THE SUNDAY 0KEB0NIA2T, PQSTLAOT, MAECH 19, 1905. Entered si the Fostofflce at PortlsJBd. Or as second-clas matter. SUBSCRIPTION KATES. IK VARIABLY IN ADVANCE (By Mall or Express.) Sally and Sunday, per year.......... .$9.00 Dally antl Sunday, six montha. ......... 5.00 Dally and Sunday, three months....... 2.55 Dally and Sunday, per month......... -S3 Dally -without Sunday, per year ........ 7.80 Dally -without Sunday, six months - 3.00 Dally -without Sunday, three month 1-05 Dally without Sunday, per 'month ...... .65 Sunday, per year ............... 2.00 Sunday, six months . .... 1.00 Sunday, three months CO BT CARRIER. Dally -without Sunday, per -week .15 Dally per week. Sunday Included. ...... -20 THE WEEKLT OREGOKIAN. (Issued Every Thursday.) Weekly, per year 1.60 Weekly, six months -75 Weekly, three months -50 HOW TO REMIT Send postoffice money order, express order or personal , cheek on your local tank. Stamps, coin or currency are at the sender's risk. EASTERN' BUSINESS OFFICE. The S. C Beckwlth Special Aeency New Tork: Rooms 43-50 Tribune building. Chi cago: Rooms 510-512 Tribune building. The Orcgonlan does not buy poems or stories from individuals and cannot under take to return any manuscript sent to It "without solicitation. No stamps should be Inclosed for this purpose. KEPT 0- SALE. Chicago Auditorium Annex: Postoffice News Co, 178 Dearborn street. Dallas, Tex. Globe News Depot. 2C0 Main street. Denver Julius Black, Hamilton & Kend rlck. 00-812 Seventeenth street, and Frue suS Bros., 60S Sixteenth street. Des Moines, la! Moses Jacobs. 209 Fifth street. Goldfleld, Ncr. C Malone. Kansas City. Mo, RIcksecker Cigar Co.. Ninth and Walnut. Los Angeles Harry Drapkln; B. E. Amos, EH West Seventh street. Mlnneapoll II. J. Kavanaugh. 00 South Third: L. Regelsburger. 217 First avenue South. New York City I, Jones & Co.. Astor House. Oakland, CaL W. H. Johnston. Four teenth and Franklin streets. Ogdep F. R. Godard and Meyers & Har rop; D." L. Boyle. Omaha Barkalow Bros., 1612 Farnham: Mageath EtaUonery Co., 1308 Farnham. McLaughlin Bros.. 240 S. 14th. Phoenix. Ariz. The Berryhlll News Co. Sacramento, Cal. Sacramento News Co.. 429 K. street. Salt Lake Salt Lake News Co.. 77 West Second street South. Santa Barbara, Cal. S. Smith. San Diego, CaL J. DUIard. San FraJQcIsco J. K. Cooper & Co., 740 Market street: Foster & Crear. Ferry News Stand; Goldsmith Bros.. 236 Sutter; L. E. Lee. Palace Hotel News Stand; F. W. Pitts. 1003 Market; Frank Scott. 80 Ellis: N. Wbeatlcy, 83 Stevenson; Hotel St. Francis News Stand. St. Louis, Mo. E. T. Jett Book & News Company. 800 Olive street. Washington. D. C. Ebblt House News Stand. PORTLAND, SUNDAY, MARCH 19, 1005. 1 r THE PLIGHT OF RUSSIA. Russia Is a victim of her Ignorance of Japan. She underrated the lighting power of the country with which she provoked war. It seemed to Russia really absurd, In Japan, to raise her protest against the continued; military occupation of Manchuria by Russia for what was Japan going to do about it? Russia therefore treated Japan's pro tests with contempt. Some of them she didn't deign to answer. To others sho returned evasive answers, after long periods. Russia was "bored. She thought Japan Impudent. She deemed it presumptuous for such a nation as Japan to press insistently as she was doing on mighty Russia for satisfaction as to the matters in controversy. Rus Eia was in Manchuria and meant i to stay there. She had Port Arthur and was fortifying it, contrary to agree ment; was converting It Into a power ful naval station. To the remonstrances of Japan she turned a deaf ear since it pleased her majesty to suppose Japan couldn't help herself. Japan wouldn't dare to go to war with mighty Russia, and If she should. Russia would crush her In three months and there would be an end. Of course, had Russia known what Japan's resources were, had she known the spirit of the Japanese and how they could light, she would have met the protests and remonstrances of Japan In a diplomatic way, and war would have been averted. But Russia had no doubt she could afford to treat Japan In a haughty and supercilious way; and if war should come, why then with one sweep of her mailed hand she would wipe the little brown men, the race and nation of pygmios, oflthe map of the world And, not only were the Japs brown or "yellow," but "pagan," too. Japan did not Insist on withdrawal of Russia from Manchuria, but merely on her adherence to the terms and con dltlons -under which she went there. The concession, through lease, of Port Arthur to Russia, for commercial pur poses, was not contested; but Japan constantly Insisted on military evacu ation of Manchuria; and Russia had 9 agreed upon the date (October 8, 1903) when it would be commenced. But the day came and passed, with no sign of the evacuation; weeks and months ran by, end Japan could get no satisfactory trnswer. The policy of Russia was equivocation, evasion and delay. It was the contention of Japan that Rus sian "military occupation of Manchuria would continually threaten the. inde pendence of Corea, and in the end would Russianize both that country and Manchuria, by which they would be closed to the' trade and economic en terprlse of Japan. Such certainly would have been the result; and Japan felt that she must stake all on the effort to defeat the aims of Russia, or virtu ally perish by the process of strangula tlon thus clearly foreseen. Russian oe cupatlon of Manchuria threatened Japan with far greater dangers than our country was threatened with by French occupation of Mexico. In what we call the Monroe Doctrine there Is a. principle