THE SUNDAY OREGONIAN, PORTLAND, OCTOBER 27, 1907. W ANB B GOING TO ID THE operation of the Smithsonian Institution Is unique among the es tablishments of the United States Government in that, deriving its own proper support from the Smithson fund, & private foundation, it has from time to time had placed in Hs charge various branches of Government scientific work. These branches, to be 'sure, are all of them outgrowths of researches initiated through the institution and later adopted end fostered by Government aid. The practical importance of several former Investigations of the institution has been realized to such an extent that, like the Bureau of Fisheries, the "Weather Bureau and perhaps biological bureaus now in cluded In the Department of Agriculture, they have been weaned entirely and con ducted as separate branches of the Gov ernment service. As the Smithsonian Institution now op erates, there are included under its admin istration the National Museum (and in connection with it the National Gallery of Art), the Bureau of American Ethnol ogy, the system of International ex changes, the International Catalogue of Scientific Literature, the Astrophysloal Observatory and the National Zoological Park. ' From the income of' the Smithson fund and from contingent funds special re searches are conducted in fields not cov ered toy other Government scientific bu reaus, whether the fields be the measur ing of pressure and temperature at high altitudes, the studying of eclipses, the tracing of geologic Btrata, or determining the principles of flight. And for the 'in crease and diffusion of knowledge among men," the words of the Smithson be quest, many scientific and popular works are Issued to libraries and institutions throughout the world. Aided partly by Smithson funds and partly by special Government appropria tions1, several investigators are at pres ent in the field. Mr. C. W. GUmore, of the National Museum, is in Alaska un dertaking paleontologtcal explorations with a special view to securing specimens of fossil mammals. Mr. Gilmore's re searches, which follow upon discoveries made several years ago by S.r. Maddren, are to extend over two seasons and are confined to the Yukon Basin and Buck land River region. Under a very recent Smithsonian grant Mr. Bailey Willis, of. the United States Geological Survey, is directed to proceed to Europe for a thorough study of the puzzling geologic structure of the Alps and the theories put forward by Euro pean geologists. Will Observe Total Eclipse. Plans have been made for a Smithsonian eclipse expedition In charge of Mr. J. G. Abbot, director of the Astrophyslcal Obr eervatory, to observe from Flint Island, In the Southern Pacific, the total eclipse of the sun to occur January 3, 1908. Mr. Abbot is to observe the. heating effect of the sun's corona and to decide, if possi ble, more particularly the causes of coronal light. Mr. Abbot will' work with Professor W. W. Campbell, of the Lick Observatory. In connection with examinations of the boundary surveys of the 49th parallel, the United States' part of which has' been placed In charge of Mr. Tittman. .of the Coast and Geodetic Survey, and Secretary Walcott. of the institution, Mr. Walcott will make a geological stuuy of the Cam brian and pro-Cambrian sections of Brit ish Columbia, and endeavor to trace the continuance of the rocks comprising them southward into Montana and Idaho. Investigations along technical lines are being conducted through the Hodgklns fund by a. number of correspondents of the institution. A Hodgkins grant was recently approved in favor of Dr. R. von Iendenfeld, of the Zoological Institute at Prague, to enable the continuance of his studies of the organs of flight of birds and insects, which, in this period of ex perimenting in aerial navigation, are of vital present Interest. National Gallery of Art. The most comprehensive Government branch of the Smithsonian Institution is the National Museum, which also In cludes the National Gallery of Art, un der the Immediate direction of Mr. Richard Ratlibun. Interest in this di rection Is most lively upon the subject of the erection of the new museum building, which it Is hoped will be un der roof by the close of this calendar year. In the new building it 's planned to house mainly the scientific collec tions, which include natural history, ; geology, ethnology, archaeology and al lied rubjects. The present museum building will then be turned over to the department of arts and industries, and the building of. the Institution it self will become a museum of fine lirts and until the growth of collections de mands larger quarters, will be the seat of the National Gallery of Art. Since the National Gallery during the past year has had a remarkable and sur prising growth . through the gifts of "William T. Evans and others, there i increased hope of those directly in rharge that not far in the future the United Spates Government may boast of a gallery of American