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About The Sunday Oregonian. (Portland, Ore.) 1881-current | View This Issue
THE SUNDAY OREGONTAX, PORTLAND, NOVEMBER 3, 1907.
THE CO-OPERATIVE CHRISTIAN FEDERATION
A REMEDY FOR VARIOUS INDUSTRIAL EVILS
BY tVAI.LIS NASH.
Author of "Orecon, There and Back In
3 87T" iMacmlllanm: "Two Tears In Ore
gon." 1S1 (App!eton; "Settlr' Hand
book to Oregon." 1W4 J. K. GUI & t'o :
'Trm, Ranch and Range In Oregon." 19US
(Lewis and Clark Commission).
THE adherents of capital and labor
are now ranged In opposing camps
under a condition of never-ending
war.. All peace I In ' the nature of a
truce, during which a modus Vivendi Ih
fqund, but both parties are seeking to
strengthen their position for the next out
break of hostilities. -
Organization and discipline. Invoked by
both parties In labor troubles, have taken
eharwln master" associationp of the em
ployers and the trades unions of the em
ployed. Allies, either In the tfade. dis
trict or city affected, have been -found.
Such associations, unions or combinations
aa are In "pympathy' with either of the
combatants have been brought Into line.
An omlnous word,t".ympathy" a suffer
ing In common: but the use of "It Is justi
fied by the sufferings of both sides In
these lamentable wars. . :
The nineteenth century saw the growth
of the Industrial system under which wo
live today, from infancy until It covers
the whole civilized world.
Kor tills we are Indebted to the univer
sal use of machinery, springing from the
Invention of the steam engine, and In the
last years of the century from the discov
ery and development of other sources of
power.- Machinery has in turn served to
spread the factory fystem aa. the only
method ao far devised for getting work
and value out -of machines which have
become both too complex and too. costly
for Individuals to' provide, and so demand
associated capltnl to supply them. Two
results are apparent:
Klist That as the use of machinery
has extended to cover the earth, there has
followed the development of types and
rlaxses of abundant and specialized labor
not confined to any one nationality, but
marking off in all nations groups and
grades of workers adapted to the opera
tion of each special variety of machines.
Second The two factors named the
universal use of machinery and the train
ing and adaptation of cheap labor to op
erate Intricate and expensive machines
have reduced the cost and enormously in
creased the output of "every article de
manded by the growing populations of the
The world market prices In all staples
tend constantly to draw more closely to
gether. Coats and values, which are the
factors on which prices depend, are now
matters of common knowledge in every
center of business throughout tlTe com
mercial world. A shortage hero is
promptly filled from a surplus there.
Therefore the conditions which must meet
to justify a permanent rise or fall In
values of staple articles must be common
to all centers of abundant productions
.Distribution of Earnings.
T follows, then, that any one of the
four , factors whose common action is
essential in carrying on Industries depend
ent on or connected with manufactures
must base on redistribution of the com
mon earnings fund any demand for
changes In Its favor. No dependence can,
be placed for permanent benefit on pres
sure to be exerted on any others of the
parties concerned by means of refusal to
continue contributing to thone same re
suits. Because to stop production Is to
Invite an inflow of surplus products from
other markets,' while to delay or to ob
struct or to artificially heighten the cost
of production is to diminish, the net profit
fund and endanger the very existence of
the special industry in question.
What, then, are those lour factors, and
how does the Institution of the Co
operative Christian Federation bear on
the chronic opposition between capital
First, capital; second, stockholding or
other form of ownership of the enter
prise: third, management; fourth, labor.
Under modern methods f organization
In the Industrial world capital Is usually
contributed In units consolidated Into
common holdings, with corporate rights
and sensitive to the daily flu-tuatlons of
the stock exchange or money market.
Can a more stable condition bo created?
Can the Investment of capital in indus
trial enterprises be based on solid and
well-understood contracts, with security
to Its full satisfaction, so leading to
reasonable permanence? If this la accom
plished, and labor Is also removed from
the sphere of strikes and lockouts, under
the organization of the Co-operative
Christian Federation, may not pafety and
peace be expected within Its borders?
And, . further, if Investments of capital
Jn small sums can be fully secured In
manner to be described, will not reserves
of untold amount be Unlocked, enabling
the establishment of industries on a wide
scale without disturbance to. the usual
money markets and depositories?
What Federation Means.
Wf HAT, then. Is the Co-bneratlve
w Christian, Federation? How is It
constituted or organized?
