The Sunday Oregonian. (Portland, Ore.) 1881-current, June 15, 1913, SECTION SIX, Page 3, Image 71

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Gitaterlliir lorTRe farmer
h Aim Of New Movement
WASHINGTON, June 10. An Mea,
immeasurable In Its value, so It
is said, has been brought Into
the Department of Agriculture by
David Franklin Houston, the new Sec
retary. Harnessed and put to work. It
will change, prophets declare, the as
pects and elements of life among moat
of the American people.
Take a large black and white map of
yeur own state; crowd It with red pin
head dots up to the edges of all the
cities and towns; then imagine that
every dot Is the center of an energetio
and efficient farming- community the
powerhouse that is to give impetus to
each human being In the neighborhood.
Such, then. Is the Idea in the rough.
It Is a mighty and a revolutionary
thought. Circles of activity, happiness
and prosperity of modernity, in other
words lapping one another up and
down and clear across the United
States! Figures are too feeble with
which to compute the results. Loneli
ness cannot be set down In columns and
totaled up; nor can the heartaches and
losses of unprofitable drudgery be es
timated in dollars and cents.
"What," I had asked Secretary Hous
ton, "is the most important agricul
tural question of the day" The adjec
tive might have been "social," or it
might have been "financial." and the
answer, I dare say, would have been
the same.
"If the people of the city do not co
operate with the people of the country
to make rural life worth while and ef
ficient," Secretary Houston declares,
"they will have to leave the city and
go to farming themselves In order to
obtain the necessaries of life."
Something Serious Is the 'latter.
Such is the unpleasant prophecy of a
cool, thoughtful and highly-educated
American. Secretary Houston Is no
zealot, called in from the hay field
to glorify a class and to inspire bul
letins about phosphates and swine;
neither is he a politician with his eye
and his mind focalized on the agri
cultural vote. To the contrary, he Is
a student and a wise and observing
man. Political science has been his
specialty. The history of the human
race in its march out of savagery is
one of the pictures In his mind. Study
has familiarized him with all the symp
toms of society. The United States, he
believes. Is seriously out of balance.
"Back to the land," therefore, as he
reads the years ahead, may become a
command to almost every one Instead
of remaining an Impracticable and un
heeded suggestion to clerks and de
pendent women and to professional lets
who have misjudged their aptitudes.
Obviously, something must be done
to tip the country back to a normal
and necessary equilibrium. Men In fac
tories, mines and offices must have
food to eat and clothing to wear. Thus
runs the philosophy of Secretary Hous
ton, who, standing away from a na
tion of money-getters, has the genius
to think out some of the problems of
his countrymen. He has lived In North
Carolina, South Carolina, Massachu
setts, Missouri and Texas. He has been
president of a college and two large
universities. He has taught Latin,
Greek and political economy. He has
traveled the Middle West and under
stands the people and the country. He
is no sensationalist, clamoring for pub
licity; no rhetorician, in the habit of,
getting intoxicated on his own vocab
ulary. As he sits across the desk from
me. wearing a new brown suit and a
new red necktie and smoking a thin
cigar most leisurely, I am Impressed
by his serenity, simplicity and sincer
ity. He is a great scholar and a force
ful and up-to-date personality.
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The fundamentals of agricultural life
in the United Staters are wrong, he says.
One of them, at least, when described,
makes " a hideous story of waste and
inefficiency." Such were his convic
tions before Woodrow Wilson as Iced
him to become Secretary of Agricul
ture, at the recommendation. I venture
to guess, of Walter PL Page, once edi
tor of World's Work and now Ambassa
dor to Great Britain. Houston and PtTge
have been. Intimate friends for 20
years. They have worked together in
the same laboratory of rural ideas.
Both, too, were born in North Caro
lina. When Dr. Houston came to Washing
ton from St. Louis he brought all his
mental baggage along, including his
great thought of forming agricultural
communities into units of social and
occupational activity. The thought has
already taken concrete form in the es
tablishment of what Is hereafter to be
known as the "rural organization serv
ice." "What is the most Important agri
cultural question of the day?" Secre
tary Houston repeated. "Let me an
swer you In my own fashion. So far,
the states and the National Government
have been giving attention to prob
lems of production. We have wanted
to know how staple crops might be in
creased. More and better corn, cotton,
wheat and hay on the same acreage
has been the aim of scientific agricul
turists. The results which have been
accomplished in that direction are won
derful. We have learned how to pro
duce. Now we must learn how to mar
ket our crops. Therefore, organization
Is necessary.
"Co-operation is a word I dislike.
Many co-operative enterprises are fakes.