wider than any application of that particular doctrine itself. To her amazement and discomfiture. Russia has found that Japan can fight end fight terribly. Most of Russia' Pacific fleet is at the bottom of the sea. and her armies of more than half a million men have been Touted from strongly Intrenched positions, on their own railroad, and virtually destroyed. No wonder It astounds Russia; for it surprises all the rest of the world. Now the problem Is how Russia is to meet her difficulties. It Is easy to say she will send other armies. But to get other armies and their supplies for ward, with an enterprising enemy ready to meet them on their arrival la detail for they can't all be got for ward at once Is a mighty problem, Moreover, It is useless to send raw levies against such soldiers as the vet erans of Japan; and it the Russian res ulars are sent, can- the new troops, just drawn from the people, be trusted at ?iome7 This war shakes Russia farj more severely than ever Napoleon "was able to shake her. Japan, advancing through Manchuria and towards Siberia, will organize and consolidate the country against Rus sia. Here is the basis of a political scheme that will organize and control against Russia the whole northern line of the Chinese Empire. Here Is a new starting-point inHhe history of the world. There have been prodigies here tofore; why not prodigies now? Russia will be shut up in Europe and In Arctic Asia. Japan will be the leading Ori ental nation. China, though retaining her nominal Independence, will admit or accept the hegemony of Japan. His tory is full of surprises. Here Is one of them. STAGES OF DEVELOPMENT. Subdivision of lands Is" a great need In our newer states, and will be", yet for long time. It Is necessary, not only in Itself and for Itself, but for its effect both on town and country life. It is the first necessary step towards relief from Isolation; for the towns cannot have growth unless occupation of the lands of the country precedes It. "We shall reach a stage after a while where subdivision of lands will cease, and In crease of the size of holdings will take its place. But not soon. Conditions of life vary, according to times and cir cumstances; and the movements of one age do not repeat those of another. People always wish to get out of life and living the best they can, In the circumstances In which they find them selves; and It Is right that they should do so. On the whole. In our present situation, during many years to come, we shall establish and maintain better conditions of life, social and economic, tnrough subdivision of lands and in crease of rural population. But In course of time a limit here also will be reached, as In our older states. It Is not necessary to go to New England to see the tendency now towards larger holdings. It may be observed in Ohio. Indiana and Illinois. But In our states of the Pacific Coast we a In iho newer stage of development, which must oe traversed oeiore we reach the conditions that are to succeed 1L We haven't yet done with agriculture or ror agriculture one-tenth part of wnat Is to be done here; and manufac tures cannot make much advance till we have done more for agriculture and have established a larcer nonulatfon of producers and consumers. Tet even In these newer states we may observe a distinct tendency of our population from country life to town life. "We see youne men nushinir ('. where into trade. Into mechanical Dur- sults, into the learned professions, into insignificant clerkships. Into .salaried positions of every sort that will take tnem Into towns and support and hold them there. It is Impossible to driye poor people from the cities with threat or starvation, or to coax them with promise of better pay and cheaper fare. Young women resort to the shops and lactones rather than take service In the -farmers' houses, where they are received as members of the famtivr and when they marry they seek an al liance, when practicable, with mechan les and tradesmen who live in the vil lages and large towns. The youth of both sexes who have seen nothing df tne world, have an overwhelming de sire to meet life and to be among the multitude. They feel their country life to oe narrow in Its ooDortunitles and rewards, and the pulsation of the great social heart, of which they have some observation, thrills them with longings ior tne places where the activity 'ccn t-ers. j.ney are not to be blamprt fnr this. It Is the most natural thing In the world. The time will come, therefore, when the farms will be growing larger with us, as In the older states; and subdi vision of lands In these new states of ours is checked by this tendency to an extent even now. But on th whnlo we shall have and must have mor subdivision, first because we need It- ana Decause tne conditions demand It xne movements of a people are not con trolled very much by their volitions, but chiefly by the clreumstnnrM in which they happen to be placed In umer worus, oy tne environment. A country must pass through one stage of aeveiopment before It can reach an other. A COUNTRY, OF EXPERIMENTS. In the Southern hemisphere are the two islands which make tip New Ze. land. The -area is about 115,000 square mnes, comparing with Oregon's 95,000, j.ne population is now S50.000. and growing rapidly. The climate Is healthy, the land productive, the people prosperous. All this is In the hand books. "What has not yet been pub lished broadcast Is that, although labor unions are strong and aggressive, al though employers are self-assertive and bound in associations, strikes have been practically done away with since