It Is a society, not a corporation, estab
lished under the general laws of Oregon,
for the religious, moral. Intellectual and
physical betterment of Its members. Hut
it Is not a church. " Its constitution ex
pressly shuts but that idea, while declar
ing that membership In the Co-operative
Christian Federation is open to all wl?o
meet the requirements In other respects,
and who, aa regards the religious side
which justifies the name, accept the
broadest definition of the Christian
How la this society made the foundation
on which Is built. ownership ,and settle
ment of great tracts of land, the creation
of cities and towns, the establishment of
industries and manufactories, the con
struction and development of transporta
tion and power enterprises, and of com
mercial and financial undertakings arls
lng from or dependent on any of these?
The short answer Is by the legitimate
nd logical use of the trust created spe
cially for these purposes.
The Co-operative Christian Federation
Trust Is a corporation also organized
tinder Oregon law. with a capital of
lltty thousand (JoO.ouO) dollars, divided Into
shares of one thousand ($1000) dollars
each, no more than one of which can
be held by one person, and can be re
tained only as long as the duties of over
sight ar.e performed. It was formed for
the express purpose of acquiring, holding
and managing property in all its forms
for the benefit of, and in trust for, the
federation and Its members. None but
men of recognized standing- and experi
ence, and actively Interested In the success
of this undertaking, have been, or will
be. Invited to take part. Five subsidiary
corporations, each undertaking a large
branch of the Intended operations of the
federation, each based on capital sub
scribed by the trust, 'and officered by
competent 'boards and managers selected
by the trust, have solved the difficulty of
oversight. The uniform system of account
keeping and of audit enables the trust to
exercise continuing oversight and supreme
control over each corporation. Their
profits are poured Into the general profit
Officers and active members will be
taken from the ranks of the federation,
so far as efficient labor and management
can be there found. Bach sub-corporation
will pay all Its current expenses for man
agement and labor at prevailing rates
the federatlonists receiving in addition
such proportion of the general profit
fund as appears later In this article under
the head of "Dealings With Labor."
How Is the capital to be obtained to
set the machinery in motion, to provide
the properties, and to equip the Intended
industries? Through the agency of this
It la conceded that capital will seek
Investment yielding a safe and perma
nent 5 per cent return.. First mortgage
bonds of the Federation, tearing 5 per
cent fixed interest, and making the
first charge on all its property, will be
offered by the trust for general sub
scription, in successive Issues, as the
growing Industries and investments of
the Federation demand, and as ample
security for each Issue becomes avail
able. It is true that an additional 6
per cent, payable from the profits of
the whole enterprise, is also offered to
the bondholder. This Is not done to
transfer these bonds from the safe and
sound into the " high interest, and
therefore hazardous class. Recognition
is po made of the essential partner
ship between capital and labor in the
ultimate profits of their joint Invest
Oregon was chosen as the original
field 'of operations for several reasons.
The plan of the Federation was de
vised by H. S. Wallace, a citizen of
Oregon, who, for 10 years or more,
has devoted to It body, soul and spirit.
The first adherents gained in any con
siderable numbers have been citizens
of Oregon, and from them have been
selected the first executive committee
of the trust.
In Oregon properties could be and
have been found for the Federation
meeting all its present and proximate
requirements, but providing for an al
most Indefinite extension, of Its opera
tions, and at prices Intrinsically low.
The Federation demanded, first, op
portunity for various remunerative in
dustries appealing not only to present
markets, but capable of indefinite ex
tension and development. Second,
broad areas of fertile land, whereon
all Industries connected with the soil
could be successfully carried on. Third,
sites for garden cities and towns,
healthy, spacious and beautiful offer
ing the strongest contrast to the fac
tory cities of crowded dwellings where
life is rather spent than lived.
TYi choosing industries for the Fed
eration uniform principles have been
followed. To select none that are ex
periments in Oregon, but only those
whose success has been shown by ex
perience under similar conditions.. To
choose such as will profit by the su
perior excellence and abundance of raw
materials available there. To take ad
vantage of special opportunities in cli
mate, soil, water powers and nearness
or accessibility to markets.
There must be a dawn before day
breaks. Now Is the Federation dawn.
