. . At a recent dinner of 10 deans and presidents they stood up one by one and declared confidentially that they would abolish intercollegiate athletics if they could withstand the pressure of students and alumni. Tenm Incidental Is View. Is it therefore necessary for all in stitutions to give up intercollegiate athletics permanently? Probably not. Let our colleges first take whateve measures are necespary to make ath letics yield their educational values to all students and all teachers. If in tercollegiate athletics can then be con ducted as incidental and contributory to the main purposes of athletics, well and good. But first of all it must be decisively settled, which aims are to dominate those of business or those o education. And it will, be difficult. if not next to impossible, for a college already in the clutches of commercial ism to retain the system 'and at the same time cultivate a spirit antagonis tic to it. Athletic Suspension Proposed. Probably the- quicker and surer way would be to suspend all intercollegiate athletics for a college generation by agreement of groups of colleges, dur 'ing which period every effort should be made to establish the tradition of ath letics for education. If an institution could not survive such a period of transition, it is a fair question whether the institution has any reason for sur. vivaL Typically American though our fran tic devotion to intercollegiate athletics may be, we shall not long tolerate a system which provides only a costly, injurious and excessive regime of phy sical training for a' few students, es pecially those who need it least. The call today is for inexpensive, healthful and moderate exercise, for all students, especially those who need it most. Col leges must sooner or later heed that call; their athletics must be for educa tion, not for business. Warden Saves 2 Doe Driven by Hound Into Surf. Hanters Spot Official First and Re main I nder Cover While He lilves Crame Chance to Escape, - NEWPORT. Or., Oct. Za. (Special.) An incident has just come to light whereby the timely appearance of a game warden saved the lives of two doe that had been chased into the ocean surf by dops. Last week as Game Warden Emery was hiking along the beach near Otter Kock, some eight miles from Newo.nT. two doe almost entirely eihauslrti rushed from the brush that lines the cliff at that point and plunged into S SYSTEM the surf. C:o:e behind followed a. hound that was gaining on the doe at every Jump till they reached the water. Baffled by the Inrolling waves and frightened by the presence of a strange man, the hound abandoned the chase and ran back into the brush. The warden kept right along on his way as though he had not seen the deer or dog. till he turned a jutting promentory which hid them from sight. He then climbed the bluff and watched the animals, thinking perhaps the hunters might appear that were run ning deer with cogs in violation of the law. While he waited the doe picked their way down the beach, just within the line of surf, till they realized that danger had passed. A few quick jumps took them to the bushes and they dis appeared. It afterwards was learned that the hunters had seen the warden and while) he was watching the deer they were watching the warden, rot daring to take a shot at their escaping quarry. The deputy was unconsciously follow ing Mr. Shoemaker's theory that an ounce of prevention is worth a pound of cure. Undue Repression Will Hurt Child's Self-Conf idence. Hnmble.ru or Diffidence Is Stern Disadvantage Should Be Treated as Dae to Sensitiveness. T CAN'T bear X herself sue that child, she gives was a remark overheard, and up to a certain point it was true. The child who is "too sure" of itself is inclined to be obnoxiously precocious. But just as obnoxious is the child who, like Uriah Heep. is always "so 'umble." Humbleness or diffidence is a stern disadvantage for any child to carry with it through life. The worm will always be trodden upon. Sometimes a child is a "worm" from sensitiveness, in which case it should be doctored until it gains confidence in itself. Bat often it h kept down, subdued, because) it is thought necessary to get rid of its "airs and graces" and bombastic be- -havior. But you can go too far with your pruning. If you chop away all those little sprouting twigs of natural pre cocity, you will take away the protec tion which nature lias provided for the career of that individual soul. If you drive away self-confidence, you admit incompetence and a tendency to "lean. " which you will find deplorably difficult to eradicate later on. The child who is sure of itself, who has a little bit of temper, Is the child who Will get on in life. If it hasn't got them naturally, let your child cul tivate- a few "airs and graces." they will never harm, but will certainly ben efit it later on, for it is always safe to remember the world will do any pumice) stoning of its character that may be ' necessary. DEER SCARED HALTS AUTO Dazzled by Headlight Animal Fails to Get Out of Car's Way. NEW YORK. Oct 22. Archibald .1. McClure. of New York, had a narrrrw , escape on n lonely road several mile out of Lakewood, N. o., when he ditched his automobile to avoid running into a deer, that blocked his progress. He was unable to get the machine out or the ditch and had to walk in the storm to the Laurel House, where he is a. guest. Mr. McClure was traveling at a fair rate of speed when the deer came from the woods only a few rods before him. It appeared to be frightened by the glare of the headlights and stood still until after the brake had been applied and the car ditched. EGG LIKE PEANUT IS LAID Would Clicken Hatched From It Have Had Wasp IVaist? ' INDIANAPOLIS, Oct. 23. There eotne question as to which of his hens had such a grotesque idea of what an eggr should look like, but anyway an eg? that bore the Kereral contour of a peanut and is a tit less than two inches from tip to tip was found in Robert Arnold's hen roost here. The kind of chicken that ultimately w nuld have emanated from, such :n will remain a matter of mystery, for the e-r wan eaten. But Arnold now It.-"!.' iuv -it would have been a towi with a wasp-lik waist.