tne arbitration and conciliation act passed in 1894, was amended and passed into general and compulsory -use In 1900, j. wo courts are thereby created. One is the Conciliation Court, composed of an equal representation of employers ana employed, with a disinterested chairman to hold the scales. Any party to a labor dispute may apply to this court and get prompt hearing. If either party falls to appoint the necessary arbitrator, the government selects one and the hearing proceeds. Appeals may be taken to the Arbitration Court, and from Its decisions there is no further appeal. This court, at Its own option either gives advice or issues an award. i-aiiure to comply with the award brings a penalty of 52500 on .a culpable employer, and the same amount against a trades union If a party. If the union fails or is unable to pay the "penalty. each member of the union Is xesponsl ble for its default up to the amount of 9v. unuer uus system serines are said to have disappeared, and work goes on without interruption. The most noteworthy experiment among these enterprising people is that of old-age pensions. To qualify for pension an applicant must be 65 years old or over, have been a resident of th .colony for twenty-five years, or a nat urallzed citizen of five years standing, He must not possess property yielding an Income of $260 a year, or of a cap ital value of over $1600. By the pension the Income may be made up to $260 year, but the maximum contribution by the state must not exceed $90 a year. .Absence from the colony for four years out of the twenty-five dis qualifies. This act has been in force since 1S9S, and the annual charge on the public revenues has now reached about $1,000,000. Fancy the Oregon Legislature being called on to add $500,000 a year to the appropriation bill for "old-ag pensions." This is about what would be the "parallel charge. The charity, ot ihe state. Is managed. by the -Charitable Aid Board, which nils the function of our organized char ities. The old-ajre nension law has ma terially lightened their labors. But the state recognizes the duty of Dublie charity, and cheerfully pays the cost. The public school system of the Islands Is excellent. For. some years the plan of one good school at the most accessible spot in three or four adjoin ing country districts, in place of a poor and cheap school In each district, has been in force. A jrraded school with competent teachers accessible to every child Is the aim. The children living at distant homes are "taken to the school for their lessons and returned when school is over, at the expense of the school fund. The same plan is making Its -way In some of the East ern States, In one at least of the states of the Middle "West, and Is under ex periment In Oregon. The results, both In advantages gained and In cost In curred, will be watched with much in terest. In many other directions New Zea land Is boldly accepting the Idea of a paternal government. Its ownership of afl the 2400 miles of railroad In the colony, except 100 miles of a private road, and its absolute control of the railroads with no bugbear of interstate commerce and all Its complications, has enabled It to Teduce the profits of the roads to 3 per cent on the capital In sisted by the state, all excess over that return being used In reduction of fares and freights. Under this regime we see a thriving people trying out their Udeas of self- government and general devejopment, frie from any outside Interference, called a colony, but independent In life and government, If ever that word can be applied to any people on this wide earth. THE MISSOURI REPUBLICANS. Missouri has finally elected a Repub lican as United States Senator, Major William "Warner, a lawyer, an ex- Congressman of Kansas City, and a well-known figure In Grand Army cir cles. It Is a satisfactory solution to a most vexatious and discreditable fac tional row that bade fair to throw away entirely the fruits of a hard-won and unexpected Republican victory. The contest had lasted from January 18 to the day of the legislature's adjourn ment, and had been conducted with much bitterness and some scandal. It ended finally In great uproar. Niedringhaus was the caucus nomi nee. He Is chairman of the Missouri Republican State Committee, and he was boss of the Republican state or ganization. He had supplanted In control of the machine Richard C. Ker ens, a very rich man who had led the party In a consistent record of defeat through many years. The Roosevelt upheaval found Niedringhaus in posl tlon to claim the fruits of victory. But Kerens organized a caucus bolt and the result is that these two bosses have killed off each other, and permitted desirable choice to be made. wnen any one sets himself up as owner of a political party, he is due for fall. His ruin may be accomplished by the clamorous persistence of reform era, or by the overwhelming force of the popular will, or by the activities of an aspiring rival. It would have been untortunate if .Niedringhaus. a mere machine politician, had been made Senator by his own machine; It would have been deplorable If Kerens, another machine politician, had been successful. But because neither would let the other have the Senatorship, a good man gets It, and the Republicans of Missouri have done well In spite of themselves. DOOM OF) THE SAILER. Foreign shipyards have received very heavy orders for 1905 delivery of steam tonnage, but throughout the Knlted "Kingdom not a single new order has been received for a deep-water sailing vessel. The doom of the sailer has be come something more than a figure of speech, and never