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About The Sunday Oregonian. (Portland, Ore.) 1881-current | View Entire Issue (Jan. 22, 1905)
"(Photographs published by permlseion of the
American Museum of NAtural History.)
PROBABLY no people on earth have
a. harder life than the dwclfera in
the' barren, inhospitable regione of
the Arctic Circle the Eskimo of North
America and he Koryaks, KamebadaleE,
-Tunguses and other tribes of Northern
Asia. For a great part of the year they
usually "have a h'aijd fight for bare ex
istence, and the weakest Is Invariably
killed off l'n the bitter struggle for life.
"Yet, hy a curious paradox, theso people
who have so little cause for mirth are
jovial souls. They have their pleasures,
their games and their sport, and they do
not take them sadly.
In the American Museum of Natural
History in New York City there Is an
Interesting collection of toys used by the
Smith Sound IDskimo In playing games
In their "IgloOE" (snow huts) during the
long "Winter night of the Arctic. The
articles were presented by Lieutenant
I'eary, who is looked upon by these
Eskimo in the light of a father.
One of these toys, called "ajagag," is
a leg bone with a hole bored through
each socket. A thin stick ("ajautang")
Is tied by a short string to the bone.
The latter In. tossed into the air and
caught in either hole by the stick. The
game is 'much like the English "cup and
The "hleqlaq" or "bull roarer" is a
flat bone in the shape of an hourglass or
. figure eight with a looped string pass
ing through its middle. The Eskimo chil
dren twirl the bone on the string, but
the exact nature of the game does not
seem to have 'been discovered byany ex
plorer who has dwelt among them.
Another toy bt the familiar "cat's cra
dle" a string which is drawn by the
fingers Into fantastic shapes which are
supposed to resemble animals and vari
ous other objects.
When Lieutenant Peary dwelt among
these Eskimo he found that the village
had one large empty "Igloo." which was
From a New Congressman to His Wife
He Explains That There Is No Way to Beat the "System" of the House.
ASHINGTON, D. C. Jan. IS. My
Dear "Wife: I always feel that I
can depend upon you for the
proper solution of problems that affect
tho family, and undoubtedly you are right
in deciding to place that $600 I sent you,
as the net proceeds of my little deal in
copper, in the safety deposit vault, pend
ing the result of my decision as to my
future plans, and our further conference
on the subject when wc geta chance for
one or our old-time heart-to-heart talks.
I have become quite chummy recently
with Senator Barksdale, and I told him
a little something, just enough, about
that money, and quoted your reasons for
not putting it In the savings bank. You
know you said you would not feel com
fortable if you thought you were "draw
ing interest on a dishonest dollar."
Barksdale has a different view on the
subject. I find you have to be something
of an acrobat to keep yourself adjusted
to the Washington viewpoint on subjects
concerning, which we used to consider
cur views ahd opinions as fixed as the
laws of the Medes and Persians. Whore
we coujd sec but two sides, the clear
right .and the positive wrong, you soon
learn here that you are suffering from
moral strabismus, and the political ocu
list will promptly fix you up so you can
ee perfectly how you may often accom
plish a great good by making an ally or
the enemy. Then they prescribe for a
readjustment of the moral focus, and you
see things differently.
"I used to feel as your wife evidently
docs about this 'dishonest dollar' busi
ness." said Barksdale to me last night,
"but I've gotten over it. I lived out
Yst a good while, where the churches
used to depend very largely for their con
tributions upon the saloons and dance
halls. I became convinced that tho only
way to treat a dishonest dollar is to adopt
t tnd reform It. It is like a woman
marrying a worthless man and bringing
tut the good thero is in him. A dishon
est dollar will do Just as big a day's
work as one that is undented. If it has
the right kind of an overseer. Your wife
cannot be held responsible for the par
entage of that mcney. but only for the
use to which she puts it. Tell her to
give the dishonest dollar a chance to re
form." Do you know. dar. that when I look
jit It through Barksdale's glasses I feel
ti'C real missionary spirit rising up in
me, and I feel that I should like to get
hold of all tho dishonest dollars in the
world and teach them the way they
should go? But wo will lock the subject
-up with 'the -money. In the safety deposit
vault, for the present.
I have taken very deep interest in your
Arguments against my making a fight for
the Senate, in view of the complications
involved, necessitating an alliance with
the influences Against which I have been
mouthing more or Jess alleged eloquence
for some years. You believe it would be
better for mo to remain in the House, a
SPORT WITHIN THE ARCTIC
used by the youngsters as n playroom.
All the children of the tribe would -collect
there, until the crush was so great
that there was hardly room for any of
them to play their games.
