The Sunday Oregonian. (Portland, Ore.) 1881-current, October 27, 1907, Magazine Section, Page 6, Image 54

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THE operation of the Smithsonian
Institution Is unique among the es
tablishments of the United States
Government in that, deriving its own
proper support from the Smithson fund,
& private foundation, it has from time to
time had placed in Hs charge various
branches of Government scientific work.
These branches, to be 'sure, are all of
them outgrowths of researches initiated
through the institution and later adopted
end fostered by Government aid. The
practical importance of several former
Investigations of the institution has been
realized to such an extent that, like the
Bureau of Fisheries, the "Weather Bureau
and perhaps biological bureaus now in
cluded In the Department of Agriculture,
they have been weaned entirely and con
ducted as separate branches of the Gov
ernment service.
As the Smithsonian Institution now op
erates, there are included under its admin
istration the National Museum (and in
connection with it the National Gallery
of Art), the Bureau of American Ethnol
ogy, the system of International ex
changes, the International Catalogue of
Scientific Literature, the Astrophysloal
Observatory and the National Zoological
Park. '
From the income of' the Smithson fund
and from contingent funds special re
searches are conducted in fields not cov
ered toy other Government scientific bu
reaus, whether the fields be the measur
ing of pressure and temperature at high
altitudes, the studying of eclipses, the
tracing of geologic Btrata, or determining
the principles of flight. And for the 'in
crease and diffusion of knowledge among
men," the words of the Smithson be
quest, many scientific and popular works
are Issued to libraries and institutions
throughout the world.
Aided partly by Smithson funds and
partly by special Government appropria
tions1, several investigators are at pres
ent in the field. Mr. C. W. GUmore, of
the National Museum, is in Alaska un
dertaking paleontologtcal explorations
with a special view to securing specimens
of fossil mammals. Mr. Gilmore's re
searches, which follow upon discoveries
made several years ago by S.r. Maddren,
are to extend over two seasons and are
confined to the Yukon Basin and Buck
land River region.
Under a very recent Smithsonian grant
Mr. Bailey Willis, of. the United States
Geological Survey, is directed to proceed
to Europe for a thorough study of the
puzzling geologic structure of the Alps
and the theories put forward by Euro
pean geologists.
Will Observe Total Eclipse.
Plans have been made for a Smithsonian
eclipse expedition In charge of Mr. J. G.
Abbot, director of the Astrophyslcal Obr
eervatory, to observe from Flint Island,
In the Southern Pacific, the total eclipse
of the sun to occur January 3, 1908. Mr.
Abbot is to observe the. heating effect of
the sun's corona and to decide, if possi
ble, more particularly the causes of
coronal light. Mr. Abbot will' work with
Professor W. W. Campbell, of the Lick
In connection with examinations of the
boundary surveys of the 49th parallel, the
United States' part of which has' been
placed In charge of Mr. Tittman. .of the
Coast and Geodetic Survey, and Secretary
Walcott. of the institution, Mr. Walcott
will make a geological stuuy of the Cam
brian and pro-Cambrian sections of Brit
ish Columbia, and endeavor to trace the
continuance of the rocks comprising them
southward into Montana and Idaho.
Investigations along technical lines are
being conducted through the Hodgklns
fund by a. number of correspondents of
the institution. A Hodgkins grant was
recently approved in favor of Dr. R. von
Iendenfeld, of the Zoological Institute at
Prague, to enable the continuance of his
studies of the organs of flight of birds
and insects, which, in this period of ex
perimenting in aerial navigation, are of
vital present Interest.
National Gallery of Art.
The most comprehensive Government
branch of the Smithsonian Institution
is the National Museum, which also In
cludes the National Gallery of Art, un
der the Immediate direction of Mr.
Richard Ratlibun. Interest in this di
rection Is most lively upon the subject
of the erection of the new museum
building, which it Is hoped will be un
der roof by the close of this calendar
year. In the new building it 's planned
to house mainly the scientific collec
tions, which include natural history,
; geology, ethnology, archaeology and al
lied rubjects. The present museum
building will then be turned over to
the department of arts and industries,
and the building of. the Institution it
self will become a museum of fine lirts
and until the growth of collections de
mands larger quarters, will be the seat
of the National Gallery of Art. Since
the National Gallery during the past
year has had a remarkable and sur
prising growth . through the gifts of
"William T. Evans and others, there i
increased hope of those directly in
rharge that not far in the future the
United Spates Government may boast
of a gallery of American art truly
National in its character.