again will the white- winged argosies of trade play the prom inent part which In the past they have taken in the world's commerce. With the passing of the sailer there also de parts from the literary field a theme which from the earliest ages has sup plied great material for romance and story. There was beauty In every curve of the famous clippers which raced around the world before the age of steam. -and even the broad-beamed merchantman, booming along under a cloud of canvas, always presented an Inspiring sight. These were the craft which originally "drew the world to gether and spread the race apart," and they developed a race of seamen and navigators such .as the world will never see again. The modern steamship, which has driven the sailing ship from the ocean. Is a prosaic piece of machinery that places navigating skill at a large dis count compared with that which was required of the men who guided the course of the sailing ships In the golden age of the clippers. Not even. Captain Marryat or W. Clarke Russell could find romance or feel any thrills over the strictly mechanical movements of a steamship. When the old-time clipper knocked hours and days off the record the performance was a triumph of skill on the part of the captain, whose nerve, daring and knowledge of the elements of Nature wind, tides and currents and whose judgment of the strain each mast would bear without breaking, brought fame to himself and fortune to the shipowners. With the successors of those wonderful creations of wood and canvas records are broken by a soot grimed swarm of human machines shoveling coal Into batteries "6T fur naces with a degree of precision that renders them as nearly automatic as the machinery with which they are sur rounded. And the man on the bridge who guides this mass of steel and Iron that goes thrashing through the waves? Small indeed are his opportunities for the display of skill and judgment. He is expected to go from a given port to another given port by the shortest and safest route. If a head wind blows throughout the trip, his steamer smashes Into it and the human ma chines down in the bold must work a little harder and a little longer, but rare Indeed are the opportunities for the captain to display any skill or gain anything by deviating from the course In an endeavor to make better weather. But the old-time sailing master could not drive his ship Into the teeth of the wind and make headway against it. For days and weeks at a stretch he was forced to fight every mile of the course, and it was a clear case of the skill of the navigator pitted against the mightiest forces of Nature. These were contests which developed the "breed of the oaken heart" that has made the sailer of the sea one of .the. most- pScturesqjue ..figures. iixro- mance and history, and another such I a breed can never be developed In the modern steamship service. All that glamor of romance which literature has thrown around the pirates and their pursuers on the Spanish Main would have been missing had the black flag hung from the masthead of a steam ship Instead of a trim sailing vessel. whose chance for safety or capture rested to so great an extent on the skill ot the navigator in charge. The steam ship has even, cleared away nearly all of that mystery of the sea and robbed it of that Magical power which like the wind There Is nothing can stay and nothing can bind. It has drawn the world so close to gether and churns around that world on such well-defined courses or high ways that there has been a steady less ening of the mysteries of missing ships and there are but few ocean routes to day that are not so well covered but that the whole world Is in almost con stant touch with the movements of vessels. The sailer has fulfilled Its mis sion in the development of the world's transportation system, and, like the bateau of the trader on inland rivers. or the ox team of the pioneer on land, it seems destined to pass Into history as one of the utilities that was good In Its day, but Is now out ofylate. The successful writer of sea stories for the present generation must cut out all reference to the whistling of the wind through the rigging, the creak of' the blocks and' the swelling canvas, and In lieu thereof must draw his Inspira tion If he can from the throb of the engines, the purr of electric ventilators and the hiss and roar of waves angered by the thousands of tons of Iron and steel hurled through them at railroad speed. The change will not be wel comed, especially by the sailor man himself, but It Is Inevitable, and must be accepted, regardless of any affronts that it may give romance and litera ture, neither of which has much of a place In business. THE SACAJAWEA STATUE. Local Interest has been reawakened In Sacajawea, the Intrepid Indian woman who contributed so much to the success of the Lewis and Clark expedi tion, by announcement that the clay model of the statue that Is to be placed In" a central position on the Exposition grounds will soon reach this city. The thrilling story of this century-ago jour ney 13 replete with Interest. The com monest events detailed rise almost to the stature of the heroic, and none are more replete with heroism than those with which the name, the tact, the en durance and the loyalty of the "bird woman" are connected. The patience, helpfulness, cheerfulness, of this young slave wife of the wholly worthless and stolid human mongrel who was 'her master must appeal to the chlvalrlc ad miration of all men and enlist the sym pathy of all women who learn of her through the journals of the great ex plorers. Her story, lost, as