A beautiful site for the first garden
city. 14 miles southeast from Portland,
on the tableland between the Clacka
mas River and Clear Creek, has been
secured, with Its quarries, dam site,
waterpowers, factory sites, residence
quarters and surrounding orchard and
garden lands. The industries specially
adapted to be there carried on. and for
which provision is being made, are de
scribed later on. To all of, them the
test of successful operation in West
ern Oregon can bo applied. The In
vestment of both capital and labor in
every one of them could be wisely in
vited, witnout any reference to, or de
pendence upon the Co-operative Chris
tian Federation, with its special facili
ties of capital, effective management
and interested and tested labor. If
each of the Industries In question fore
tells success Independently, it is hard
to see why the special advantages of
the Federation should lessen their
chances of successful operation and
But it is to be clearly understood
that neither, the operations of the Fed
eration nor the security of the bonds
in question rest solely on the garden
city or cities, and the industries there
prosecuted. Manufacturing enterprises
are by no means the only ones provided
Farming Irrigated Lands.
TWO important investments are be
ing made in the irrigation of large
tracts o( land In Eastern Oregon and
others of similar nature will be under
taken. Oregon, is one of the Western states
where immense areas of semi-arid lands
are found. Regular supplies of water
during the growing season, taken from
rivers of permanent flow the year round
or impounded during the wet months in
reservoirs . fed by mountain streams, de
velop without fall the latent fertility of
wide stretching lands now covered by
sage brush and scattering Juniper trees.
The Irrigated or irrigable lands of East
ern Central Oregon reach a"n extent of
over 600,000 acres. Here again is no un
certain experiment involved.
Rosults under parallel conditions have
been so repeatedly shown that there' is
certainty In return from weji-considered
outlay. Moreover, the Executive Com
mittee of the Federation Trust are ful
filling one of their promises when taking
steps in this sure way to provide homes,
with assured livelihood, for hundreds,
yes. thousands, of families. The products
of 40 acres of irrigated land in such dis
tricts, under modern methods of intensive
farming, in the kind climate of Oregon,
support a family in comfort. , ' . ,
Prices paid ' for irrigated sage bruBh
lands during several years past, in East
ern Oregon, range from J75 to 3150 per
acre, and in Eastern Washington reach
still larger figures. Reason enough that
incomers gladly pay irrigation companies
from $25 to $40 per acre for the life-giving
water which works such marvels of
Such prices are'not required to-be paid
down by the newcomer, but are received
in annual instalments extending over,
say, ten years, bearing meanwhile a mod
erate interest. So does irrigation share
the quality of mercy. In that it is "twice
blest: It blesseth him that gives and him
When this modern miracle has vieldeil
ffits first fruits, and the gray expanses of
dusty soil, bearing only .the desert
growths, ranged, for the sake of its
sparse grasses, by the herds and flocks
of the cattle and sheep, kings of a fast
disappearing generation.' have risen into
the stage of fertile farms when the soli
tude of the desert has given place to the
sights and sounds of prosperous com
munities of men following the varied in
dustries of farm., ranch, dairy and or
chardthe cycle is not yet complete.
The products of the new farms are but
raw materials,' to be transformed by the
alchemy of modern industry into food
and clothing for the populations, flowing
In .ever-growing volume into the newer
states of the Northwest.
OREGON, moreover,' Is a highly-fav-ored
state, in ' that she need 'not
carry on, in the years now beginning, the
transportation of her grain and wool and
fruit and cattle across thousands of in
tervening miles to the mills and factories
and packing houses of tlie crowded East.
In the "white coal" of her water powers
she . owns .the equivalent of the black
coal which drives the machinery, of the
East so she finds for the mechanic "and
artisan the chance of life where, among
healthy surroundings for himself and his
family, skilled labor may have its endur
ing opportunity and its adequate return.
But trot, if the Co-Operative Christian
Federation lives and grows, by the mere
transfer to this Western soil of that
factory life at which the worker -now. re
volts. True It is that unless conditions of suc
cess meet In a given spot It is lost labor
to build there town and factory bring In
money and men plant the seeds of in
dustryand look, in the face of history
and the logic ol facts, for healthy
As already noticed, prices and condi
tions of world-wide markets must be met.
Yet there Is already a growing market In
the Pacific and Western states, in Alaska
and among the nations of ihe Orient, for
manufactures using .the raw materials
from Oregon, which have borne the cost
of purchase from the Oregon producer, of
a double transportation to and from
Eastern mills and factories, and of hand
ling and marketing thrice over here,
there, and again here. Also, quality as
well as quantity will he considered.