While the Museum is the custodian
of all Government collections. and
while to the public its main feature,
Research is continuous under Profes
sor Otis T. Mason, of the department
of anthropology; Dr. Frederick W.
True, of the department of biology, and
Professor George P. Merrill, of the de
partment of geology.
Professor Mason's researches are in
the fields of physical and cultural an
thropology, -in the former, study of the
crania, skeleton and brain, both spe
ciflcially and comparatively; in the lat
tor, study of everything resulting from
the development of the culture of man
kind. In this connection, much time
this year will be employed In exam
ining material forwarded to the mu
seum by W. L. Abbott, who has made
extensive collections in the rich 'an
thropological fields of Malaysia. Borneo
and the Philippines, by the field work
ers of thu bureau of ethnology, and by
various other correspondents and asso
ciates of the museum.
The work of Dr. True's department
of biology relates directly to classifi
cation of genera and species of plants
and animals brought in by many Gov
ernment exploring parties, such as the
animal cruise of the Fish Commission
steamer Albatross, Boundary Commis
sion, and the like. Classification work
of this sort is necessarily irregular In
Jts demands ond requires an immedi
ate general knowledge of all special
classes, whether birds, mammals, rep
tiles, fishes. Insects, Invertebrates or
Puzzling Investigations.
In the department of geology tech
nical studies of the properties of vari
ous minerals forwarded from many
Government explorations and surveys
are made by Professor Merrill and Dr.
"Wirt Tassin. Geological problems must
be solved, and it often falls to the lot
of a geologist of" this department to
examine at close range earth struc
tures which have puzzled other sci
entific explorers. Professor Merrill
has Just returned from Canyon Diablo,
Arizona, with mlnetalogical and geo
logical data to determine the origin of
a peculiar crater-like formation in the
earth's crust. In this department the
Smithsonian comes into close touch
with the Geological Survey, several
members of the staff of the Survey be
ing at the same time actively engaged
in the Interests of the museum. '
Studying Indians.
The Bureau of American Ethnology, un
der the charge of Mr. W. H. Holmes, is
engaged entirely in systematic researches
among the tribes of American Indians.
These Include the scientific classification,
distribution and history of the tribes and
the study of their physical and mental
characters, languages, social institutions,
religions, arts and industries, economic
resources and welfare, In short everything
pertaining to the American Indians. The
scope of the bureau has lately been ex
tended to include Hawaii, a bibliography
of that island being now In progress.
For the last few years the energies of the
staff have been largely devoted to the
completion of the Handbook of American
Indians, an encyclopedia of all that eth
nologists knew of the subject. It is prob
ably the most ambitious work ever pub
lished by a government bureau.
Besides working on the handbook, the
scientific staff has been constantly in
the field gathering material of a scienti
fic character. ,The explorations of Dr. J.
Walter Fewkes in the unearthing of an
American Pompeii about the historic Casa
Grande ruins in Arizona has recently at
tracted much attention. . Mr. James
Moeney among the Cheyenne. Kiowa and
Kiowa-Apache tribes of Oklahoma and
Indian Territory; Dr. John A. Swanton in
the South: Mrs. M. C. Stevenson in Zuni;
Mrs. J. N. B. Hewitt among the Iroquois,
and Dr. Cyrus Thomas in Mexico and
Central America, will continue to study
the life and character of these first
In the international exchanges, popu
larly less known features of the institu
tion's Work, the Smithsonian Institution
acts as an international clearing house
for scientific and other literature. . It
is through these exchanges that men of
science In this country are .kept contin
ually in touch with the work of investi
gators in other parts of the world and
through which other investigators are in
formed of the work and discoveries of
American researchers. Tho exchance
system now includes correspondents in
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is the exhibition of characteristic ob- XrfZTWZr" , - v ' . - . -vw i f-Orvs VUMlf l it I . ',, . .