it seemed. In the shadows of the years, was recalled as the Lewis and Clark Centennial ap proached and Interest In the wonderful achievement of the explorers was re vlved. An Indian woman who had scarcely passed beyond the years of childhood; a mother giving birth to her first-born on the trail and bearing him m ner arms or upon ner back over drearj' stretches of plain and moun tain; the slave of her husband and the camp servitor for the entire company, Sacajawea came through with the ex- jedltlon to the shores of the Pacific, returned witn it again to tne iar-away region wnence sne was taken, and dropped out of sight. The clay model, executed, as is fitting, by a woman. Is that of an Indian woman, strong but lithe of limb, clad In Indian fashion', apd In Indian fashion bearing upon .her back her pappoose, Pointlner wlthlter one free arm ever to the west, the strong outlines of her face and figure represent purpose and endurance that may well be perpetu ated in bronze. The daily achievement of this Indian woman, apart from her native Intelll gence and the traits of character which made her Invaluable to the explorers snouio command attention in an age that Is boastful of the strenuous- ness or us endeavor, ior it may as well be conceded that nothing in this line surpassing the dally rou tine ot bacajawea's lire for many months together is being enacted any where In the world today outside of the war area In Manchuria. "THE RING AND THE BOOK." There Is a great gap In English and American literature. Fortunately this great gap Is about to be filled, so that the discovery of Its existence need not worry the public unduly. Jack London Is the man who has discovered the lacuna, and he is the man of letters who has volunteered to remove the re proach from the literature of the Eng llsh tongue. "The prize-ring has never been comprehensively done Into -liter ature," says Mr. London; "when It has been attempted It has been a descrln tlon of a contest between world cham plons by a man who didn't know any thing about It. who bad never felt the jolt and smash of the gloves or known the shock of the "knockout." We shy at that precious "done Into literature" It smacks of the "literary society," but. passing over such a trifle, it must be admitted that most of the men who write ofthe ring do know very little of the jolt and smash of the gloves, espe daily the real literary gents. Byron was a bit of a boxer, but he didn't do a fight into literature. President Roose velt Is also handy with the gloves, but we doubt ifhe will ever rank as maker of literature, except of the tab loid kind exemplified by "A square deal for every man." It Is unfortunate that the men who are long on literature should be shy on practical experience of boxing, but in the nature of things we fear Itjls Inevitable In the majority ox instances. Conan Doyle used to be a good ama teur boxer, and In "Rodney Stone" he has given us a readable story of the ring, but "Rodney Stone" is hardly "lit erature." Kipling's Mulvaney stories are sometimes regarded as coming within the Vague boundaries, and Mul vaney s lignt witn tne railroad con tractor is not a -dull affair, but we do not know if Kipling has ever felt the jolt and smash of the gloves. Judging" from his photographs, we are inclined to doubt It. Richard Harding Davis wrote a good flght story fn "Gallagher," whether or not he has been jolted and smashed. The schoolboy doesn't care a straw for the. Aeneld as literature, but he has a little better opinion of Virgil after Entellus wallops Dares, and Is presented with the prize bulL Entel lus affected gloves of aeven-ply. bull's 1 hlds.relatprad jft t h jX rijsv. nLJsMsaJjii gas that his figh was outside even the old London prize-ring rules. The schoolboy also enjoyed Tom Brown's great fight without knowing or caring whether or not it had been done Into literature. And of less pretentious fights how many there are, from Jack Harkaway of glorious memory to that Interna tional batle In "The Witch's Head," one of Rider Haggard's most vivid scenes. "We omit such travesties on clean-cut fist fighting as Gunters story of "the tenderfoot's kick" a college football man kicks a cowboy so far that the distance Is marked off as a show place for visitors! College men. by the way. are always figuring In ring stories in the maga zines, and they always beat a cham pion. Conan Doyle's "Master of Crox ley" Is perhaps the best of these. The result comes as a great surprise to the talent, of course, and the young college man makes enough to pay off the mortgage on the old homestead. Great stories all, but literature? Never mind that; take them for what they are worth, and be glad that the ring and literature are at last to be united by Mr. London. The first part his story, "The Game," appears In the Metropolitan Magazine this month. It looks as if It will be a good story. as most of Mr. London's are. That it will also be literature we know, be cause Mr. London says: "It has no mere superficial motif. It Is universal, and beneath the bare story and realism is a motif of motifs." Anything with a motif Is literature. It Is fitting that San Francisco should produce the story in which the prize- ring is first done into literature. San Francisco is long on both the ring and literature, and, since the Ralston law has been deservedly solar plexused, bids fair to prolong Its golden age. James Edward Brltt and Jack London-what city can match them? THE PRIVATE SOLDIER. After all, the science of war consists In delivering the best-equipped, the bravest, most enduring, most healthy, best-Instructed private