They are no more than private combi
nations run for personal profit. Uplift
Is another misused and overworked
word. Besides, it Is offensive. Any
man resents being told that he needs
uplifting. Co-operation, therefore, as
it is often practiced and iff coming to
be understood, is not to be applied de
scriptively to the movement we are
about to undertake. Organization Is
the term to be employed in connection
with our efforts not organization which
looks toward holding crops back from
market and Influencing prices, but
which promotes potentiality and im
proves conditions of rural living.
The Marketing of Farm Crops.
"The problem is very large and com
plex. Many things are to be done. X
have found the man, however, I am
sure, who can successfully initiate the
work. He is Dr. Thomas Nixon Carver,
professor of political economy at Har
vard University. He was born in Iowa.
Needing money to pay his way through
college, he started a milk route, which
he sold at his graduation to some one
else who had to earn an education. He
won degrees at Cornell, Johns Hopkins,
Oberlin and the University of South
ern California. Harvard has Moaned'
him to us, I might say, and we are
immensely pleased to get his services.
"Our first attention Is to be given to
the marketing of farm products. I
glad on coming here to find that Con
gress had taken a squint at that great
question by making an appropriation
of $50,000 with which the Secretary of
Agriculture Is to carry on an investi
gation and 'to acquire and diffuse
among the people of the United States
useful information on subjects con
nected with the marketing and distrib
uting of farm products.' But the sale
of produce is only one aspect of the
movement toward rural organization.
"Many things have been done in
spots throughout the country to better
conditions among agriculturists. These
are to be studied and knowledge of
them carried to the farmers of all sec
tions. The vision that comes into the
minds of those working to develop the
rural organization service includes
good schools, competent doctors, places
of amusement, facilities for borrowing
money at a reasonable rate of Interest,
systems of sanitation and, indeed, all
the advantages and conveniences found
in our cities and large villages. We
see, also, a centralized church for each
farming center, and not three or four
weak congregations battling for exist
ence and starving their ministers."
"President Charles W. Dabney, of the
University of Cincinnati," I interrupted,
"says that although eight-tenths of the
preachers and teachers are reared in
the country, the state puts its best
schools in the city, and the church
usually sends its dullest preachers to
the country."
Rural Schools Are a Failure.
"I have said more than once, and
publicly at that," Secretary Houston
replied, "that our rural schools are a
National failure. More Americans
live in the country than In villages,
towns, and cities. Seventeen million
children are enrolled in the schools of
the United States. Sixty-seven per cent
of the enrollment is in the rural re
gions. The expenditure for each pupil
in city schools amounts to $33 a year.
The expenditure in the country 1b
only $13.
"Country schools lack funds, compe
tent teachers and equipment. Besides,
the buildings are small and ugly and
the surroundings unsanitary. Usually
the schools are politically controlled.
We often ask why parents are willing
to have their children leave the land
on which they were born and move
into town. The rural organization serv
ice will attempt to show that country
boys and girls should have the same
opportunities for as good an education
as city boys and girls receive.
"Three things, I have said In dis
cussing the school phase of rural life,
constitute a, constant source of won
der to me first, why most teachers
continue to teach; second, why com
munltles continue to employ them on any
terms, and, third, why a man who has
any regard for the future of his chil
dren will remain In the rural district,
as it exists today, if he can possibly
get out. Teachers In the country are
inefficient because they are underpaid.
What the Thinking Former Sec.
"If the farmer is a thinking and observing-
man he knows that In our econ
omy he Is estimated ordinarily In but
two ways- first, as a person who grows
things to sell and has need for things
he can't raise, and, secondly, as a cit
izen, who, under the law, has a right
to vote. He Is at the base of our civ
ilization, but he understands that ty
phoid fever, malaria, tuberculosis, and
diphtheria are more prevalent in the
country relatively than In the cities.
Sanitarians don't concern themselves
about him except when his milk or
his beef or his vegetables endanger the
health of city folk. When he takes up
his newspaper he reads of the efforts
of good men to reform municipal gov
ernment. Mayors, faithless to the peo
ple, are driven from office. Members
Of the councils of cities are sometimes
arrested and prosecuted.
"And then the farmer remembers
that nowhere in the country, seem
ingly, is any one interested In the pur
ity and efficiency of county govern
ment. The farmer lives under a county
government. His taxes are collected
by a county officer and are spent by
other county officers. So at last, if
he Is a man of reflection, he realizes
that everything Is being done for cities
and scarcely anything- for the country.
He perceives that we have over
stimulated one part of our population
and the smaller part, by the way to
the neglect of the food -producing class.
He talks all these matters over at
home. And by and by he blesses his
son on the station platform and re
turns to the farm alone. No, it is not
hard work which Is depopulating our
rural districts."