Jects in Its several divisions, yet the f5JfrX ' c ." 'v1 " Vo';' - f558 ' ySVV4 rtP9L mnfHHMJV 1 1 1 III
law demands that these materals shall Bftf "3PVM c5"-' "-y' VwA. f f AfS 4" 3l. lirWVlWJiv
be classified and properly arranged, a J ifti? "ft - ' - ,- -."''.Z ' tgl ; iJii'.f 7V ' ' 1 V&lwS42-? lWl1y"ttfflM1'i I III III il ill fill
task which involves a large amount of ft-CcHJ1 I ' -" " ' L-ii1 1 TSc7T rWMHrAl I I I ill
research work. Consequently the mu- C?7rW''fJ I '-' "v ' ? XSi ' J7PJBb wWflWm II 1 1 I III ilW'
scum scientific staff is made up, so far ) -! ' - " ' ' V "S & 1 X&Sofjl J("5T inMWl4lfl 1 1 II lilll' ''
as means allow, of experts on the sev- Dl(ff(-S' ' ' : x"-" ' ' J 'fj '4 ' vScfitri(SfT' WlinfWTi JU lllllhlll Jz
eral subjects represented. The scl- GSf A ;-'"--! "c-V i 4 & B33?$f& liUJfiliMStim', (UUiIIIM-i
entitle work is carried on continuously, t ' ' -.' ' fe'sV'v' ' Wk"" V(FlWfHfflztlfri. .'HlH! Ir.vEO'Rj '
and results in many important contri- gjtf vi " n"? VvV AtUfwrWHil '
buttons to knowledge. Little actual fff ' 5 '' , " " $ TfflHuiIfflWmWW I '
field work, however, is done, the mu- ft 'f-'V x- - 1 U'mfWuUij
seum relying for its material upon the v- ' jr "V - A i I SV l'"MHjYZlWffi
regular Government expeditions, and fill : t. '! If Tft - . " J7j ' . 1 mmMMWl&';it SSP
contributions from thousands of pri- Jill I I ' '.."V,"., V . - 1A ' - VS vllltlfflmfflff&
vate sources gifts and exchanges. 1111 " ' s "" V a' d!ig Hv u,y WJjy
Some of the assistants in the. museum 'Kill ' SlSilS I Jlr.rJir ?-? A N. ' lv ''vTT
are expert field1 workers, and while the Ml :i5iii:ii; wW 'WHM'aSf" '-'Mvlftllliil M&-
finances for this 'purpose are very lim- II II '' i"y - ' ' ' - M .- IWJrKIIrfi -i&MW V itff&-t
lted. opportunity often arrives, espe- I ItM " - " " " tf - ? . 'I(ullaWWY' M t&MlrX
cially through explorations by the Geo- jj J 1 ii j
ELCRE'TARY- GHARLrLS D. WALCOTT ' irrSSffiRfH 1 11 II llii EI 1 ft
every civilized part of the world, num
bering In all above 60.000, working in uni
son with other international exchange
systems in other countries. The Smith
sonian Institution is at present using its
influence with a view to securing the
establishment of like systems in England
and Germany.
The international catalogue of Scientific
Literature is an interest which the insti
tution has recently made an independent
branch of Its work in co-operation with
other nations every scientific publication
in the world is classified and placed on
record according to an international code.
The catalogue Is Invaluable to specialists
engaged in scientific research, for by its
help the work and results of every man
at all connected with science in a civil
ized nation may be consulted with com
parative ease.
In the Astrophyslcal Observatory, es
tablished in. 1890. the institution has a de
partment which for a long time was
unique in the United States. Treating
the physics rather than the mathematics
of astronomy what was called the new
astronomy the whole energy and skill of
its staff are given over to a study of
solar radiation and similar problems. The
practical value of this work is evident
from the results obtained showing a tan
gible and determinable relationship be
tween the amount of heat given off by
the sun in a season and the temperature
of the earth during the following season,
the details of which are set forth in the
annals of the observatory, the second vol
ume of which tie about to be published.
Measurements in Washington and at
Mount Wilson. California, of what is
known as the "solar constant," the reflec
tion of clouds, and the amount of sky
radiation, are experiments which, worked
out, may well be incorporated in the rou
tine of the Weather Bureau. Mr. Abbot,
who is in charge of the observatory be
sides studying the solar eclipse next Jan
uary, intends beginning the Investigation
of the radiation of the earth to space, by
measuring the transmission of our at
mosphere for the rays of great wave
length which are emitted by a body at
the temperature of the earth.- This is to
be done by observing the' solar spectrum
and by observing the transmission of
rays from bodies at high temperatures
through layers of air of considerable
length and of varying water vapor con
tents. And finally there comes under the su
pervision of- the Smithsonian Institution
the National Zoological Park, which,
while of great popular interest, is at the
same time very valuable to students of
biology in all its forms. 'Over a thousand
animals, gifts and purchases from very
many sources, are now housed in the
park, which comprises 167 acres of hilly
wooded land two miles from the center
of Washington, the beautiful driveway of
the many who come to the capital to live.
In designing the park, the animals are re
tained in surroundings as nearly natural
as has been found compatible with safety.
