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About The Sunday Oregonian. (Portland, Ore.) 1881-current | View This Issue
THE SUNDAY OREGONTAN', PORTLAND, JULY 9, .1011.
CHERRY TREE MENACE MAY BE CHECKED
Aricolttiral Collar Experiment Station Studying Method of Flhtin ."Cherry Gummosia Which Is Said to Bo Most Destructive of All Troubles Affecting Cherry Industry in Oregon.
Nicoll, The Tailor
Great Reduction Sale
KEEPING OUR TAILORS BUSY
Suit and Extra Trousers for the Price of Suit Alone.
$25.00 to 4S.bo
Ends of bolts, just enough for Suit, or Coat and Vest,
or Trousers, at cost of material and making.
COME EARLY AND SECURE FIRST CHOICE
"We're reducing stock for stock taking. ;
NO TROUBLE TO SHOW GOODS
Patlnfarrtlon cuarantied in all caaes.
Garment to order in a day if required,
full dress and tux-do suits a pec laity.
& 11111 nL-..rT-
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ORKGON AGRICL'LiTlTIlAJ-. COL
IGii Corvallts. Or.. July S
(Special.) "Cherry gummoei.
tfast terror to cherry-growers, is being1
'made the subject of an exhaustive
tndy by the plant pathology experts
of tie Oregon Agricultural College ex
periment station, and. although they
hare not been at work very long, their
results thus far are sufficient to en
courage th b-llcf that ultimately sot
only the causes of the dread disease,
but tlx necessary cures as a ell. will be
Resitting th Importance and Inter
eat of the subject to the cherry orch
' ard growers of th state at this time,
' T. 1. Griffin, research assistant In
' plant pathology at the college, has
consented to give a preliminary re
port of his Investigation which he Is
conducting regarding the causes and
cures of the disease.
"The diseased condition of cherry
trees, commonly called "gunimosls. is
the most destructive of all the troubles
' affecting the cherry Industry In Ore
; gon." said Mr. Griffin. "No chrrry-
growing section of the state is entire
; It free from the disease, but it Is in
t the more humtd climate west of the
' Cascade Mountains that eummojlj has
r become a menace to the growing of
nisca.- Id Grave.
"Garomoels has ranseJ the loss of a
great many tree." In the rust, and many
orchards originally planted to cherrees
now contain few. If any. So seriously
' Is the disease regarded that many peo
; pie are hesitating to plant cherries,
1 although good profits are realized In
raising the fruit for the canneries.
; With the advent of pre-cooltnr and the
perfection of the pitting machine, both
' of which will extend the markets for
the rreen and dried fruit, the growers
profits will be doubled or tripled, and
If a remedy for this great drawback
to the Industry can be found. Oregon
will become as famous for cherries as
she has for her other fruits.
"The departments of plant pathology
and horticulture of the Oregon experi
ment station have been conducting an
Investigation regarding the cause and
cure of "cherry vummoels.' The In
vestigation Is not completed, but
enough Information concerning the
prevention of the disease has been ob
tained to Justify the encouragement of
the growing of the sweet cherry If
certain soil and cultural requirements
"The sour cherries are only slightly
affected by gummosia. Nearly ail of
the sweet cherries, however, are sus
ceptible to the disease this being es
pecially true of the Itlgarreau type, al
though the Blng and Lambert, which,
with the Royal Ann. are dependable
commercial varieties, when growing
under the seme conditions are appar
ently as badly diseased.
"OummHli may be called a disease,
although the gummy exudation which
characterise the trouble is simply the
external sign or symptom of a patho
logical condition of tha plant. Tha
gum originates through tha liquida
tion cf tha cell walls of abnormal m
b Tronic wood cells and tha transforma
tion of tha plastio substances that
-should he utilised In tha normal sec
ondary thickening of these cells. The
-..nf nature of the beginning of the
-u-dsnais".iao. aid. tae-pAfr cl
the stimulus that induces the trans
formation Is Imperfectly understood. It
Is certain, however, that the stimulus
that Incites the carabloi tissues to tha
formation of the predisposed cells is
caused by some unfavorable or Irritat
ing factor of environment. Hence, if
gummosls Is to be prevented, the un
favorable factors of environment must
ba sought for and removed.
Cam Exuded In Spring.