soldier at the critical point of attack or defense In greatest force. To this one end are bent the energies of the General Staff. the Commander-in-Chief, a.'l subordi naie commanaera oown to company of ficers. To efficiency there, efforts of commissariat, transport, medical staff. communication service, all tend. We have heard so much lately of the Jap anese private, all are so Impressed with his virtues and special qualifications, that It may be worth while to see In what his superiority consists, andjif It be reany so marKeo over otner races, In Frederick Palmer's most Interest ing book, "With Kurokl In Manchuria," we see'the private soldier of Japan at close range. He Is brave but not reck less, trained to a high point In endur ance. In marching power equal to any, superior to nearly all, temperate In diet and healthy, obedient to orders, and ed ucated up to the point of comprehension of orders, treating himself In thought and act as a unit in a squad, company or regiment. He Is loyal, to Emperor and country to the highest degree, kindly and self-sacrificing. With whom shall he be compared? With his Rus sian antagonist? The Russian soldier was described and photographed the other night by a three years observer. He. too, Is brave; so the blood-eoaked battlefields of Manchuria testify. He Is simple and obedient, strong with physical advan tages. There he stops. He Is excitable, and open to panic on one side, to bar barity on the other; keeping the peas ant's Ignorance and stolidity under the soldiers unuorm; siow-wiiiea, unoai anced, prone to-excesses when the door Is opened; dependent on his officers for all Initiative. By training a machine like performance of ordinary duty Is secured. Yet how manifold are the races wear ing the Czar's uniform. Russians great and little, Lithuanians, Poles. Cossacks, Siberians, Finns, Tartars, and a score of others; at home they are wide as the poles apart. In the army mill, It seems as If Individual character had been trround down. These two armies are seen under the limelight of the hard est and longest campaign of modern times. In no trade does a man mature so rapidly as In war. The raw recruit of today becomes the veteran In a year. British commanders In the Boer War testified that their regulars took nine months' ripening before It was decent to them and safe to the army to ex pose them In actual fight to the Man sera of the Boers. The colonial troops on the other hand Australians, New Zealanders, Canadians and the irregu lar African British-born levies, took naturally to that warfare: Excellent rifle shots, good horsemen, hardy, In telllgent, out-of-doors soldiers, after a short acclimating they proved equal to all situations. Under similar conditions and habits of life many of the soldiers of Amer ica have been reared. Iu Cuba and the Philippines the severe tests of tropical and savage warfare have been success fully met. The training of the Amer lean soldier has developed individual tty, but not at the expense of discipline. The comment of military observers at the time of the Boxer War was "What splendid soldiers! Pity there are so few of them!" They were tried then, If ever. They marched with the Japanese, fought side by side with them and the British, and were at least up at the finish. C In both German and French armies the training of the private soldier has been carried far and high, not only In the old ways of drill, but In the new ways of athletics, and- Individual de velopment- The only places of com parison have been in the great army maneuvers. There seems to be little to choose between them. The Frenchman keeps his national cheerfulness and brightness in camp and In the field, and seems to enjoy his soldiering more than his German neighbor. Both are Intelll gent soldiers, and quick to learn dur ing the two or three years' term with the colors. Compulsory military service has been In "force long Enough in all European countries, except Great Britain, to pass the great majority of the men of the nation through the military mill. Once through the term ot active service, they return to the pursuits of civil life. In case of war, the stress must, fall on men recalled from the field, the office factory and store to serve. Hence it follows that the national character will be shown In its reality through the military uniform. Therefore, what the German, the Frenchman, the Russian, the Italian Is at home, he will be In the field. So the character of the private soldier ot this time can fairly well be told In advance. He will act up to but will not be ahead of his national stand ard. It seems, then, that the cam ot th.g flitaire, a of th graeeattj. will be won by the force of organiza tion and cemmand. by the perfection ot each and every part ot the machinery of war that, if well equipped, com manded and cared for, the private sol dier ot all the leading races of the world will do his part well la the furnace of the campaign. The "college spirit, as shown by what has long been known at the Uni- erslty of California as the "charter rush," on the 23d of March, takes on this year a new form of expressIonLycsterday. Seattle would have been a According to the new programme the under classmen will celebrate the day by building on Charter Hill, back of the college, an enormous "C" In concrete. The letter will be sixty feet high and twenty-six feet broad, and will be built by students of the freshmen and soph omore classes under direction of the civil engineering department of the university. It will be visible from any part of Berkeley or San Francisco, and will be a much more fitting' expression