It is the plan of Dr. Frank Baker, super
intendent of the park, to construct within
the year a much needed special laboratory
building and to make a number of other
improvements to the park both with a
view to rendering the
charges more comfortable
to the beauty of the groun
proper exhibition and care
is the chief object of the
experiments in breeding to
domestic beasts might well
proper scope of their work
and to adding
ds. While the
of the animals
park officials,
secure hardier
fall within the
Blue and Plum for Men's Fall Dress
Some of This Season's Fancies for the Fastidious.
EVENING dress this Winter for the
smart young element and lively eld
erly men will border on the extreme
in cut, color, and decoration. The .new
dress cloth colors are not quite pro
nounced enough to be distinct from black
in the evening. The popularity of blue
and plum in dress vicuna may become
quite noticeable with the most fastidious
of the fashionables who elect to parade
every . whimsicality of the mode; For
conservative dressers partial to the ele
gance of .simplicity lines and fabrics will
be fashioned pretty much on familiar
lines, says Chicago Apparel Gazette in
the first October issue.
Dinner Jacket in Cambridge Gray.
Cambridge gray drape, faced with black
corded silk, pockets slightly vertical, cord
welted, sleeves finished with turned-back
cuff and open vent closing with one
linked button, the bottom of the front
opening from the lower of the two but
tons, slightly rounded points and silk
faced collar are some of the very newest
wrinkles that will be seen at stags this
Winter. With the more formal dress coat
general construction is less changed even
than the tuxedo, excepting In some de
tails designed to add to its smartness,
such as . well tapered skirts, greater
breadth and length of the lapel, which
has well-rounded corners at 'the notch.
Of note is a narrow breadth of cloth be
tween the silk cord edging, the Ottoman
silk facing and the edge of the lapel,
which is decorated with serpentine braid
a vej-y contrasty effect. This narrow
cloth showing on the facing is also af
fected in dinner coats.
Xewly Shaped Waistcoats.
The opening on waistcoats this year is
more of a V than a U shape and pointed
at the bottom. They are of white amure
silk, closing with small pearl buttons
and have, a collar. For dinner wear the
waistcoat is of dove-colored 'silk with de
sign, and follows the style of the more
formal garment. Trousers remain nearly.
unchanged, easy over the hips, of average
width in the legs and taper gradually to
the foot, setting neatly on the shoe.
Braided Morning Coats.
Braid binding and corded edges come
Into greater, prominence and will be seen
this season on morning coat, full frock
and Chesterfield in black, Oxford and
Cambridge gray, closely shorn, dull fin
ished fabrics. The cord-bound morning
coat is the latest. Vicunas, Saxonies and
unfinished fabrics In black and gray are
modish, a medium between tight waist
fitting and loose garments, moderately
defining in form. The cutaway follows Its
same general lines, closes with a low
opening, two or three buttons, well1
rounded skirts and cut away decidedly to
the crease of the trousers.
Bright Hues Popular.
So great Is the call for lively colored
accessories, such as handkerchiefs, . cra
vats, half-hose and shfrts, that In some
lines the retailers are having a scramble
to keep their shelves filled with shades
that happen to strike popular fancy.
Browns, tans, greens and combinations
of these colors, with red, heliotrope and
purple are in all the stylish displays.
In clothing and hats, particularly, the
craze for brown and tan has gained
strong headway. Hatters have been hard
pressed for brown trimming's on account
of the demand, while the clothing men
have In many instances cleaned up their
stocks in the more popular shades and
have had difficulty in getting enough.
All this Is taken as reason to believe
that these tones will get a big headway
next Spring. Some very freakish effects
are purchased and worn by a certain, few,
but the well-dressed man is preferring
the new colors and cuts in moderation.
' Some British Ideas on Dress.
King Edward continues to be the fash
Ion arbiter for some of the best dressers
in England, and on the continent and
even in this country. At present his
majesty wears a frock coat with very
wide lapels of silk. The points of these
are turned down quite low, to the third
or fourth button on the waistcoat,-where
the coat is beld in position by two onyx
links mounted in metal. He still adheres
to the style he Inaugurated, of having
his trousers, creased at the sides, instead
of at' the front a style which is slowly
winning a hard, hard battle against the
old custom.
Sew Wrinkles for the Sterner Sex.
A patent has been taken out f,or a new
method of keeping the crease In trousers.
It Is claimed to be practical and is formed
by silk threads sewn down in the legs
of the trousers. Another device consists
of either a whalebone or steel band, very
light and unseen, that Is fastened with
projecting points inside the bottom of
the trousers to prevent wear and keep
shape. The Teddy bear idea, for the
youngsters, has extended to bathrobes,
crib covers and is getting extremely pop
ular in children's hats.
