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About The Sunday Oregonian. (Portland, Ore.) 1881-current | View Entire Issue (Nov. 10, 1907)
THE SUNDAY OREGOXIAX, PORTLAND, NOVEMBER 10, 1907.
'. ::v' I This Is the Theory of .- I- , i 'l V
' v vv. j Dr. T. J. J. See, Government Astronomer, J SSSrt";spSiSKSj I
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jt.;- . V v Volcanoes and Earthquakes v j;
jrV $jf ' :vV:vjj . Caused by Ocean Leaks, the Water Fail- " j
rf T v, v V'l - Ing on Molten Material V y:': 1 !
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BY JOHN ELFRKTH WATKIXS.
EARTH 1b probably swelling rather
than Bhrfnking, and is not more
than 10.0d0.0tW years old. The
shaping of her mountains, islands and
plateaus, and the generation of her earth
quakes, volcanoes and seismic sea waves
have resulted not from contractions due
to earth's cooling, but by explosions of
steam generated by ocean water leaking
through her crust. These theories, at
tacking established notions as to the past
and future of earth, have just been an
nounced to his fcl'.ow-scientlsta by the
well-known astronomer. Dr. T. J. J. See,
professor of mathematics. United States
How Our Oceans Leak.
Our ocean bottoms are leaking through
earth's crust, and this crust is composed
of from 10 to 20 miles of solid rock, like
granite, according to Professor See. Thts
leakage is going on from ace to age and
Js not periodic. The enormous pressurs
of our oceans enables their water to fil
ter through a rocky shell of such a thick-
Ttess as 20 miles. Just beneath this solid '
crusi lies mouen roc-K. or what we- com
monly call lava. The water leaking from
the sea on encountering this 1Ot lava
generates steam, which at times causes
explosions. These "convulsions are the
only cause of earthquakes and volcanoes.
Jf other vapor besides steam is at work
rieneath the crust, why does It not escape
through the vents o. volcanoes, nsks Dr.
See. And, Mf this steam comes from the
central materials of the globe, why "Ilo
not volcanoes and earthquakes occur In
the interior of continents, as well as
along the coasts, on islands and In the
depths of the sea?
How Mountains Are Formeil.
When the tension of the imprisoned
team under the oceans becomes very
great. It finally causes the earth's crust
to yield along the ocean's margins, ' and
mountains are pushed up where the crust
breaks parallel to the coast. When na
avenue of escape Is thus once opened for
the lava. It continues active and the
mountains grow higher and higher, un
less meanwhile the sea recedes to too
great a distance. The maps of the ocean
depths compiled by our coast and goedetlc
survey show how the earthquake belts of
the world, as laid down by tho great au
thority. Professor Milne, follow the deep
trenches of the sea. These trenches are
very long, narrow and deep, and are ex
actly paralleled by chains of islands
rising out of the sea mountain
ranges under water. The expulsion of
lava from under these trenches has raised
all adjacent mountain ridges, and when
thus undermined the t sea bottom has
sunk, according to Dr. See. Thus moun
tain ranges are formed in tho, sea and are
eventually raised above the wnter, and
hence they run so exactly parallel to the
The Himalayas were formed by the ex- f
WW . . TELESCOPE
pulsion of lava from beneath the Indian
Ocean. The effect of the ocean there
has not ceased and is still gradually
raising the Himalayas. The elevation of
the Andes, too, has been caued by lavas
being expelled from beneath the sea and
pushed up under the land.
The established theory, accounting for
mountains, volcanoes and earthquakes
hitherto, is that as the earth has cooled
the interior molten mass has contracted
or shrunk away from the crust just as
the water of a frozen river falls below
the ice on top. The crust has then co!-
lapsed from time to time, forming enor
mous rents and fissures through which
molten rock exuded and formed moun
tains. V But there has been no sensible contrac
tion in the earth's crust since our globe
attained its present dimensions, according
to Dr. See.
How Ear tli Was Made.