of college pride than the broken heads and suspended students of former Charter day" celebrations have been. This Is not (all. It will show that stu dents themselves have become tired of rowdyism as exemplified in the annual rush," and have concluded to super sede It with an effort not less strenuous but more manly. King Alphonso of Spain Is abroad. presumably taking an Inventory of the charms ot the various marriageable Princesses of Europe. It was an nounced recently that the Kaiser would gladly bestow his only daughter upon the young King, but, though not re jecting the flattering suggestion, His Spanish Majesty did not accede joyous ly, but replied that he was In no hurry to marry. He goes now to London, where the Inexhaustible supply of grand-daughters and great-granddaughters of the late Queen Vic toria Is supposed to await his choosing. One of these days his betrothal to some comely and virtuous young Princess will be announced and the public will be told that the marriage will be genuine love match." Commiseration s due in advance to the unfortunate oung woman who Is chosen to become Queen of Spain, and congratulations may well be showered upon all who fall to pass muster In this matrimonial quest. There Is talk of reproducing at the Lewis and Clark Fair the fine old co lonlal home of Thomas Jefferson known as Monticello. It Is urged, and very properly, that this would, be a fitting tribute to the man whose foresight mapped out the great Northwest Terri tory and saw the advantage to be de rived from It as a National possession, in advance of actual exploration which resulted in the discovery of its vast ness and infinite variety of resources. The picture of the Jefferson home in Virginia; Its wide verandas, quaint ga bles and rnany-paned windows, is quite a familiar one. It would require no great expense' or skill to reproduce It and there is still ample time to do so, The matter Is one that should com mend Itself, without urging, to the state societies, especlaly the Dixie So ciety, all of vhich are working In con junction with the Lewis and Clark Fair. Compulsory pilotage, which was for so many years a handicap to Portland's marine commerce, Is faring badly both north and south of us. Puget Sound has always regarded compulsory pilot age as a joke, and paid no attention to laws requiring It. British Columbia has never been able to .get rid of It, but Is now investigating the matter with a view to reducing or abolishing the fees. The California Legislature, at the session just defied, reduced the rates 25 per cent. If aU of the money collected for compulsory pilotage In the California district were paid to the pilots who do the work. Instead of to the Commissioners and politicians, the industry would probably stand a fur ther reduction without jeopardizing the service. Establishment by the Weyerhaeusers of another immense sawmill in this city will more firmly than ever clinch the prestige of Portland as the greatest lumber port on the Pacific Coast. The State of Oregon and that portion of Washington tributary to the Columbia River were several decades behind, the Puget Sound country In beginning manufacture of lumber on an extensive scale, but the rapidity with which the Industry Is growing Is assurance that It will be but a short time until the lumber exports from the river will ex ceed those of all Puget Sound ports combined. There Is something in knowing "when you have a plenty." There Is point, therefore, in what the Louisville Times says, to-wltt "If Russia contln ues aggressive tactics for another two years, the end of that time will find her without a navy and without an army deserving of the name. Should Japan then be forced to agree to peace through financial exhaustion, Russia will be too weak to take advantage of any concessions wrung from her oppo nent at such staggering cost." Seeing is believing. There was brought to The Oregbnlan office yester day a fresh bunch of alfalfa, not less than ten inches long, pluckeu" two days ago on a WUlamette Valley farm In Linn County. The field was of thirteen acres; It Is the third year of its growth; there Is no Irrigation whatever, and the alfalfa has been pastured by sheep nearly all the Winter. Let our farmer friends go and do likewise. The time for experiment Is past; the day for practice Is right now. A handsomely Ulustrated "Lewis and Clark edition,"' printed in two colors. has been issued by the Amity Advance. Photographic illustrations of farms and farmhouses In Old Yamhill form the principal feature, and the edition .is full of Information such as prospective homeseekers would most desire. Amity has advanced In prosperity and the Advance itself does not appear to belle its name. We shall soon have to have 65,000 en listed xken In our Navy. That Is one for every 1200 of population, and us big as our standing Army. Perhaps we shall be In .greater need of a Navy thaa of an Army in our next war, which Representative Hull says will be with the Japs. The Oregon style of electing a Sena tor was adopted by the Missouri Re publicans, with the usual hcrxicaoe re suit - NOTE AND COMMENT. Professor Wllllston. of tho University of Chicago, has announced that, in a million years or so, man will have vanished from the earth, and that the birds will be bosses of all they survey. The professor himself Is a bird, which perhaps preju dices him against poor, ordinary men. who have not the Inestimable privilege of pronouncing judgment from a Standard Oil chair. The cruiser Washington was launched 3horter name, and would have, meant much the same thing la the opinion of Seattle. Kuropatkln reports that he has handed over to LInicvltch command of the "land and sea forces operating against the Jap anese." Russia probably forcot before- now that she had any sea forces. Passing It Along. 