"Do you think that business men will
(Concluded on Page 7.)
HAD not the automobile suddenly
appeared upon the scene and be
come so adaptable to useful pur
poses as actually to threaten the near
extinction of the horse, it 1b probable
that a large portion of the horses of the
future would be striped they would
be of mixed horse and zebra blood.
Even now the "zebrold" threatens to
become a formidable competitor of the
Missouri mule. Zebras have been found
to be not only much stronger than
horses, pound for pound weight, but
also immune to most of the diseases
which attack horses, while the experi
ments which have been thus far carrier
on indicate that the offspring or crosses
between zebras and horses are like
wise tough and disease free.
Both zebras and zebrolds can thrive
and grow fat on scrub and trash at
which any horse who was not actually
starving would turn up his nose in dis
dain. They have lived on and adapted
themselves to the barren karoos of
Africa where the horse who is aban
doned or perhaps escapes from the
hunter soon perishes.
The animal breeders of the Depart
ment of Agriculture were immediately
impressed with the splendid confor
mation, large size, and great beauty
of the big Qrevy zebra which was pre
sented to President Roosevelt by King
Menellk of Abyssinia, and which found
a home at the National Zoological Park
at Washington. The zebra was bred
to donkeys and the resulting hybrids
are apparently great successes, a half
dozen of colts and miles now poking
their noses over the fences at visitors
at the Government breeding farm at
Beltsvllle, Mi
A pair of the hybrids were broken
to harness, but seemed to inherit some
of the bad traits of the mother they
were hard-mouthed and very stubborn.
There has been spirited competition
among the various circus owners for
the pair, however, as much as $1000
having been offered for them. So far
as marking are concerned they show
somewhat fainter reproductions of the
strongly marked black and white
stripes of the zebra stallion, but their
parentage is evident. They are, how
ever, as hardy, apparently, and endure
the climate of the United States as well
as the donkeys.
The striking feature of the cross
breeding is that the hybrids show a
decided improvement in other respects
over both parents in action, conforma
tion and disposition. The Grevy stal
lion weighs 800 pounds and is 13
AViRtt. M
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hands high, and while he is a beauty,
he is by no means affectionate; on the
contrary, he is vicious. The average
weight of the donkey dams is 550
pounds and 12 hands high. The weight
of the hybrids when only a year old
was 500 pounds and they stood 12 hands
After many years of experiments tne
breeders have been able to secure a
cross between the zebra and the horse.
This hybrid is not yet a year old. but
in the opinion of George M. Rommel,
animal husbandman of the Department
of Agriculture, It promises to be at least
as good, if not superior, to the mule.
mS Among
men r
Terse Tales From Humorous Pens
A i HI 1 1 : RJEM1NDEK.
Dr. Simon Flexner, the noted phy
sician of Now York, is a foe to war
tare, and at a recent dinner he said:
"A friend of mine was telling me
about the horrors of the war in the
Balkans. One Incident lingers In my
"Three young surgeons, during a
terrible battle, were working in an ex
posed and dangerous place. The gen
eral sent an orderly to them. The or
derly galloped up with bowed head
amid a rain of bullets and demanded
" 'What are you here for? The gen
eral wants to know what the deuce
you're here for?
A young surgeon, covered with
blood, looked up from the prostrate
form he was bending over and with a
smile h answered:
"Tell the general we are here to
remind you all of civilization In the
midst of this brutality."
"Who's that impressive - looking
woman over yonder?"
"That's Mrs. Peckum. She's a re
markably strong-minded woman, and
they do say that she commands a very
large salary."
"How does she earn It?"
"She doesn't earn it. Her husband
earns it and she commands it." Puck.
Life says:
Noise was not Invented by the Amer
ican people, but they have done more
to develop it than anyone else. If you
doubt this, go to a dinner party given
by an American society woman. The
manufacture of noise in most countries
Is produced by natural causes. In
America it is the work of specialists.
There are more people making a liv
ing out of noise in this country than
anywhere else on earth. Scientists are
constantly trying to invent new noises.
We depend as much upon new fresh
noises as we do upon new novels, new
plays and new adulterations.
Noise consists of vibrations, ar
ranged in the noisiest way. A loud
noise is not to be despised, but the
test of all noises Is the one that is
different from any other we have ever
heard. Huge factories are devoted to
the production of noise. It is canned,
me tall zed and strung on wires. Noth
ing succeeds like noise. When we
reach the mlHenoum we shall live on
noiseless noise. Hasten the dayl
"There's a dead horse on Kosciusko
street," announced a Brooklyn patrol
man, coming Into the station after his
day on duty.