It seems likely that In the formation of
earth meteorites and finer planetary dust
came together at such a rate that the
whole new planet thus constituted was
made to glow. Its greatest heat being at
the center. Then as our planet grew in
mass by the addition of other materials
derived from meteorites Its pressure In
creased also and eventually became so
great as to prevent circulation oj those
heat currents caused by warmer mate
rials rising to the top. At length th
surface, gradually cooled by radiation,
grew dense and solid, and thus arose the
Incrusted earth. Only one half of the
original heat caused by the condensation
of the sphere has probably been radiated
away, and an equal amount therefore
probably remains stored up inside earth's
crtwt.. Observations seem to prove that
In transmitting earthquake waves our
globe behaves as if it were a solid
throughout, which indicates that the mol
ten matter under the crust is under sucb
pressure that It acts as an elastic solid.
Oreat increase of pressure toward tin
center gives it an enormous rigidity, prob
ably between that of Bessemer steel and
nickel steel. This Indicates that no cur
rents can circulate at great depths, and It
Is obviously untrue, as some geologists
Imagine, that liquid lava is expelled from
deep down In our globe.
Hoots of Volcanoes Down 20 Miles'
The roots of our volcanoes are seldom
deeper than 30 miles, said Dr. See. Lavas
have not come up from great depths since
earth's crust began to form. ' Xo cur
rents were stirring at any considerable
depth even when the surface of earth was
wrapped In flaming fluid. Not even
have our world-shaking earthquakes been
known to originate at a greater depth
than 30 or 40 miles. Earthquakes arise
either in the crust of earth or in the layer
just beneath. Deeper movements would
be tar more territie than our world-shak
lug earthquakes of today, but would be of
more nearly equal intensity throughout
the world. The preservation of the
ruins of some of our oldest classic tem
ples proves that no really deep-seated
convulsion of earth has occurred within
the last 2OC0 or 3000 years. Such sup
posed convulsions as have always been
popular In geology have not really taken
place, for the great continents have not
greatly changed their places. " All im
portant changes in the earth's -crust have
been due to external agencies, princi
pally earthquakes caused by the leakage
of the seas and seldom extending below
15 or 20 miles. 4
. Earth Expanding.
The earth is not now shrinking, nor has
It been at any time since the consolida
Personal Recollections of John L. Sullivan
His Visits to the White House Always Marked by Decorum Every Square Fighter a Gentleman.
Br JOHN L. SULLIVAX.
HILE I was down in New Or
leans a while ago, some of the
oldtimcrs who called to see me
stirred up something that had escaped
me. and one of the tales had to do
with the sad story of how Arthur
Chambers, and Billy Edwards were
robbed of their diamonds and wads,
once upon atime.
Chambers, who is now in Philadel
phia, and Edwards hit New Orleans af
ter they'd been chased around the coun
try by the cops while trying to pull
off some fights in the good old way,
and when they reached New Orleans
theV were entertained in great shape,
in the old way fighters were enter
tained, made to fall off the water wagon
as often as possible.
Chambers got talking to a sport who
was considerable of a joker, and Ar
thur told him what t fine place New
Orleans was. and how much he en
joyed the welcome to our city busi
ness that had been served up to him
"Yes, New Orleans would he a nice
place, if it wasn't for the ear bugs,"
savs the joker.
"Hear bugs," says Arthur, "wot's
"Whyj do you mean to say you sleep
without cotton in your ers to keep
out the ear bugs?" asks the sport.
"So 'dp me. Hi never 'eard of them,"
"Well, you're a goner some night if
you don't pack'cotton in your ears, for
these bugs crawl In, dig their way into
your brains and eat them up. leaving
you dead as a mackerel in the morn
ing," says the sport, as solemn as an
That night Edwards and Chambers
slept in the same room and Arthur In
duced Billy to use the cotton, same as
tion of Its crust commenced, said the as
tronomer. Far from contracting. It may
be in reality very slightly expanding.
This expansion is due to the formation,
nearly everywhere heneath earth's crust,
of pumice which is elevated by the steam
forming under the oceans. Time the
level of the continents is raised, in spite
of the erosion of the surface rocks. The
ocean level Is perhaps rising slight r, al
though there Is a continuous lowering of
the strand line.
Earth Once Tetrahedron?
The theory that the earth was origi
nally a tetrahedron was dismissed by Dr.
See as not even a plausible delusion. Even
were our planet as stiff as steel and given
a tetrahedral form, the corners, he said,
would be crushed down and the figure
rapidly rounded up under its own attrac
tion. A column of the stlffest granite or
steel would not stand over five miles high
without crushing or vaporizing at the
he did." They packed it in so tight that
they didn't hear the thieves getting Into
the room during the night; and in the
morning everything they had that was
worth while was gone.