"Cherry gummosls Is characterised by
the more or less copious exudation of
gum from the trunk, branches of fruit
spurs. Beads of gum may be forced
from the ends of blighted buds. Th
gum may make Its appearance during
any season of the year, but It is most
prevalent in Spring. The first lndlca
tlon of gummosls Is usually the smooth.
glistening and often pustulated appear
ance of the bark, although the gum
masses may find free exit to the sur
face and not accumulate in blisters.
"Two forms of gummosls may be dis
tinguished on the cherry in this state,
one being localised in extent of In-
Jury, while in th other more general
ized form, the greater part of the trunk
or branch may be affected, and the
diseased area not be sharply defined.
In the localised form when the buds or
spurs are Involved, and the disease ex
tends Into the branch or body, the af
fected tissues are limited to rather
sharply defined areas surrounding th
blighted buds or spurs. In another lo
calized form th disease Is apparently
limited to the immediate vicinity of the
. "Msny various and often conflicting
theories have been advanced to explain
the cause of cherry gummosls. Gum
ming In the cherry, as In the other
stone fruits, may be Induced by wound
ing or result from the attacks of in
sects or fungi, but Its cause has been
attributed to unfavorable climatic and
soil conditions more often than to any
other factor of environment.
"It has been noted In the Willamette
Valley, as far back as 1S5J. that when
warm periods In late Winter or early
Fprtng were followed by freezing
weather, gummosls was especially
abundant. - This association of extremes
of temperature with gummosts has been
noted by many orcnardlsts who natur
ally considered it as cause and effect.
The fact, however, that the disease ap
pears every season, especially in the
localized form, in orchards of varying
locations, will not permit us to at
tribute every appearance of gummosls
to frost Injury.
Soil Is Factor.
"Unfavorable soli conditions un
doubtedly favor gummosia and it has
been noted In many orchards that th
trees growing In shallow soli or In
poorly-drained locations are mora sub
ject to th disease than those1 mora ,
favorably situated. Tha fact, again,
that gummosls occurs In orchards
growing in deep, well-drained, and ap
parently the best of cherry soil, makes
us seek still other explanations for the
"The condition known as- 'sun-scald
Is often accompanied by gumming. This
Is most destructive In young, high
headed trees, which are often girdled
by tha diseased tissues encircling th
trunks. Wounds caused by. pruning or
cultivation will often produce gum. but
th extent of such Injuries ordinarily
Is not serious.
"Gummosls has been ascribed to
cultivation or fertilisation of the ox
chard, but experience has demonstrated
that the cherry, like tha other trea
fruits, demands both of the cultural
treatments, and no harm, will result if
the tree is encouraged properly to
mature Its wood.
"Insects may Induce gum flow, as Is
shown by that resulting from the at
tacks of borers. That due to insect
Injury, however, is sporadic and easily
"Various fungi have produced gum
ming in the cherry In other oonntrtes
and places. No fungus has been de
scribed as causing cherry gummosls
In this state, although the nature of
at least two fungi which appear rather
constantly on diseased trees Is now
being Investigated by this station. A
disease of sweet cherries In Germany,
which affects trees In a manner similar
to these here, and which, like our
disease here, was attributed to frost and
soil conditions, was finally proved to
ba caused by a fungus. This fungus,
however, could not attack healthy
trees, being semi -parasitic and only
obtaining a foothold on trees weakened
through frost injury or unfavorable soil
conditions. Having established itself
as a saprophyte, the fungus would then
eneroech upon the sound tissues and
cause their destruction.
Bacteria Work Harmfully.
"A bacterial disease of cherries has
been described, from both France and
Germany, as Inducing gummosls In th
cherry. Bacteria are known to cause a
localised form of gummosls on tha
cherry In Oregon. Kecent Investiga
tions I have made proved conclusively
that a great deal. If not all, of the fruit
and bud spur blight common some sea
sons in many orchards is caused by
a bacillus. The manner of attack of
this parasite and control measures
have, as yet, net bean satlcfaotorily
worked out- '
"No certain cure for cherry gum
mosls Is known. Many growers advo
cate th cutting out of tha diseased
tissues as well as the longitudinal slit
ting of the bark of th trunk and larger
limbs. The efficiency of the latter
method Is largely problematical, as
most growers have followed no- ya L
tematic method of cutting out and in
the cases observed It had little or no
effect In stopping the disease. Cutting
out the diseased tissue, however. Is a
good sanitary practice, as it will at
least prevent wound-Infesting organ
isms from getting established. All tis
sue thus removed stfbuld be burned.
and the wounds washed with a disin
"The most certain practice or method
for preventing summosls Is the use of
resistant varieties and stocks. At the
present time all of the dependable com
merclal varieties grown are subject to
the disease, the Royal Alines and Blngs
apparently being more affected than
the Lamberts. It Is reasonable to hope
that horticulturists, by breeding and
selection, will establish resistant
strains of these varieties. If some new
sweet cherry resistant to gummosls,
having tha good qualities of the others
mentioned, is not introduced.