art truly National in its character. While the Museum is the custodian of all Government collections. and while to the public its main feature, Research is continuous under Profes sor Otis T. Mason, of the department of anthropology; Dr. Frederick W. True, of the department of biology, and Professor George P. Merrill, of the de partment of geology. Professor Mason's researches are in the fields of physical and cultural an thropology, -in the former, study of the crania, skeleton and brain, both spe ciflcially and comparatively; in the lat tor, study of everything resulting from the development of the culture of man kind. In this connection, much time this year will be employed In exam ining material forwarded to the mu seum by W. L. Abbott, who has made extensive collections in the rich 'an thropological fields of Malaysia. Borneo and the Philippines, by the field work ers of thu bureau of ethnology, and by various other correspondents and asso ciates of the museum. The work of Dr. True's department of biology relates directly to classifi cation of genera and species of plants and animals brought in by many Gov ernment exploring parties, such as the animal cruise of the Fish Commission steamer Albatross, Boundary Commis sion, and the like. Classification work of this sort is necessarily irregular In Jts demands ond requires an immedi ate general knowledge of all special classes, whether birds, mammals, rep tiles, fishes. Insects, Invertebrates or plants. Puzzling Investigations. In the department of geology tech nical studies of the properties of vari ous minerals forwarded from many Government explorations and surveys are made by Professor Merrill and Dr. "Wirt Tassin. Geological problems must be solved, and it often falls to the lot of a geologist of" this department to examine at close range earth struc tures which have puzzled other sci entific explorers. Professor Merrill has Just returned from Canyon Diablo, Arizona, with mlnetalogical and geo logical data to determine the origin of a peculiar crater-like formation in the earth's crust. In this department the Smithsonian comes into close touch with the Geological Survey, several members of the staff of the Survey be ing at the same time actively engaged in the Interests of the museum. ' Studying Indians. The Bureau of American Ethnology, un der the charge of Mr. W. H. Holmes, is engaged entirely in systematic researches among the tribes of American Indians. These Include the scientific classification, distribution and history of the tribes and the study of their physical and mental characters, languages, social institutions, religions, arts and industries, economic resources and welfare, In short everything pertaining to the American Indians. The scope of the bureau has lately been ex tended to include Hawaii, a bibliography of that island being now In progress. For the last few years the energies of the staff have been largely devoted to the completion of the Handbook of American Indians, an encyclopedia of all that eth nologists knew of the subject. It is prob ably the most ambitious work ever pub lished by a government bureau. Besides working on the handbook, the scientific staff has been constantly in the field gathering material of a scienti fic character. ,The explorations of Dr. J. Walter Fewkes in the unearthing of an American Pompeii about the historic Casa Grande ruins in Arizona has recently at tracted much attention. . Mr. James Moeney among the Cheyenne. Kiowa and Kiowa-Apache tribes of Oklahoma and Indian Territory; Dr. John A. Swanton in the South: Mrs. M. C. Stevenson in Zuni; Mrs. J. N. B. Hewitt among the Iroquois, and Dr. Cyrus Thomas in Mexico and Central America, will continue to study the life and character of these first Americans. In the international exchanges, popu larly less known features of the institu tion's Work, the Smithsonian Institution acts as an international clearing house for scientific and other literature. . It is through these exchanges that men of science In this country are .kept contin ually in touch with the work of investi gators in other parts of the world and through which other investigators are in formed of the work and discoveries of American researchers. Tho exchance system now includes correspondents in , T1 i: t . , f Jf ' ' - W1 . , - , ' ' -I - LJ. ....o.AZ.. 1...... - ... rT, 'fj-n - m -u-fTi-' 1 - ','' va...;..'.1 -'-'f riilHltltfTTt f'ljlil ' t''1l'''lw" ' ' " ' ' '"" mj THE SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTE. " " ' , " " U 5. NATIONAL. MUSEUM ' "WASHINGTON D.C . . Wmmli9 ' ' - ' is the exhibition of characteristic ob- XrfZTWZr" , - v ' . - . -vw i f-Orvs VUMlf l it I . ',, . . Jects in Its several divisions, yet the f5JfrX ' c ." 'v1 " Vo';' - f558 ' ySVV4 rtP9L mnfHHMJV 1 1 1 III law demands that these materals shall Bftf "3PVM c5"-' "-y' VwA. f f AfS 4" 3l. lirWVlWJiv be classified and properly arranged, a J ifti? "ft - ' - ,- -."''