Xever Talked Loud In White House.
I've shaken hands in tjir White House
with every President since Garfield waa
on the job. All of them treated me fine.
Every visit I made to the White House
was written up in the newspapers, and
there was a lot of punk in some of the
newspapers. One reporter said I squeezed
President Arthur's hand so hard that
it nearly broke the bone Britt didn't
break when he fought Gans: another said
I offered to put on the gloves with Mr.
Arthur to show him how we brought
home the money.'
Nothing to it. I didn't turn any hand
springs In the White House. No
President I ever saw had anything on
me, and I didn't let any of them throw
any harpoons into me. We met as
American citizens, and they couldn't
show me that they ever did any more
for this country than I did.
When you size it up, there are places
where I had -the call as champion
among people who think the United
States is a place inhabited by injuns and
cowboys, and they don't know whether
we have a king or an emperor to boss
I got along with Roosevelt easier than
any of the other Presidents. We felt
like college chums, anyway, as he comes
from Harvard, and I came from nearby.
He treated me well when I called to see
him, and he never had any occasion to
ask me to lowermy voice. They say
Sharkey tried to show President McKin
ley the tattoo work on his chest, and
that Charley Mitchell wanted o bend
the knee like they do in England when
he called at the White House, but none
of this foolishness can be tin-canned to
nie. 1 went to the White House like a
base, and a solid pyramid, such as would
form the corners of a tetrahedron, could
attain no vast height before It would
begin to spread at the base and flow from
Its own weight, even if formed of the
hardest material. There is thus a limit
to the height at which even mountains
coud stand, although thLs seems never
to have been attained by mountains on
Earth, Causing Ocean
The separation of the moon from the
'earth caused our principal ocean basins
to form. It cannot be said at what stage
the moon parted company with Ub parent
earth, nor how much larger in volume the
earth then was than it is now; but the
separation probably took - place before
the crust of the earth commenced to form
and it probably originated under the dis
turbing action of the solar tides. The
detached mass seems to have come -niain-
gentleman and made my getaway as one.
Paddy Ryan was very much of a gentle
man and good fellow, and although I took
th championship from him, he was al
ways decent - towards me. We were able
to meet as friends after I'd put him out
of business, and Paddy never tried to be
little my victories over him. When we
met in Mississippi I sat in the ring 15
minutes waiting for Paddy to appear, and
during the wait the crowd passed me the
cold shoulder so plenty that Joe Goss was
I ready to cry, thinking It would give me
Every Squar Fighter a Gentleman.
I got hardly a cheer when I shied my
cantor into the ring, and the kind of re
marks fired over the ropes at yours truly
was enough to get me sorry I came if my
hide hadn't been thick as boiler plate.
Paddy got hip. hip, hurrahs, and three
tigers, and then some, when he came
through the ropes. He heard of what I'd
been getting from the crowd during the
wait, and to some of his friend? he said
it wasn't fair. I knocked Paddy down
with a punch on the jaw when the fight
was only 30 seconds going, and he said
afterward that he knew when that punch
landed it was all up .with him. '
What I started to Say was that any
fighter whd fights on the level has the
instincts, of a gentleman, even if he
doesn't know how to talk like a spelling
book. I'm proud to remember some of the
men I've licked as gentlemen of the first
water, although some of them said things
In private conversation that wouldn't be
fit to print.
His Advice on Training Real Thing.
That talk I passed out a while ago ad
vising athletes not to wear themselves out
training, but to take it fairly easy and
keep on the water cart, holds good. It'a
killing work, the kind of training some
fighters go through, and it has a good
soft earth drawn out by the sun's attrac
tion and lying toward and from the sun.
The Pacific. Indian and Atlantic oceans
probably represent the holes left by the
disruption, the first two named being evi
dently the area from which the matter
of the moon was mainly derived. The
Inequalities remaining after certain
masses had again united with the earth
prooaoiy gave tne foundations on wmcn i ages was -m deprees Fahrenheit, simi
the continents have since been built. larlv calculated the age of the earth to
There was some modification and remod- ue ioi.673.00O years, but Dr. See assumes
eling also by the sun's draw upon the
molten or thinly encrusted earth i. e., by
the solar tides. But all Bmaller inequali
ties occurring since the earth's crust
hardened all mountains, high plateaus
and deep ocean troughs have been pro
duced mainly by earthquakes due to
steam from the leaking oceans and not to
any continuous shrinking of the earth.