When a hunter happened to have a
larger supply of meat than the other
men, he would give a feast In this "Igloo"
and Issue a general Invitation. After the
feast there would be an entertainment
consisting of songs and dances. The
dancers were usually two in number, and
they used alternately one drum, which
was made of seals' Intestines, stretched
upon an elliptical bone frame. The drum
stick was a walrus rib.
Ballplaying is a favorite amusement of
the Smith Sound Eskimo. The ball is
made of sealskin, stuffed with scraps of
skin to make It hard. They are fond
also of wrestling and of "arm-pulling."
The latter sport is simple enough. It
consists of two men pulling one another's
arms nearly out of their sockets, and
seeing who will squeal first.
It Is not uncommon fof these people to
wrestle for a wife. In one case two rivals
wrestled for a widow, and the loser was
quite good-humored about his defeat, al
though ho could hardly have heard of the
elder Weller'e advice on the subject. The
winner was promptly challenged by. an
other man, who already owned a couple
of wives and lost his widow to him.
F. F. Payne, a Canadian explorer, who
lived for 13 months among the Eskimo
of Hudson's Strait, found that the amuse
ments of those people are few In number
and simple in character.
"Throwing the harpoon had tho great
eat attraction for the men, and often
they might be seen taking their turns at
a mark in the snow," he said. "Wrestling
and running are occasionally Indulged in,
but the weaker side spon loses interest
and gives up.
"Another Canadian Informed me that
while he was stationed among .these Es
kimo of Hudson's Strait they built a
member of the "true representatives of i
the people." and wait for my chance to I
force recognition and advancement. That
is the view I used to hold, you will re
member, but I have lost my ideals again.
Tho fact Is, Mary, that the House is the
last place in public life which offers many
opportunities for advancement, except
under unusual conditions. Quite, a num
ber of members have been promoted to
the Senate within the past few years, but
the promotions have been due more to
conditions In their states than by reason
of party service or public service In the
House. In the old days the House was
the great American forum, where an In
dividual had a chanco to make his im-
1 press on National affairs. Today, owing
to the operation of the system, the de
termination of great commercial and In
I dustrlal syndicates to have their desires
'. gratified and their special Interests safc
i guarded and protected, the members of
i the House have been reduced to mere
! puppets, dependent on the will of party
i leaders. There arc 3S6 members of the
1 House, but. so far as actual influence
goes. 500 of them might as well remain
I at home.
This doubtless sounds like a severe and
astonishing statement to- you. but the
facts will bear me out. As a matter of
fact, while there are C$6 members of the
body, one and the Speaker usually count
a majority. Under the peculiar rules
adopted for the conduct of business in
the House, everything is as cut and dried
as the programme far a surprise party in
the country. No member is recognized
on the floor unless he has first rehearsed
Ids speech and secured permission of the
Speaker. No measure is brought up for
consideration unless it has met the ap
proval of the august body known as the
committee on rules, which is a sort of
clearing-house arrangement with the
President, the party leaders and the
great and all-powerful "third house"
the party leaders in and out of Congress.
Legislation which the party managers
decide to pass is reported by this commit
ter and. after a reasonable show of free
discussion on the floor, is rushed through,
usually on party lines. Other bills, how
ever roeritorio.us, are placed on the calen
dar or allowed to die of old age in the
hands of committees.
"When the appropriation bills are up
the great measure carrying money for
the maintenance of the different depart
ments of the Government the oratorical
bars are let down and members are al
lowed, within a specified time limit, to
discuss any topic under the sun. They
usually discuss everything except the
measure under consideration; and It is
these speeches that we send back by the
carloads to voters in our districts, show
ing what wc are -doing and how we are
standing up for the rights of the "plain
people." No one ever listens to these or
atorical efforts. They are usually deliv
ered to vacant chairs and, except for the
purposes of home consumption, might
have as well hcen shouted Into a sewer
roan-hole. This is the measure of the
average member's opportunity, and the
limit of his usefulness. The bills that
become laws are fraaaed "by the party
THE SUNDAY -OBEGOKIAIT, BOBTLA2TD Ji-SUABT 22,
snow pleasure house, supported in its cen
ter by a pillar of snow. The only game
he noticed them playing in this hotfso
was a kind of tilting, an ivory ting being
suspended from the cellingthrough which
the men tried to put their spears at. they
walked quickly round the pillar.