Mode of Care Shown.
"By the topworklng of resistant
stocks, gummosls can best be prevent
ed. Two stocks are commonly used for
DroDaratlng sweet cherries, the Ma-
haleb. and the Mazxard. Prunus Ma-
haleb Is a species distinct from the
sweet varieties, and, as a wild seedling.
Is native to Europe. Tha Mazzard is a
wild, black seedling, olosely related to
tha oultivaled sweet varieties, and Is
found growing wild In the Eastern
United States, although originally av
native of Europe.
"Experience has proved that the Mas
sard Is the better stock for the culti
vated sweet cherries, but as the treea
are budded low In the nursery the main
body and orotch of tha tree Is of wood
susceptible to gummosls. It has been
found that the Mazzard fs Immune, or
nearly so. to gummosls and as the seed
lings will form straight, smooth-bodied
trees, which can be headed low or high,
as desired. If tha limbs of these seed
lings be budded or grafted, the dis
ease Is eliminated from the body of the
tree. The branches of the seedlings
can be either budded or grafted. The
best method is to plant the seedlings in
the orchard In the same manner as or
dinary nursery stock, and when three
years old, insert buds of the desired
varieties into the branches about 15
to SO Inches above tha crotch. Graft
ing usually results In rougher unions
than budding, out win give gooa re
sults if well done.
"Th branches resulting from such
top worked trees may become affected
later, but at the worst, the disease will
result In tha loss of a branch Instead of
tha ioea- of the- entire tree; and raw ,
branches can be started if one becomes
diseased, by inserting another bud or
scion in the seedling branch.
"Care.should be used In. the selection
of stocks and scions. Many growers
have mistakenly planted seedlings
grown from sweet cherry pits or have
transplanted the seedlings that appear
under uncultivated trees, thinking they
were Mazzards. This results, of course
In having the body of the tree com
posed of wood susceptible to gummosls.
Tha buds or scions should be obtained
from trees free from gummosls.
"No one should hesitate to plant
sweet cherries on a commercial scale
because of gummosls, providing he has
good soil and will plan resistant stocks
on which to topwork his desired vari
E. A. Welch, of Medford, was at the
J. Henry Wallace, of Vancouver, B.
C, Is at the Bowers.
Mr. and Mrs. H. W. Gwlnn, of Wasco,
are at the Cornelius. -
George W. Wright, an attorney of
Albany, is at the Imperial.
A. G. Alllngham. a merchant of
Frlneville, Is at the Perkins.
Rev. Adolph Ruppe, of Astoria, Is
registered at the Cornelius.
E. P. Noonan and family, of Astoria;
are registered at the Imperial.
Mr. and Mrs. L. D. Firebaugh. of
Hood River, are at the Bowers.
John Lambert. a manufacturers'
agent of Seattle, is at the Bowers.
H. S. Gila, a Salem commission mer
chant, was at the Imperial yesterday.
Mr. and Mrs. U. B. Johnston, of Rose-
burg, are registered! at the Imperial.
Mr. and Mrs. J. G. Earl, of Hood
River, are registered at the Imperial.
Mr. and Mrs. E. C. Truesdell, of Cen
tralis were at the Perkins yesterday.
Percy P. Brush, a prominent Kelso at
torney, was a Portland visitor yesterday.
E. B. Hogue. of Sllverton, was among
yesterday's arrivals at the Cornelius.
Frank A. Moore, of Walla "Walla,
Wash., registered at the Oregon yes
terday. 3. T. Hayden. a merchant of Walla
Walla, "Wash, registered at the Oregon
Charles H. Gloss, a merchant of Cor-
vallis, was registered at the Perkins
George W. Warren, a prominent
stockbreeder of Warrenton, accompa
nied, by brother, 2. L. .Warren, f (
VILLIAM JERREM3' SONS
103 Third Street
Astoria, was at the Portland yester
day. George T. Gerllnger, a business man
of Dallas, was registered at the Im
W. A. Williams, an attorney of For
est Grove, was registered at the Im
Dr. and- Mrs. J. Earl Else, of Pull
man, Wash., were registered yesterday
at the Portland.