Not only are the raw materials raised
in Oregon of first-class excellence this
is known the world over but their pre
eminence can hardly bo disputed for the
years to come, since climate, soil, tem
perature, and abundance of pure water,
enter largely Into the values of .the ulti
mate products. Wool, mohair, flax, tim
ber of many kinds, fruits, dairy products,
hops, various grains, sugar beets, meat
products, do not exhaust the list.
And. so far, manufactures In Oregon,
excellent as the output generally is. have
not filled even the local markets. Eastern
prices, plus the cost of transportation,
govern on the Coast.
Ready for Garden Cities.
THE Co-operative Christian Federation
has advanced, then, to this point.
Firstly, the purchase is to be com
pleted of the large town and factory site,
within 14 miles of the center of Portland,
with water powers and stone quarries as
agents In Industrial life, and a position
of advantage In securing raw materials
from a country yielding them in abund
ance an of great excellence.
Plans have been formulated and pre
parations made for the establishment
there of various approved industries and
manufactures, for which ready markets
are open. So the first Garden City will
be created with abundant room to stow.
Under the arrangement referred to homes
will be ready for occupation by the
actual members in ample time. At either
two or three other selected points in
contact with, or in proximity to. great
areas of productive land controlled or In
fluenced by the Federation, similar Garden
Cities will in turn be placed, and manu
factures be developed, fostered by the
water powers and other manufacturing
advantages there found.'
The ownership and development of the
first and of subsequent townsites. and of
the water powers, and the municipal
enterprises connected therewith will form
part of the security of the bonds. The
mills and factories, as to ownership and
profits will, of course, also secure the
bonds, both as to principal and interest,
in accordance with the terms of the
As above stated, generally, the Federa
tion is interested in tile settlement of Ir
rigated lands- developed by more than
one enterprise in - Mid-Eastern Oregon.
One of these has been carried so far that
the main canals have been constructed
and many of the lateral ditches that sup
ply upwards of 30.000 acres have been sold
and 40.000 more will be ready for sale and
settlement in the . coming year. On
another enterprise water rights have been
secured, reservoir sites purchased, engin
eering plans and surveys completed, and
contracts with the land-owners for the
sale of water now being obtained.
So much for the relation of the Federa
tion to its bondholders on the industrial
' Rights and Limits.
ACTIVE members of the Co-Operatlve
Christian Federation are not called
on for any- money contribution towards
the needed .capital as condition of this
membership, except for the cost of the
membership certificate. They do not
acquire any Independent or personal in
terest in, or any right of interference'
with, the properties which form the
trust estate for the whole fraternity,
and arc collectively held for the benefit
of all. But subscription towards the
bonds. Is not prohibited to active1 or
associate members, but is encouraged.
Their numbers will be great, their resi
dences scattered far and , wide, 4heir
influer.ee wi.ll permeate ' their home
communities and so enforce the primary
idea of the Federation that it is to be
Bet in motion and t prosper not only
for, but by. the workers who are its
members. Not only ttie benefit but the
responslbilityfor Success is intrinsical
SUBJECT to the claim of capital, dis
tribution of the earnings pf Industrial
enterprises is now controlled by that
factor in whose hands is placed the so
called ownership of the joint enter
prise. Whether individuals, partner
ships or corporations are concerned,'
their functions are identical in this
that management and labor are pro
vided through their means.
Therefore, if Capital is taken care of
and relieved of risk by holding the first
claim on the property Included in an
undertaking, all other responsibilities
rest on Ownership, so defined, which
occupies the middle ground between
capital and labor. '
r It follows that when labor Is dissatis
fied and desires a larger share in earn
ings, or a change for the better In
conditions under which its service is
rendered such demands are addressed
directly to this ownership. Inasmuch
as ho concessions to labor can be based
on permanent increase in . gross earn
ings to any large extent, for reasons
before given, ami because of the claim
of labor that .it so often falls to re
ceive its righteous share in the earn
ings fund, diminution in the share per
taining to ownership becomes the direct
matter in dispute and leads straight to
Ownership, then, as distinct from
both capital and labor, is. under pres
ent conditions the claimant for that
fluctuating balance remaining after
capital has received its interest, the ex
penses of management have been met,
and labor has been paid its dally wage.
Whether ownership be' in ?. individual
hands, or takes the common form '"of
corporate ownership represented by
stocks and shares its power 'over the
enterphise Is absolute, to carry on. to
extend, to sell out, to make, to. mar, to
ruin. .. ..