.Z ' tgl ; iJii'.f 7V ' ' 1 V&lwS42-? lWl1y"ttfflM1'i I III III il ill fill task which involves a large amount of ft-CcHJ1 I ' -" " ' L-ii1 1 TSc7T rWMHrAl I I I ill research work. Consequently the mu- C?7rW''fJ I '-' "v ' ? XSi ' J7PJBb wWflWm II 1 1 I III ilW' scum scientific staff is made up, so far ) -! ' - " ' ' V "S & 1 X&Sofjl J("5T inMWl4lfl 1 1 II lilll' '' as means allow, of experts on the sev- Dl(ff(-S' ' ' : x"-" ' ' J 'fj '4 ' vScfitri(SfT' WlinfWTi JU lllllhlll Jz eral subjects represented. The scl- GSf A ;-'"--! "c-V i 4 & B33?$f& liUJfiliMStim', (UUiIIIM-i entitle work is carried on continuously, t ' ' -.' ' fe'sV'v' ' Wk"" V(FlWfHfflztlfri. .'HlH! Ir.vEO'Rj ' and results in many important contri- gjtf vi " n"? VvV AtUfwrWHil ' buttons to knowledge. Little actual fff ' 5 '' , " " $ TfflHuiIfflWmWW I ' field work, however, is done, the mu- ft 'f-'V x- - 1 U'mfWuUij seum relying for its material upon the v- ' jr "V - A i I SV l'"MHjYZlWffi regular Government expeditions, and fill : t. '! If Tft - . " J7j ' . 1 mmMMWl&';it SSP contributions from thousands of pri- Jill I I ' '.."V,"., V . - 1A ' - VS vllltlfflmfflff& vate sources gifts and exchanges. 1111 " ' s "" V a' d!ig Hv u,y WJjy Some of the assistants in the. museum 'Kill ' SlSilS I Jlr.rJir ?-? A N. ' lv ''vTT are expert field1 workers, and while the Ml :i5iii:ii; wW 'WHM'aSf" '-'Mvlftllliil M&- finances for this 'purpose are very lim- II II '' i"y - ' ' ' - M .- IWJrKIIrfi -i&MW V itff&-t lted. opportunity often arrives, espe- I ItM " - " " " tf - ? . 'I(ullaWWY' M t&MlrX cially through explorations by the Geo- jj J 1 ii j ELCRE'TARY- GHARLrLS D. WALCOTT ' irrSSffiRfH 1 11 II llii EI 1 ft OF THE, SMITHSONIAN" INSTITUTE SlE$ fffl : t " jfttftW every civilized part of the world, num bering In all above 60.000, working in uni son with other international exchange systems in other countries. The Smith sonian Institution is at present using its influence with a view to securing the establishment of like systems in England and Germany. The international catalogue of Scientific Literature is an interest which the insti tution has recently made an independent branch of Its work in co-operation with other nations every scientific publication in the world is classified and placed on record according to an international code. The catalogue Is Invaluable to specialists engaged in scientific research, for by its help the work and results of every man at all connected with science in a civil ized nation may be consulted with com parative ease. In the Astrophyslcal Observatory, es tablished in. 1890. the institution has a de partment which for a long time was unique in the United States. Treating the physics rather than the mathematics of astronomy what was called the new astronomy the whole energy and skill of its staff are given over to a study of solar radiation and similar problems. The practical value of this work is evident from the results obtained showing a tan gible and determinable relationship be tween the amount of heat given off by the sun in a season and the temperature of the earth during the following season, the details of which are set forth in the annals of the observatory, the second vol ume of which tie about to be published. Measurements in Washington and at Mount Wilson. California, of what is known as the "solar constant," the reflec tion of clouds, and the amount of sky radiation, are experiments which, worked out, may well be incorporated in the rou tine of the Weather Bureau. Mr. Abbot, who is in charge of the observatory be sides studying the solar eclipse next Jan uary, intends beginning the Investigation of the radiation of the earth to space, by measuring the transmission of our at mosphere for the rays of great wave length which are emitted by a body at the temperature of the earth.- This is to be done by observing the' solar spectrum and by observing the transmission of rays from bodies at high temperatures through layers of air of considerable length and of varying water vapor con tents. And finally there comes under the su pervision of- the Smithsonian Institution the National Zoological Park, which, while of great popular interest, is at the same time very valuable to students of biology in all its forms. 'Over a thousand animals, gifts and purchases from very many sources, are now housed in the park, which comprises 167 acres of hilly wooded land two miles from the center of Washington, the beautiful driveway of the many who come to the capital to live. SMOOTHED THE FOLDS OF PAPER AMD READ ON In designing the park, the animals are re tained in surroundings as nearly natural as has been found compatible with safety. It is the plan of Dr. Frank Baker, super intendent of the park, to construct within the year a much needed special laboratory building and to make a number of other improvements to the park both with a view to rendering the charges more comfortable to the beauty of the groun proper exhibition and care is the chief object of the experiments