"Well make out a report," ordered
the sergeant.
"Why, you make out th,e reports,
don't you, sergeant J"
"I don't. Make your own reports.
You've passed your civil service exam
inations.' Mike equipped himself with pen and
began scratching laboriously. Present
ly the scratching stopped. "Sergeant,'
he asked, "how do you spell Koscius
ko?" "G'wan. You're writing that report."
An Interval of silence then:. "Ser
geant, how do you spell Kosciusko
"Stop bothering me," the sergeant or.
dered. "I'm no information bureau."
Pretty soon the patrolman got up,
clapped on his helmet and started for
the door.
"Where you goln'7" demanded the
"I'm goin'," said the policeman, "to
drag that dead horse around into
Myrtle avenue." Everybody's.
Quips and Flings
Newed Did you spend so much
money as this before I married you?
Mrs. Newed Why, yes.
Newed Then I can't understand why
your father went on so when I took
you away from him.
"We are going to give a series of
bridge parties for the poor. I love to
do things for the poor."
"So do I. I love to play bridge for
them." -Milwaukee News.
Customer I see you have fresh eggs
at 35 cents and extra fresh eggs at 40
cents. Is there much difference?
Grocer Well, ma'am, the extra fresh
ones were laid in the early morning
when the hens themselves were fresh.
Naybor I say, Subbubs, did I bring
back that lawn mower you lent me last
Subbubs No. you didn't.
Naybor That's too bad! I just came
over to borrow it again.
"What Is your attitude on the tariff?"
"Something," replied Senator Sor
ghum, "like that of a man who Is walk
ing a tight rope." Washington Star.
Heck Someone calls the tongue an
unruly member.
Peck In our house It's the ruling
"Will you marry me?"
"No, a thousand times, no!
"Well, will you if I ask you
sand and one times?"
An Irish doctor sent this bill to a
lady: "To curing your husband till he
died, 23."
"Do you charge for bread and but
ter in this restaurant?"
"No, sir."
"Then gimme some." Life.
Some men are great successes in
making money, but terrible failures in
selecting ways to spend it. Washing
ton Star.
Landlady Will you take tea or cof-
Boarder Whichever you call it.
London Opinion.
"Have you hot water in your house?"
"Have I? My dear boy, I am never
out of it," Baltimore American.
Among the Poets of the Daily Press
Lives of tomcats all remind us.
After all Is said and done.
We would hate to pay Insurance
On nine lives instead of one.
Florida Times-Union.
Lives of centipedes remind us
We would all ambition lose
If we had to find the cash to
Keep a centipede In shoes.
Allentown Democrat.
Lives of elephants remind us
It would put us In a funk
If from birth till death we had to
Lug around a silly trunk.
Springfield Union.
Lives of all giraffes remind us
It would surely get our goat
If we caught a cold and had to
Stand for two yards of sore throat.
Cincinnati Enquirer,
What wizardry we have today
Is dedicated to subtraction;
Whate'er we can, we put away
With very lively satisfaction.
Bur bank has robbed the fruit of seed.
We celebrate the horseless carriage;
Some people seem to think we ned
Divorceless marriage.
We have the song without a tune,
Unmetered verse, idealess fiction;
Economists may give us soon
A social scheme devoid of friction.
At modern comedy we weep
Comedians must be unfunny;
Ah, finally, we'll have to keep
Some spendless money.
Utopia comes slow but sure;
Then we'll be beautiful and healthy.
Wise, cultured, noble, brave and pure,
Happy and talented and wealthy;
We'll cast all sin beyond the pale
And Joy In loving and in giving
"Alas!" reactionaries wail,
"What useless living!"
Chicago News.
"Cheer up! I'll have you on your feet
Within a month." said Dr. Jill.
He did my car was sold to meet
His monumental bill.
Boston Transcript.
"So, you wish to marry my daugh- "Beg pardon, sir, but you don't know "I'd give much to find a man who'd "I know why George Washington
ter?" nobody that don't want to hire a young love me for myself alone and not for never told a lie."
"Yes sir, I do. man to do nothing, don't you?' my money." "Why was that?"
"But do you think you can pay her "Yes, I do not." "How much would you give?" "He married & widow and knew there
bridge losses at the rate which she is wasn't any use trying to He to one.
accustomed to losing?" m
"Experience is the great teacher." "Some craven rascal sent him i
"Yes, but then a man oughn't to stay fernal machine."
in school all his life." "Phonograph or automobile?"
in- Captain of Police Confess, Iefty, and
there's fifty bucks In it for you.
Gunman I'm gettin' that muoh a
chapter for confessing to a magazine.