The greatest unsettled problem of to
day is how, by legislation, executive
control, or by court decrees to limit
the unlimited, to restrain the now abso
lute monarchs ofVndustry, and to cause
public weal to be pet before private en
richment in handling the corporations'
which are but creations of American
law. and, therefore, are subject to its
cr.ntrol. The contribution of the Co
operative Christian Federation towards
the solution of this problem is to
demonstrate that the speculative ele
ment can .be, and is entirely cut out
from its organization and life.
Speculation Is Eliminated
SAVING the Incorporated Trust, which
Is no more than the manager of
and the trustee for the whole undertak
ing, there Is no share, capital or share
.-f stock no absorption of profits be
tween the strictly defined rights of the
bondholders, as above shown, and the
dlstrib ition and expenditure of the
protit fund for the benefit of the mem
bers and their families for the unit
of tlie Federation is the family, not the
Individual. For the men, women and
children of the Federation the . whole
plan has been framed for them and by
them are towns to be built, factories
created, equipped and run; water
powers harnessed, canals dug, lands
watered, farms laid out, cleared and
plowed, orchards planted, roads of all
kinds constructed, stores "Organized anil
stocked, schools ' and classes opened,
churches built, libraries furnished all
this, not as part of welfare plans for
operatives, designed to make, labor
comfortable and therefore more steady
and efficient but as fruit of their own
enterprises, increment from their own
lands, results of individual labor for
the common good.
Question of Management.
THE third factor'in modern industry
Is management. This will fcover
not only the actual conduct of the
physical production of wares for sale,
but the marketing of the same.
It is to capital and ownership not to
lator that management has to ac
count. Its. office as regards labor Is
to put it to the best use. to get the
highest results from It for the profit
of the entire enterprise. It strives to
avoid clashes and difficulties which
might lead labor to suspend or refuse
its services, and so to stop the opera
tion and profitable use of the entire
equipment of mill or factory. But no
other aim Is suffered to obscure that
for whicli. management is provided
namely, to make the most of the money
Efficient and experienced manage
ment for any industrial enterprise can
be obtained, in effect purchased, when
ever an adequate price is offered for It.
The originators of the Co-operative
Christian Federation have always
recognized that on efficiency of man
agement depends success. It has been
clearly seen that to have arrived at
the mastery of this difficult function,
study, experience, training, have been
just as essential as In any other de
partment of Industrial life.
Why Start on Broad
THIS, then. Is the answer to the oft
put question would It not be safer
to start on a much smaller scale and
grow? In each direction, in beginning
a new enterprise, there is set by knowl
edge and experience a line or limit of
construction. Mark it too wide and the
founders will realize that they have neg
lected the sound counsel, ."For which of
you, intending to build a tower, sltteth not
down firsthand counteth the cost, whether
he have sufficient to finish It? Lest haply,
after he hath laid the foundation and Is
not able to finish It all that behold it
begin to mock him, saying: 'This man be
gan to build and was not able to finish.' "
Mark it too lrrow,-"and past experi
ences are repeated. The enterprise Is
unable to survive, for- It fails to meet
the business requirements for success In
adequate capital to' provide output large
enough to enter on even terms Into the
open market, efficient management, to
secure tlie best results, both of production
and of sale, and last, "but not least, con
tented. Interested, and therefore depend
able labor. . It Is true that it is designed
to fill all offices in the federation work
from its membership but subject always
to the proviso of efficiency. Superinten
dents, managers and officers may, and
will, ha chosen from outside Its ranks
the best that can be found, unless they
can be secured within It. And for such
men the federation can well afford to pay
the current rates for their whole-hearted
Labor as the Prime Factor
Labor as the Prime Factor.
HERE -.does labor stand, in this
world of production and .distribu
SpeaKlng generally, labor, in this me
chanical age. Is hired' by Ownership,
through the medium of Management, to
operate machinery, tools and equipment,
provided by Capital. So, Labor is the
living, active force essential for produc
tion. But, constant effort Is, and for many
decades has been, exerted to dispense
with higher forms of skilled, and there
fore costly, labor, by creation of ma
chines adapted, each in its place, to spe
cialize some division of the work pre
viously done by human hands.