in breeding to domestic beasts might well proper scope of their work Government's and to adding ds. While the of the animals park officials, secure hardier fall within the Blue and Plum for Men's Fall Dress Some of This Season's Fancies for the Fastidious. EVENING dress this Winter for the smart young element and lively eld erly men will border on the extreme in cut, color, and decoration. The .new dress cloth colors are not quite pro nounced enough to be distinct from black in the evening. The popularity of blue and plum in dress vicuna may become quite noticeable with the most fastidious of the fashionables who elect to parade every . whimsicality of the mode; For conservative dressers partial to the ele gance of .simplicity lines and fabrics will be fashioned pretty much on familiar lines, says Chicago Apparel Gazette in the first October issue. Dinner Jacket in Cambridge Gray. Cambridge gray drape, faced with black corded silk, pockets slightly vertical, cord welted, sleeves finished with turned-back cuff and open vent closing with one linked button, the bottom of the front opening from the lower of the two but tons, slightly rounded points and silk faced collar are some of the very newest wrinkles that will be seen at stags this Winter. With the more formal dress coat general construction is less changed even than the tuxedo, excepting In some de tails designed to add to its smartness, such as . well tapered skirts, greater breadth and length of the lapel, which has well-rounded corners at 'the notch. Of note is a narrow breadth of cloth be tween the silk cord edging, the Ottoman silk facing and the edge of the lapel, which is decorated with serpentine braid a vej-y contrasty effect. This narrow cloth showing on the facing is also af fected in dinner coats. Xewly Shaped Waistcoats. The opening on waistcoats this year is more of a V than a U shape and pointed at the bottom. They are of white amure silk, closing with small pearl buttons and have, a collar. For dinner wear the waistcoat is of dove-colored 'silk with de sign, and follows the style of the more formal garment. Trousers remain nearly. unchanged, easy over the hips, of average width in the legs and taper gradually to the foot, setting neatly on the shoe. Braided Morning Coats. Braid binding and corded edges come Into greater, prominence and will be seen this season on morning coat, full frock and Chesterfield in black, Oxford and Cambridge gray, closely shorn, dull fin ished fabrics. The cord-bound morning coat is the latest. Vicunas, Saxonies and unfinished fabrics In black and gray are modish, a medium between tight waist fitting and loose garments, moderately defining in form. The cutaway follows Its same general lines, closes with a low opening, two or three buttons, well1 rounded skirts and cut away decidedly to the crease of the trousers. Bright Hues Popular. So great Is the call for lively colored accessories, such as handkerchiefs, . cra vats, half-hose and shfrts, that In some lines the retailers are having a scramble to keep their shelves filled with shades that happen to strike popular fancy. Browns, tans, greens and combinations of these colors, with red, heliotrope and purple are in all the stylish displays. In clothing and hats, particularly, the craze for brown and tan has gained strong headway. Hatters have been hard pressed for brown trimming's on account of the demand, while the clothing men have In many instances cleaned up their stocks in the more popular shades and have had difficulty in getting enough. All this Is taken as reason to believe that these tones will get a big headway next Spring. Some very freakish effects are purchased and worn by a certain, few, but the well-dressed man is preferring the new colors and cuts in moderation. ' Some British Ideas on Dress. King Edward continues to be the fash Ion arbiter for some of the best dressers in England, and on the continent and even in this country. At present his majesty wears a frock coat with very wide lapels of silk. The points of these are turned down quite low, to the third or fourth button on the waistcoat,-where the coat is beld in position by two onyx links mounted in metal. He still adheres to the style he Inaugurated, of having his trousers, creased at the sides, instead of at' the front a style which is slowly winning a hard, hard battle against the old custom. Sew Wrinkles for the Sterner Sex. A patent has been taken out f,or a new method of keeping the crease In trousers. It Is claimed to be practical and is formed by silk threads sewn down in the legs of the trousers. Another device consists of either a whalebone or steel band, very light and unseen, that Is fastened with projecting points inside the bottom of the trousers to prevent wear and keep shape. The Teddy bear idea, for the youngsters, has extended to bathrobes, crib covers and is getting extremely pop ular in children's hats. " The Early Vse of Forks. Chicago Journal. The earliest mention of