Earth Only 10,000,000 Years Old.
The earth is about 10.000.000 years old
deal to do with so many of them crink
ling up like a dishrag when they get a
thump in the wind.
Young Donahue, of Boston. Is following
my advice about milder training and the
sprinkling vehicle, and look what he's do
ing. On October 23 he put it all over
Rouze O'Brien, In Chelsea, Mass., and two
days later, on October 25. in "Phillle," he
made Fred Landers look like a bad coin.
Donahue may be the next lightweight
champion, and if he "climbs there on my
plan of training. It ought to be good
enough for all Inquiring sports. Young
Donahue doesn't hit the can, he goes to
bed with the birds and he saves his
strength for when he needs it in the ring.
Some wise citizens smile when I give
advice to fighter? to cut out the booze,
and they think it's funny, all along the
line. Say, it's the best kind of advice I
can give, and if you can find any guy who
ever paid a higher price than I did to be
able to give this stuff straight, trot him
out 'and I'll give him the booze fighter's
Double-Crosser Will Get His. ,
Tommy Burns, the double-cross frame
up, plugged some sarcastic talk1 at me
through the newspapers and then hopped
aboard a steamer for Europe. He said It
would have been Black Friday for Boston
if me and Jeffries could have met when
we were both at our best. He thinks fhat
Jeff., who he now says is down and out,
"could have put the traditions going with
the sturdy record of the great John L.,"
to quote the double-cross artist's exact
words, on the blink.
He released these remarks' from his sys
tem in a hotel on Broadway, New York,
a couple of weeks ago, when I was in
New Orleans, and to play It entirely safe,
he got under sail righ off for Europe
where he's going to pick up some easy
money fighting come-ons that haven't got
a look in. This helps some to keep good
men over here from getting a crack at
Burns Is a sure-thing fighter. Give him
something with a rehearsal in it, or a
mut who will agree to have heart failure
at the right moment and he'll make a
match. But he says he wouldn't take
on even Owen Moran on a winner-take-all
basis. When a pie-faced mut like
t by no means so old as many geologists
have been- Inclined to believe, according
to Dr. See. This he calculates by use of
a formula, the exact figures being 8.302.000
years since the crust of the earth consoli
dated, which is supposed to have occurred
very soon after the first beginnings of
the sphere's formation. Lord Kelvin,
after assuming that the greatest tempera-
i ture on the surface of the earth in past
that this temperature on the surface
never could have been above 2000 degrees
Fahrenheit. Dr. See further estimates
that the Andes might have been formed
In something like 3,000.000 years, and the
plateaus west of the Rockies In not more
than 6.000.000 years. The cooling of thg"
earth has nowhere extended below 40
miles, or 1-100 of the earth's radius, and
has been confined almost entirely to the
crust, according to the astronomer.
Washington, D. C.. Oct. 11.
Burns oan get the public to stand for and
listen to him I don't know as there's
any use of me wasting breath. He's a
picture no artist could paint when he
forgets to remember that I defied the
world for a dozen years or so. and the
winner-take-all was level enough for me.
Burns will be back toy Christmas and
perhaps I may get near enough to re
ply to some of his hot air. I can't do
him Justice with a pen, for the printers
might balk at it.
The light dnrendi the aofteat
The Summer days come oftst
There friendship Is the atronirest.
There love light Blows the longest.
Yet wrong Is Always wrongest
I-ife's burdens bear the lightest
The home (ire burns the brightest
While players are the keenest
And eardn come out the meanest.
The pocket empties cleanest
The orators are grandest
Officials are the blandest
The boys are all the fliest.
Great dangers ever nlghst,
And taxes are the highest
The blue grass waves the bluest
Yet blue bloods are the fewest
In Kentucky; '
The moonshine Is the clearest
By no means it's the dearest
And yet it acts the queerest
The dove notes are the saddest
The frolics are the maddest
Hip pockets are the thickest
And pistol hands are quickest
The cylinder turns slickest
It Is estimated that a chameleon which It
blind loses Its power of making itself or
th same hue as Us surroundings.