This for the double reason of increas
ing ouaput, through the Indefinitely faster
repetition by the machine of the human
act, and of proportionately diminishing:
cost, by substituting mechanical, spe
cialized and therefore cheap labor in
tending machines for the higher grades
of skilled workers wielding tools. ,
The distinguishing features throughout
are the selling of service for defined pay
and the explicit or Implied agreement to
supply that service and occupy that time,
at the directions subject to the orders,
of Ownership, through Management.
Many causes contribute tg keep the
ranks full In the regiments of workers,
on whatever region of industrial em
ployment the eye may fall. The first is,
naturally, the universal expectation of
payment for labor supplied. Common
consent recognizes that the laborer Is
worthy of his hire. The more highly civ
ilized a country is the greater safe
guards its legislation throws round the
receipt by its. laboring classes of their
current wage. "
The worker sacrifices. It Is true, the
chance of profit, but he deems his food
and water sure. '
Another' cause is the short drill, little
study, and small cost needed to qualify
the full private in these ranks. The old
days of seven years' apprenticeship have
passed for good. But the taskmaster,
Necessity, is the real recruiting offi
cer, who fills mine, mill, factory and
workshop with hands. Where. else can
they go? ,
It may be, it generally is that "for the
sake of a livelthooa what gives worth
to life Is .lost." But where Is the re
course? So stern Is the struggle that work it
self ill paid, wearisome, monotonous, ex
hausting, life-sapping though it be Is
the workers good, to be deprived of it
his night-mare, to Intermit or abandon
it, even for a time, though for his own.
or his co-workers' benefit, hardly to lie
thought of except under direst need or
Neither the hoiiseworker. the sweater's
victim in New York or Chicago nor the
hand-to-mouth laborer on outside work,
of varied nationality and polyglot lan
guage. Is now in question.
The simplest answer to the question,
"Who are intended and expected to fill
the membership of the Co-operative
Christian Federation?" is found in the
concrete example of the first Garden City
on the Clackamas, and the first farm
lands controlled by the federation.
The First Garden City.
rOLLOWING out the principles laid'
down for the starting and early days
of federation cities, an enrolment of
nearly 1000 members will be required.
These will be distributed between the
following industries: Lumber mills,-sash
and door factory, stone quarries, furni
ture factory, electrical Installation, wool
en mill and clothing factory, creamery,
cheese factory, fruit and vegetable can
nery, breakfast food mill, iron works and
repair shop, wagon shop. The attendant
and contributing Industries will be: Bak
ery, co-operative department store, shops
tailor's, dressmaker's and millinery shops
and stores, hostelry or boarding-house.
The municipal department will have
charge of waterworks, drainage, street
8,nd road work, public lighting, recreation
grounds and park, schools, classes, libra
ry, and public buildings.
Immediately adjoining the town oroper
land Is provided for orchards for large
and small fruits, vegetable and truck
faYming, and for dairying.
Regarding Family Life.
THE next and most important question
to be answered. Is, "What are the
plans for the family life of the Federa
tlonlst? How Is the principle to be car
ried out that the family, not the individ
ual. Is the first In interest?"
Dealing first, then, with the physical
house and home of the member. An Im
portant sub-corporation of the "trust"
has this in charge. Plans have been
worked out, and are ready to be put in
, action. Speaking generally, each family
in the Federation Is expected to obtain
and own its home. But not by Immediate
purchasealthough that is not precluded
The principle of the building society is
brought to bear.
Plans and estimates of cost of a variety
of houses will be open for selection, each
standing In its own garden spot.
The design and size of house and num
ber of rooms will be chosen by the mem
berbut water supply, bath, drainage,
and electric lighting are essentials for
all. Such houses will be quickly built
as demanded. Payment is to be secured
from the rentals, varying from $10 per
month upwards, extending over six years.
No greater rent will be required than Is
currently paid for similar dwellings on
the Oregon scale of prices, which favor
ably compares with those asked and paid
in other Western states, and, of course,
stands far below those current in the
factory cities and towns of the East or
Middle West. - .
The house is the member's own, sub
ject only to the rental still unpaid.
Should the member leave the Federation,
as he is free to do at any time, he Is at
liberty to sell his house to any other
member for the sum he may have paid
thereon, and if within a certain and
reasonable time no such purchaser has
been found the Federation Itself will take
the house over at that price, and in
terest at 5 per cent will be paid him
until such payment has been made.
Only such restrictions are Imposed as
are for the common good. For Instance.
All Federation settlements are temper
ance towns, the sale of intoxicants being
forbidden therein. Business and residence
sections will be kept distinct. No Invasion
of hazardous or offensive trades or busi
nesses will be permitted.