' M. T. O'Connell, a wealthy lumber
man from Winlock. Wash. Is regis
tered at the Oregon.
P. L. Stewart. State Senator and
banker of Kelso, Wash., was registered
at the Oregon yesterday.
A. C. Olds, a real estate dealer and
insurance man of San Francisco, was
at the Oregon yesterday.
Mr. and Mrs.' J. W. Foster, of Cor
"vallls, were In Portland yesterday.reg
istering at the Imperial.
B. K. Lawson, a merchant of Cot
tage Grove, was in Portland yesterday.
He registered at the Oregon.
Mr. and Mrs. E. L. Howe, of Mosler,
were registered at the Bowers yester
day. Mr. Howe is a fruitgrower.
C W. Nlbley, Jr.. manager of a beet
sugar factory at La Grande, was reg
istered at the Portland yesterday.
Misses Ethel Dobbins and Marguerite
Ellery left last night for Newport to
remain on a two weeks' vacation.
F. W. Settlemier, a prominent Marion
County nurseryman, registered at the
Oregon yesterday from Woodburn.
John Rlseland, State Fish Commis
sioner for the State of Washing-ton, was
registered at the Oregon yesterday.
Mr. and Mrs. Walter L. Tooze, of
Falls City, are at the Imperial. Mr.
Tooze Is a merchant In the Polk County
Donald Beaton and sister. Miss
EleanoT Beaton, of Chicago, were Port
land visitors last week at the home of
Dr. I. L. Tickner on East Fiftieth
New Newspaper at Los Angeles Is
Signal for Renewed Otis Conflict
Belligerent Proprietor of Times Target for Tribune's Attack Suffragists
in Anns Over Alleged Slur of Dean McCormick.
BT R- M. WHITSET.
LOS ANGELES. July 8. (Special.)
Los Angeles has a new morning
daily newspaper, owned and edited
by Edwin T. Earl, millionaire owner of
the Evening: Express. His news sheet
Is known as the Tribune, and It won
no little fame for Itself and Its owner
by the rapidity with which it was or
ganized after the Initial announce
ment of Us establishment was made,
two weeks ago.
Karl had the circulation organization
of his Evening Express to fall back
upon, which fact helped materially In
the formation. John Eliot, ex-AssocIat-
ed Press representative here, and was
ly Barr, formerly managing editor of
the Los Angeles tieraia, pore tne our
Ann nt the initial arrangements. Both
of those men are experienced news
The Tribune was born of the fight on
General Harrison Grey Otis, owner of
the Times, and of the official announce
ment of his ownership 01 tne .tieraia.
It Is understood that the fight on the
General is to be to the death although
whose death iff to result is not an
Just what effect the Introduction of
the Tribune will have on the local
newspaper field remains to be seen. It
appears probable, However, mat tne
new paper will prove more or less of
a Riiccesa. It Is sold for 1 cent, and
that price is likely to be a big induce
ment. Mayor Iissner Leaves Office.
Llssner is gone from the halls where
his dulcet voice was wont to rumble.
No more is he head of the Public Util
ities JJoard. "Cause why? 'Cause there
Is no Public Utilities Board left. Llssner
and his confederates resigned the other
day and the Mayor, contrary to their
expectation, did not implore them to
come back. Not he. Instead he wrote:
Your letter under date of 30th, in
which you resigned as a member of the
Board of Public Utilities, ' received and
The' truth of tne matter, as me wise
ones among tne itoua Buveruiucui
forces size it up, is that the Mayor in
his fight for renominatlon and elec
tion, can do without llssner. ine iai
tar Is charged with endeavoring to
make himself, through the office of the
Roard of Public Utilities, an autocrat.
His office already had become a bu
reaucracy. Woman's Wrath Roused.
Suffragists are much incensed and
exercised over a statement Dy uean
McCormack. of the Pro-Cathedral, be
fore the Ministerial Association. He
was quoted as saying that a "certain
suffrage convert changed her views
because the suffragists paid her more
money than could the antisuffrage or
ganization." in .r, ini letter to Dean McCor
mack, Mrs. Elizabeth Strong asked tor
an open apology.