'TJurlng my stay among them football
was introduced, and In this they appear
to take more interest than in any other
same. The bladder of a walrus was well
blown and then covered with leather,
making an excellent football. It was a
novel sight to see them playing. Men,
women and' children all took part In It,
and no quarter wag allowed. A woman
carrying her child on her back might be
seen running at full speed after the ball,
and the next moment she would be
sprawling at full length, with her child
floundering In the snow a few feet bsf
yond her. A minute later tho child would
be again in Its place on her back; and,
nearly choking with laughter, she would
elbow her way through the crowd after
the ball again.
"Catching trout In the Summer toy driv
ing them Into a trap made of nets and
stones afford great amusement to the
children. Wild with excitement, they pur
sue the unfortunate fish Into a shallow
stream. The boys also spend a great
deal of time in making small spears and
other Implements of the chase, and prac
tice with one another In throwing at a
The Universal Doll.
4 "Girls have their dolls, and, like girls
'of civilised parents, they delight In 'play--
lng house. They do not tire of this game
until they are married, for often groups
of girls of all ages may bo seen sitting
in some sheltered spot In Summer, each
having a 'house' formed- only of a ring
of stones a few Inches In diameter, in
which some short pieces of stick were
placed flat, while other pieces were
propped upright. These pieces of stick
represented people, and the girls made
them visit one another's houses, keeping
up a continuous chatter on their behalf
all the time.
leaders, or their close friends, and we
know nothing of them until we get di
rections to support them.
Why not be a party leader, then, you
ask? All of us would like to be, but
party leaders are not picked up in a
night. They have to stand the fire test
before they are placed in the front ranks.
Look over the names of the men who
are recognized today as factors in legis
lation In the House: Payao of New York,
Dalzell of Pennsylvania. Grosvenor of
Ohio. Sherman of New York, Babcock of
Wisconsin, Hepburn of Iowa, Burton of
Ohio. Hltt of Illinois, and men of that
standing, and you will find that they have
served in' the House for years. They
come from districts where a nomination
by their party spells election without ef
fort, and. they secured their standing
with the party bosses. In a measure at
least, because they are reasonably sure
of a long tenure of office and can take
a more prominent part each year in ad
ministration' councils. In states like ours,
where the party majorities are subject
to changes every few years, the member
has practically no show of promotion. He
may get the last place on a fairly Impor
tant committee, but he sees ahead of
him men. like those I have named, who
run things and will la all probability con
tinue to do so for years to come.
The member, no matter how complete
his mental equipment for public service
may be, cannot hope to create much of a
place for himself In less than six or eight
years. In the meantime, members like
myself, from close districts, are sized up
by their constituents as having no Influ
ence, and they are usually left at home
just ahout the time they arc becoming
valuable to their districts. -
There is no way to beat the House
system. Occasionally, some fellow with
more brains and energy than conserva
tism, tries to kick over the traces hooked
up by the House managers, and then
they fix him properly. The House lead
ers, when Tom Reed was Speaker, fixed
up a slate of officers, which included "a
change in the House chaplain. One of
the members from Ohio, who had a prom
inent place on the ways and means com
mittee, bolted the caucus and voted to
retain the man who was then chaplain. A
few days later. Reed announced the com
mittees, and the Ohio man found him
self In fifth place on the committee on
ventilation and acoustics, a committee
which never meets; while his place on the
ways and means committee was filled by
a colleague who had swallowed the cau
cus prescription and insisted that he liked
It. Reed made no bones in explaining
his action by saying that be had no use
for any member who would not follow
the orders of the "party leaders." A
couple of years ago Representative Lit
Uefleld, of Maine, was looked upon as one
of thp very biggest men in the House.
He bcaxne an 'insurgent" on a number
of administration measures, and today
he is as far outside the councils of the
leaders as though he were a new mem
ber. The system is simply all-powerful.
and the member who tries to beat it signs
his death warrant.
In the matter of being subjected to out
side Influences, the member of the House
is "up against it" just as much as a
Senator, with less chance of making his
individuality felt. The Senator misses
that fight for renomlnation and election
every two years and plays a more impor
tant part in the Nation's affairs. So, I
am more than ever disposed to encourage
the proposition which promises to pro
mote me to the Senate wing of the Cap
itol. The matter is to be considered quite
full? at a little conference we are to have,
in a few days, and I will hasten to let
you know the developments of that meet
ing, upon which my decision will prob
If, you decide to come to the Inaugura
tion, as you say you may. you had better
take a part of that ?S00 and buy yourself
some finery. If wo finally decide that we
cannot accept the money, wc can replace
the amount from my salary savings. Any
way, you need the dresses. Yours affec
tionately. KENT HOWARD. M. a
(Copyright, 1905, Washington News Asso
Captain Graham, in Ottawa Journal.