Subject to such general restrictions
residents will be "free citizens Mn a free
city." The charge and future of it will
In all things the plan and effort is that
fraternalism, not paternalism shall be the
Why "Christian" in -Name?
THIS statement is not complete until
the spiritual and Intellectual side of
the whole organization has been de
scribed. It has been said that 'the Fed
eration Is. not a church. The essential
idea of a church is a selection, a "gather
ing out" of individuals from a community.
The essential Idea of the Federation, on
the other hand, is to constitute a com
munity inspired with and governed by
the principles of the teaching of Christ
in the dealings of man with man, and
In the relations of this community with
the world at large.
An ambitious project truly, in this
century but an ideal, and to be accom
plished Just as far, and no farther than,
practice and idea are one.
No section of the Christian Church has
predominated in the counsels which have
led to the forming of this Federation.
Among the Oregon executive and chief
supporters are found Methodists, Congre
gatlonallsts, Episcopalians, Baptists, Pres
byterians, and yet others claiming the
broad name of Christians. No abandon
ment of special types or forms is asked
from members but a basis of common
worship has been sought, and, it is
One audience hall of sufficient capacity
shall be, it is intended, a central feature
In the group of municipal or public build
ings in each Federation city. In this hail
will gather for one Sunday service such
of the citizens as shall be religiously and
devoutly disposed. Christian preachers
will be Invited to take part in turn Ir
respective of denomination. They wilt
surely emphasise the cardinal doctrines
of the Christian faith, and the agreement
not the differences of the various his
torical bodies within the general bound
aries of the Christian fold.
Intellectual Interests schools, classes,
lectures, libraries, must not and will not
be overlooked. How can a community
prosper unless the members live with
higher Ideals than the money standard
of success? For men shall not live by
If the Federation Is in essence a . fra
ternity care must be taken of the sick,
of widows and orphans of the brother
hood. Every member shall feel that it Is
to him and his a haven of rest, no less
than a sphere of Interested, active, and
It cannot be too often or too strongly
aid that while in constitution and foun
dation opportunities are offered and
means provided, it will be to all gener
ations of members a duty and responsi
bility to bear, each his part. In future
development of such plans for the com
As 4 It Affects Agricul
turists. BUT It Is not only to the craftsman
and the artisan that the call of the
Federation is addressed.
To many of us the life of the farmer.
Will - O' - The
N the bogs of Ireland is often
seen a glimmering light which
dances here and there and
disappears when people try to reach
They call that light the "Will-O'-The-Wisp.".
You chase your "Will-O'-The-Wisps"
in this country, Mr. Reader.
.For instance when you buy a
Very often you think to get Style
Fit and Shape permanence in
It looks Good the day you try it
on it Fits nicely But when
you've worn it a week or so you
find it a WM-O'-The-Wisp Suit.
The shapeliness disappears You
have a Suit that has been im
properly cut and tailored and that
has had a shape and style merely
pressed in temporarily by the Hot
Flat Iron Old Doctor Goose.
Isn't there some sign by which
one can discriminate between Gar
ments that act that way and those
that Fit well look stylish and hold
their shape permanently?
There certainly is and the easi
est way to tell the difference is to
Stylt book nt on request. Kuh.
the stock-raiser, tlie orchardist, the bee
keeper, the gardener appeal.
Nowhere on tnis wide Continent are
better opportunities opened than on the
lands of Oregon.
So far as the Federation goes there will
be two main ' divisions. Bodies of con
nected lands Will be held In Federation
ownership, and worked for the Federa
tion by members resident there for the
But the acreages In question are far too
large to be all so held and used.
The principle of farmers' unions has
been tested and found good In other
countries. Associated menibers will own
each his own farm, to be by him culti
vated and Improved as he sees best. Un
der contract with the Federation such
associated members will profit by Its
prices on their purchases of tools and Im
plements, of furniture and equipment,
and of household supplies it will receive
and handle the'products of the farm,
either by purchase at market price, or
by selling for the member and his fellows
on commission, benefiting all by the
higher prices gained by packing, holding,
and selling to the beet advantage.
IT remains to explain the proposed dis
tribution of the profits of the Federa
tionthe general fund constituted from
the net earnings of each sub-corporation,
and of the surplus properties of the Fed
eration not segregated between the sub-
corporations referred to.