forks was in "Crudities," a singular book of travels by Coryates, published in 1611. "The Italians, and most strangers- that are cormorant in Italy, do always, at their meals, use a little fork when they cut their meat." Queen Elizabeth was the first English sovereign to use one, and her court condemned the fad as a silly affectation. Nature Speaks. I saw an acorn on the ground And In my soul a thought awoke; The way from root to leaf I found And planted there a. mighty oak.. The million other nuts that lay Spread all about were naught to me; I eaw them - withering In decay While from the one I formed my trea. I saw an Infant in' its play Where all unnumbered children ran; Once more my eager will held sway Of this one boy I made a man. That death, dlseaee and awful woe O'ertook hie brothers on life's sea, I did not even choose to know This one was more than all to me. So frrm remotest time have I Selection from earth's offerings made; To pick, to choose, or' to pass by 'Tls thus my game of life Is played. Li. B. Waterhousa. Has Constructed Artificial Universe Great Hollow Wheel Made of Plate Glass and Steel. PROFESSOR "CAMILIOtf DODD RIDGE, an astronomer, of Pales tlnia. North Carolina, owns an artificial universe, which he constructed himself. Dr. Doddridge's planetary system Is a wonderful thing and savants from all parts of the country have visited hliri and examined it. In making it he constructed a strong box of plate glass and steel, like a great hollow wheel, 20 feet In diameter and 6 feet across Its axis, and standing up right. Tlirougli the center of the wheel he put a shaft attached" to a series of engines and boilers and on the end of the shaft, In the center of the wheel, he placed a large number of strong magnets, forming a complete circle around the shaft five feet in diameter and one foot thick and covered on the perimeter with all the soft steel filing that the magnets would hold in place. Then he removed the air from the in side of the great circular box. leaving a perfect vacuum, the steel and plate glass walls easily sustaining the pres sure of the outer air, although its force is something enormous over so large a surface, especially the sides. 20 feet across, and which are fortified . by steel cables on each side, attached to solid posts. Above the wheel immense magnets are placed in position, in a half circle around the circular box, being strongest at the top and declining in strength the farther they reach down the Bides and being In tended to counteract the force of the at traction of gravitation and to tend to almost rob objects' inside the box of all weight. When this preliminary work was com pleted, the shaft through the box' was set in motion, and this motion very gradually increased. After a long time the first result was obtained in that a flake or layer of the steel filings was broken away from the outside of the in ner wheel of magnets and the centrifugal force flung it into the open space, where It immediately drew Itself together Into a ball whlph revolved around the central shaft In exactly the same manner as the planets revolve .around the sun, be ing herd in suspense by the counteracting effects of the large magnets above and the attraction of gravitation from below, and being continually forced out from the centrifugal force which, acting on it from the magnetic force at the center, as though it were fastened to the center by a cord, kept it out away from the center almost exactly six feet. The speed of the shaft being still In creased, another flake or layer of the filings was thrown off and immediately drew together into a ball, revolving about the shaft as befdre. and this was kept up till five had been thrown off. but by this time the speed of the shaft was such that the first ball was driven out against the outer side of the box and destroyed, thus leaving only four balls, or "planets." revolving about their artificial "sun." but these have now been revolving with ab solute regularity for some time, the In nermost one at a distance of one foot from the central-wheel and the outer one a little over five feet. They also revolve on their own axes as they fly about the center, and, i with the exception that there is no planet with a belt, and that none of them have attendant moons, they reproduce all the conditions shown by the earth and the other planets of the solar system. Town Without Taxes. Harrisville. the county seat of Ritchie County. West Virginia, will be without any municipal taxation this year for th first time in tue old town's history. This announcement has just been made by the Mayor. Romeo H. Freer, a former Attorney-General of the state. Harris vine owns Its own electric lighting plant, and the profit from Its operation, com bined with the interest on the town's money In the banks, will afTord ample revenue for all estimated municipal ex penses, so that no corporate tax will be laid whatever. No other town in West Virginia ever enjoyed this distinction.