In history be holds a place
Unique, unparalleled, sublime;
The First of all the Jluman lUcel"
Yes. that was Adam, all the time.
It didn't matter if he burst.
He simply had to get there first.
A simple Child of Nature he.
Whoee life was primitive and rude;
His wants were few, his manners free,
AH kinds of clothing Tie eschewed
He might be seen In any weather.
In what Is called "the Altogether!"
The luxuries that we enjoy
He never had. so never missed;
Appliances that we employ
For saving work did not exist;
He would have, found -them useless, too.
Not having any work to do.
He never wrote a business note;
He had no creditors to pay;
He was not pestered for his vote.
Xot having one to give away;
And living utterly alone.
He Old not need a telephone.
The joys of indolence he knew.
In his remote and peaceful clime.
He did Just what he wanted to.
Nor ever eald he "hadn't time!"
(And ibis was natural, because
Ha had whatever lime there was.)
Hts pulse was strong, bis health was good.
He bad so fads of meat cr drink.
Of tonic waters. Breakfast Food.
Or Pills for Persons who are Pink.
Ko cloud of indigestion lay
Across the rtinshlne of his day.
And. when be went to bed each night.
He made his couch upon the toll;
The glow-vomit: gave him all' his light.
iH hadn't heard of Standard Oil);
At dawn h wok then slept again.
He never had to eaten a tram.
A happy, solitary -life!
But soon he foucd It dull. I ween.
So thought that he would like a wife
When Eve appeared upon the scene.
And we will draw a kindly veil
Over the sequel to this tale.-
Y Bachelors, contented be
With what the future holds for jon;
Pity the married man. for be
Has nothing- to- look forward to
To hunger for with bated breath!
CN'olhing. that is to sir, but DthO
Must Speed at 100 Miles an Hour
This Is the Secret of a Successful Flying Machine, Says Professor Zahm.
ASHINGTON, Jan. 16.-(Special
Correspondence of The Sunday
Oregonian.) "The next six, years
or so will sec a man keeping his flying
machine as henow keep his automobile."
This statement was made hy one of the
highest authorities on aeronautics in the
world, namely. Professor Albert Francis
Zahm, now of the Catholic University.
Professor Zahm has made a specialty of
studying the problems Involved In the
practical navigation of the air. He has
been consulted by scientists and engineers
of the greatest eminence in this and
other countries of this fascinating sub
ject, and he has quite recently ended a
series of experiments which disprove the
conclusion of Professor Langley and oth
ers regarding the element of "skin fric
tion" as a factor of resistance in cleaving
the air. The results of these experi
ments have been widely published. In
Great Britain by Lord Raylelgh. and are
regarded as of tho greatest Importance
in the progress of aerial navigation.
A talk with Professor Zahm In his lab
oratory is an instructive experience to
thp individual who is better acquainted
with the picturesque failures of Profes
sor Langley and hts confreres than he Is
with the marvelous progress which is
constantly being made in the science of
aerodynamics with a special view to the
production of a completley practicable fly
ing machine. Notwithstanding the vastly
important experiments made and results
attained by Professor Zahm toward this
object, he has not constructed a flying
machine, nor even a completed working
model. Furthermore, he states that he
has no immediate intention of doing so.
Constantly in correspondence with men
who are building or proposing to build
airships, no one. It can" safely be stated.
Is better conversant with the possibili
ties of the situation.
Beyond Its Infancy.
IWould it be just to say," was asked
of the professor, "that the problem of
navigating the air Is yet in its infancy?"
"Well," was the reply, "that would
hardly be fair In the case of navigable
or dirigible balloons, which have reached
nearly as high a stage- of development as
they could be expected to attain. In
deed, as far back as 1SS7 the French gov
ernment adopted a war balloon which.
In some respects, was superior to any
navigable airship of the balloon class that
has since been produced. In shape this
balloon resembled a torpedo: that Is. In
stead of- being symmetrical, as is that
of Santos-Dumont and others of more
recent construction, it was blunt-nosed.'
the major axis being near the prow. I
have found, "by experiment, that should
the "sharp Instead of the blunt "end of an
airship of this type be propelled against
the wind, the resistance offered by head
pressure and skin friction would' be just
twice as, much.
"The flying machine, properly 30-
r called." continued Professor Zahm, "is
quite another proposition. The velocity
of (he airship, or navigable balloon, is
not sufficient to enable it to overcome the
air currents, of which it Is at, the mercy.
This is also the case of the flying ma
Interesting Games That Are Played by Natives
Around the North Pole. .