'Think not that God does not see you pass the blind beggar and not drop a coin in his cup," says the New Orleans Picayune. "Also think not that the blind beggar doe not see you." adds the Louisville Times. "Further think not that the Board ot Chari ties vrl not condemn you for promiscuous almsgiving." says Tho Oregonian. And again think not that the blind beggar couldn't better afford to give you a two-bit cigar than you could to give him a plugged dime. Seattle Argus. . Government employes In Panama com plain that the three-grain qulnlna pills sent them from "the States" contain only two grains. Why don't they take ono pill and a half then, instead of kicking about it? But these charges of graft In con nection with hospital supplies read very much like the stories about Russia's Red Cross organization, which caused us to hold up our hands In horror. The President Is going to hunt In Colo rado. Not trusts or anything dangerous this time; just mountain lions. A few practicable airships wonld ba warmly welcomed by the Russian army just now. Just a "trifling mistake by the Canal Commissioners; instead of making the-dirt fry, they are making the mud fly. One thing about the Fair: To see It will be worth paying a fine. It appears that the officers responsible for the whiff of grapeshot which nearly wiped out the Romanoffs "didn't go for to do It." They were just a little negligent In their duties, that's all; and in view of the fact thatvthey nearly hit some one, the Czar might do well to send these offi cers to the rapidly-retreating "front." The weak Sisters to the South are troublesome lot. Here Is Santo Domingo bringing out all sorts of charges and counter-charges in the Senate and else where, and Venezuela Is laying up & stor of trouble. As benevolent assimilation on such a large scale is out of the question, a little malevolent intimidation might be powerful good thing. That famous passage comparing man's brief life to that of the grass is not fully appreciated by the man behind the lawn mower. To be- cut down as the grass doesn't Impress him -with the fralllty of man; indeed, he Is inclined to regard it as an evidence of toughness and tenacity. Of all annoying thieves the "trousers thief Is surely the head. To wake up In the morning ar find one's trousers gone with all the change that was In the pockets must ba trying affair and. besides, must sooner or later lead to trylng-on affair with the tailor. There is, however, a way to prevent such annoyance. The dodge comes all the way from India, and for once the Orient gives the Occident a good tip on practical affairs. Mrs. Ernest Hart writes in the House Beautiful: "The first time I was Introduced Into the harem of one of the noblemen of Hy derabad, In the Deccan, I was surprised to find the Begum and her ladles dressed in tight-fitting trousers mads of rich damask silks. It being the fashion to have these trousers as close- fitting as possible, they are actually sewn on and are taken off and changed about once a fortnight." By fol lowing this plan, the most adroit sneakthlef would be f-o-i-l-e-d! Society is literally soaked with al cohol," says Bishop McFaul, of Tren ton. Come to think of it. wo never did see anyone soaked on buttermilk. A story that might have come from The Earl of pawtucket" is told of a visitor tb a London . artist's studio. Pausing before a painting, the visitor remarked, "It isn't so devilish bad, you know." "Now, don't be. fulsome," re sponded the artist, to whom such out spoken appreciation from an English man bordered on flattery. New departures In "literature" are always interesting. The Metropolitan Magazine for April announces a story called "Outside the Law," a very fine title. Indeed. "To make the unravel ling of' the plot worth while," says the Metropolitan, "a number of very valu able prizes will be given to those read ers who shall write the most accurate and Interesting papers explaining the actions of the several characters in the story." This promises well. Hitherto readers have had no privileges except that of paying for books which usually give but a scanty return for $1.50, but now there is a prospect that publishers will have to give away premiums with novels. Literature may yet come Into its own. Instead of getting 'The Pois oned Wedding Ring" as a present with every dollar purchase of dry goods, a yard ot ribbon may be given with every copy ot the book purchased for cash. Lovers of literature will then have the better of mere purchasers of gro ceries and dry goods, as they should have had long ago. A Burhank is badly wanted "in the animal world. Whyr for Instance, should wool not be grown on elephants. We don't know how many square feet of hide an elephant possesses, but he must have an area equal to that ot a -whole flock; of sheep. Consequently, a man owning six or seven merino elephants would become wealthy in a short time, especially as his flock- could chase away all the cattle that happened near th range. Further, the elephant Is so In telligent that he could be taught In a few lessons how to wash and shear himself, pack up the wool and trans port If; to market Senator-elect Warner of 'MfytaurL should understand the meaning ot "la the nick of time-" WEXFORD JONES. More Work for Kansas. Chicago Tribune. We commend to the eerious considera tlon of Kansas the expediency of starting a" state hennery in onwoaltloa- to the s- Xfamous egg. trust.