It will be borne In mind that each sub
corporation will have paid the expenses
of wages and salaries at current rates.
The net profit of each will be represented
by dividends on Its capital subscribed by
the trust on behalf of the Federation.
The consolidated profit fund of the Fed
eration will - then be distributed as .fol
lows: Five per cent Interest will be paid
on all bonds outstanding. Then o per cent
to the trust, and 10 pen cent for the spir
itual and intellectual fund, from which
the religious services will be maintained,
schools, classes and libraries provided.
The sick benefits and care of widows and
orphans will then be paid and 10 per cent
be set aside for the Increase, extension
and betterment of the properties of the
Federation. From one-half of the net
profit fund E per cent additional interest
on the outstanding bonds will be paid.
The balance will be distributed among
all active members equally. But regard
will be had to the number of hours each
member may have worked. The princi
ple Involved is that each member has
earned the market price for the special
work he has accomplished. Thus, his
skill, energy. Industry and ambition has
had full play.
But in the aggregate fund from the net
As to Division of Profits.
Prudent and successful men in the older sec
tions of the country are making responsible
Trust Companies custodians for handling and
distributing their estates. The service is
superior to that of the individual trustee, and
the estate more economically and safely handled.
You.can feel free to advise with us uponaily
matters pertaining to your affairs.
AND TRUST COMPANY
2 4 7 WASHINGTON STREET
CAPITAL FULLY PAID, $150,000.00
J. Frank Watson, President. R. L. Durham, Vice-President.
W. H. Fear, Secretary. S. C. Catehinp, Asst. Secretary.
O. W. T. Muellhaupt, Cashier.
- Wisp Clothes
see the label "Sincerity Clothes'!
in the Garment you buy.
For in "Sincerity Clothes" the
shape and style and fit are perman
ently tailored into each garment
not merely pressed in temporarily.
It doesn't matter how much you
wear them. "Sincerity Clothes"
hold their shape their style as
long as you'll want them to. look
Yet they don't cost any more to
buy than the ordinary elusive
"Will-O'-The-Wisp" style of a Gar
ment that proves so disappointing.
Jus see "Sincerity Clothes" at
your better class Clothes Shop see
that the label below is in the next
coat you buy. That label insures
style, service and satisfaction.
Nathan A Fischer Co.. Chicago.
common earnings each member shall
have an equal right.
Labor, then, subject to the necessary al
lowance to capital and management, will
receive, either In person or In benefits the
whole of the profit fund, which, under
ordinary organization of corporate enter
prise would have been paid to ownership.
Is there any cause under these condi
tions for such dissatisfaction on the part
of labor as have under ordinary organiza
tions, led to strikes, lockouts, boycotts,
It can hardly be expected that quarrels
or differences may not arise within the
bounds of the Federation, although as It
is in plan and conduct fraternal, those
who work will receive in one form or
other all the benefits and profits of the
entire enterprise. It is possible, how
ever, so to arrange that all such trouhles
shall be peaceably settled. Federatlon
ists must, on entrance, agree to submit all
complaints, by or against them, to arbi
tration. A standing board of three arbi
trators (selected from the members) Is
provided, with an appeal board of three
others to be summoned In case of dissat
isfaction with the order of the standing
board and the ultimate order is to be
Not hastily, but after long and careful
study not as a merely possible solution,
but after consultation with social stu
dents, whose names and careers carry
weight, and with the approval of many
financial authorities, the plans of the Co
operative Christian Federation have taken
definite form. In the conviction that
they are workable, possible, promising,
years of labor have been spent, hard
earned money expended. Tlie test is
now close at hand. '
MONARCH WOULD SELLOUT
Offers Scepter and 30 Wives for
PARIS. Oct. 26. A monarch of the name
of Yorshl is advertising a kingdom for
sale in several continental newspapers.
He offers his thrown, crown, scepter, do
minions, and subjects for sale, with 30
wives thrown In, for the modest sum of
His realm is that of Aysbonia, a strip
of land In Africa 250 miles long and 90
miles wide. The power of life and death
Is the King's prerogative, and goes with
the 'crown, as does the granting of all
A special attraction of the offer is the
formation of the royal crown, which Is a
neat diadem made of human skulls. The
throne is made of skulls and thigh bones.
The Inclusion of the 30 wives in the
bargain seems to be considered a draw
back, and his dusky majesty appears to
have had no offers.
Metzger ft Co.. Jewelers and Opticians.
342 Washington street.