The protests wniun -cc.
aroused by this statement ana oiner
criticisms made by the antisuffragists
to actions of the suffragists give evi
dence that before November 10 there
will be a bard, eerious struggle, in
which. It is feared, personalities will
Mrs. Strong, suffrage speaker, writ
er, lecturer and who led the fight for
better car service recently made by
the residents of El Molino, feels that
she Is. the "converted suffragist" re-.
ferred to by Dean McCormack.
About a fortnight ago, Detore tne
Men's Society of the Pro-Cathedral,
Mrs. Strong told how she had been
converted to the belief In equal u- i
street They are old friends of Mrs
Tickner and visited here during tht
Lewis and Clark Fair.
E. B. Tongue, District Attorney fos
the Fifth Judicial District, .was regis
tered at the Imperial yesterday from
J. T. McChesney, a business man of
Everett, arrived in Portland yesterday
and joined his wife and daughter at ,
Mr. and Mrs. E. V. Carter, of Ash
land, are registered at the Imperial. Mr,
Carter la a prominent Southern Ore
Mrs. C. R. Parsons, wife of a real
estate dealer, and Mrs. J. P. Growdon,
of Spokane. Were registered at the
Fred Schafer, of Molalla, was at tha
Perkins yesterday. As a contractor, Mr.
Schafer furnishes the railroads of this
state several thousand ties annually.
Dr. and Mrs. D. C. Hawley, of 'Bur
lington, N. Y.. and Dr. and Mrs. Samurt
Vorhees and son. of Elmira, N. Y.. were)
registered at the Bowers yesterday, j
Mr. and Mrs. J. R. Harter, of Tilla
mook, were registered yesterday at tha'
Imperial. Mr. Harter is engaged In
the real estate business af Tillamook.
E. W. Farmer, clerk at the Perkinil
Hotel, has returned from a two weeks'
vacation spent in San Francisco. Mn
Farmer was in the California metropo
lis at the time of the recent earthquake.
CHICAGO. July 8. (Special.) TK J,
Gilmarttn, of Portland, Is at the Cono
gress Hotel; Mr. and Mrs. G. C Peltotl
are at the Brevoort.
SAX FRANCISCO, July 8. (Special. ',
The following Portland people an)
registered at the Palace Hotel: Georgd
B. Van Waters, William T. Foster,
O. P. Clerin, Aphia I Dimick, Mrs.
W. R. Smith, R. F. Barker, Mrs.
Georg-e Beach. Other arrivals are:
Miss W. F. Frantz. Hillsboro, Or.; W. J.
frage. and she has many times state!
Fhe was offered money to speak fo(
the antlsuffrasre cause previous to he(
After an exciting 20-mile chas
through the brush In the hills back ofi
San Jacinto, immigration officers tha
other day succeeded in capturing it
Japanese and a contraband CJiiness
coolie. The Japanese is believed ta
be a member of an organization of Ori
ental smugglers bringing Chines 9
coolies into this country from Mexicail
via the "underground land route."
' Unable to use the water route, be
cause of the orders to the military 1:1
Ensenada, the smugglers have resume!
the dangerous land route, charging th9
contraband coolies iouble the usual
rate for safe transportation from Mex,
ico into the United States. The pricl
per head via the land route has in th
past been J250 a"d in some instancea
$300. The price the contrabands ari
now paying is $500 and even more.
The resumption of the illicit trains
by the land route was discovered b f
Immigration Inspector Chadney, of th -j
San Diego division, in the inspection o!
a Southern Pacific train. He found it,
contraband coolie wlchout papers in
hiding and immediately placed him un
der arrest. The Oriental was brough i
to Los Angeles, where, through an in '
terpreter. he admitted to Chief In
spector Charles T. Connell that he haa
been smuggled into this country by. a
Japanese in company with another
Connell immediately ordered a sharp
lookout maintained for the Japanes .
and his charge. Inspector Nowlln
picked up the trail nt Banning, where
tha Japanese, fearing pursuit, had left
the train with his charge and taken ta
the hills north of the town. Imme
diately an automobile filled with immi
gration officers gave pursuit. The
rough character of the country forced
the officers to desert the automobila
and follow the trail on foot.
Many immigration officers in this
district are trained to follow the trails
left by smugglers and for more than
20 miles footprints of the Japanes
and the Chinese were followed. Sev
eral times during the search the offi
cers approached the fugitives, only to
be given the slip. The Japanese and
the coolio were finally located In a
small gully. The capture was easily
accomplished. The Orientals were
then brought back to the machine and
then to Banning, where they were
placed in Jail.
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