" The Early Vse of Forks.
Chicago Journal.
The earliest mention of forks was in
"Crudities," a singular book of travels
by Coryates, published in 1611. "The
Italians, and most strangers- that are
cormorant in Italy, do always, at their
meals, use a little fork when they cut
their meat." Queen Elizabeth was the
first English sovereign to use one, and
her court condemned the fad as a silly
Nature Speaks.
I saw an acorn on the ground
And In my soul a thought awoke;
The way from root to leaf I found
And planted there a. mighty oak..
The million other nuts that lay
Spread all about were naught to me;
I eaw them - withering In decay
While from the one I formed my trea.
I saw an Infant in' its play
Where all unnumbered children ran;
Once more my eager will held sway
Of this one boy I made a man.
That death, dlseaee and awful woe
O'ertook hie brothers on life's sea,
I did not even choose to know
This one was more than all to me.
So frrm remotest time have I
Selection from earth's offerings made;
To pick, to choose, or' to pass by
'Tls thus my game of life Is played.
Li. B. Waterhousa.
Has Constructed Artificial Universe
Great Hollow Wheel Made of Plate Glass and Steel.
RIDGE, an astronomer, of Pales
tlnia. North Carolina, owns an artificial
universe, which he constructed himself.
Dr. Doddridge's planetary system Is a
wonderful thing and savants from all
parts of the country have visited hliri and
examined it.
In making it he constructed a strong
box of plate glass and steel, like a great
hollow wheel, 20 feet In diameter and 6
feet across Its axis, and standing up
right. Tlirougli the center of the wheel he put
a shaft attached" to a series of engines
and boilers and on the end of the shaft,
In the center of the wheel, he placed a
large number of strong magnets, forming
a complete circle around the shaft five
feet in diameter and one foot thick and
covered on the perimeter with all the soft
steel filing that the magnets would hold
in place.
Then he removed the air from the in
side of the great circular box. leaving
a perfect vacuum, the steel and plate
glass walls easily sustaining the pres
sure of the outer air, although its force
is something enormous over so large a
surface, especially the sides. 20 feet
across, and which are fortified . by steel
cables on each side, attached to solid
Above the wheel immense magnets are
placed in position, in a half circle around
the circular box, being strongest at the
top and declining in strength the farther
they reach down the Bides and being In
tended to counteract the force of the at
traction of gravitation and to tend to
almost rob objects' inside the box of all
When this preliminary work was com
pleted, the shaft through the box' was
set in motion, and this motion very
gradually increased. After a long time
the first result was obtained in that a
flake or layer of the steel filings was
broken away from the outside of the in
ner wheel of magnets and the centrifugal
force flung it into the open space, where
It immediately drew Itself together Into a
ball whlph revolved around the central
shaft In exactly the same manner as
the planets revolve .around the sun, be
ing herd in suspense by the counteracting
effects of the large magnets above and
the attraction of gravitation from below,
and being continually forced out from
the centrifugal force which, acting on it
from the magnetic force at the center, as
though it were fastened to the center by
a cord, kept it out away from the center
almost exactly six feet.
The speed of the shaft being still In
creased, another flake or layer of the
filings was thrown off and immediately
drew together into a ball, revolving about
the shaft as befdre. and this was kept up
till five had been thrown off. but by this
time the speed of the shaft was such that
the first ball was driven out against the
outer side of the box and destroyed,
thus leaving only four balls, or "planets."
revolving about their artificial "sun." but
these have now been revolving with ab
solute regularity for some time, the In
nermost one at a distance of one foot
from the central-wheel and the outer one
a little over five feet. They also revolve
on their own axes as they fly about the
center, and, i with the exception that
there is no planet with a belt, and that
none of them have attendant moons,
they reproduce all the conditions shown
by the earth and the other planets of the
solar system.
Town Without Taxes.
Harrisville. the county seat of Ritchie
County. West Virginia, will be without
any municipal taxation this year for th
first time in tue old town's history.
This announcement has just been made
by the Mayor. Romeo H. Freer, a former
Attorney-General of the state. Harris
vine owns Its own electric lighting plant,
and the profit from Its operation, com
bined with the interest on the town's
money In the banks, will afTord ample
revenue for all estimated municipal ex
penses, so that no corporate tax will be
laid whatever. No other town in West
Virginia ever enjoyed this distinction.