The Eskimo of -Greenland play a game
of -'-'fox and geese" on the snow. It is
almost Identical with "patchisl" and
other variants of the game known to all
American children. "Fox and geese." In
deed; Is the oldesfame in the world, and
1b found, la some form or other, among
nearly all peoples. It Is played all around,
the Arctic Circle.
"Various dice games are also popular In
Greenland. The Eskimo, like most bar
barians of the. Arctic arc- extremely fond
of gambling. They do not. use cubical
dice, but a number of bones of different
shapes and sizes. They have also a
skewer game, which tests.. the steadiness
of hand and'eye. The skewer has to be
thrust tlurough. several Holes pierced in a
walrus iikin. -
The children have a curious ceremonial
dance fti ' the snow at night when the
Northern Lights" first appear, and the
women play a kind of basket-ball, tossing
the ball through a tibop and then all
making a combined rush to see who can
catch it in the air.
Peculiar Trial by Combat.
One of the principal- amusements of
these Greenland Eskimo- Is a peculiar
-iorm of trial by combat. When two men
of the tribo have a serious disagreement.
they do not resort to any -judicial court or
fight out their quarrel with lethal weap
ons. .They, meet before the assembled
tribe, with drums in their hands, and sing
songs at one another by turns. These
songs are bltingly satirical, and recount
all the misdeed and follies of the enemy.
The man whose Invective is the more bit
ter, and who can make the crowd laugh
at his opponent more than they laugh at
him. Is adjudged the victor.
Explorers who have lived among the
Eskimo say that even serious crimes.
suoh as murder, are frequently punished
In this mannerl The penalty may seem
Inadequate, but an Eskimo Is extremely
sensitive to ridicule, and being, laughed
at Is one of the worst punishments that
can be inflicted upon him,, Many men
have fled from their tillage and lived. In
solltarv exile after losing a trial by song.
But if it is hard on the loser, the trial
makes great fun for the onlookers. Some
times mock trials are got up, and two
chamDlons with notoriously abusive
toncues contest for a prize. Native
rlnnoea whlr-h Minslst of a aerioun of bur
lesque 'contortions, wind up the revelry.
Some of the Eskimo can dance reels and
hornpipes which they have picked up
from the European and American whalers
who have visited them.
The Kamchadales are also fond of gro
tesque dances, but the wandering Tun
chines that have hitherto been produced,
a speed of 40 miles an hour or so be
ing the greatest that has been attained.
"What is desired Is a machine that will fly
as fast as a bird on tho wing, or at the
rate of 100 miles or so an hour. Such a
machine could apparently fly In the teeth
of a wind of a velocity ot 75 miles an
hour (a very unusual current; a tornado,
In fact), at tho rate of 25 miles an hour,
and the strongest argument at present
existing against the possibility of me
chanical flight would be overcome.
Equipped to Build Machine.
"I believe It is quite possible to con
struct such a machine and it will un
questionably be an accomplished fact
within the next few years.
"Do I believe that there is anybody
who is capable, at present, of construct
ing such a machine? Yes. several parties.
I would Instance prominently the Wright
Brothers, of Dayton, O. They are now
engaged in the construction of such a ma
chine with every prospect of success. Mr.
Charles M. Manley. Professor Langley's
assistant in the construction of the ill
fated Government machine, possesses the
requisite mechanical knowledge to pro
duce. In my opinion, a perfectly practic
able flying machine, but unfortunately
lacks the funds, and the appropriation
asked for to continue the work being
withheld, he is now engaged in other ex
perimental lines. Had Professor Lang
ley's experiments In aerial navigation
resulted in nothing more than the won
derful engine Invented by Mr. Manley,
the time and money would have neerr well
expended. This Is, by far, the lightest and
most powerful motor ever constructed.
weighing, as it does, 200 pounds (the
weight of a moderately heavy man), and
generating more than 50 horsepower,
while, at the same time, possessing the
greatest strength and durability. The se
cret of the construction of this engine
is still Government property, and other
builders of airships are necessarily se
verely handlcaped by ndt belngr enabled
to utilize it. The Wright Brothers pos
sess the financial resources necessary to
carry on the work, and I feel sure that
the world will hear from them at no great
length of time."
Professor Zahm's Workshop.
The professor's airship laboratory is a
buildlmj resembling a large wooden shed,
well lighted and with large folding doors.
One of the most striking features of the
interior is a wooden tunnel extending
nearly the entire length of the shed, over
which is a scaffolding. The professor
explained the use of this strange con
trivance as follows:
"In the first place, I must say," said
he. "that this laboratory represents the
enterprise of Mr. Mattulath. More
than four years ago that distinguished
scientist and engineer discussed with
me some researches In aerodynamics
which he wished to make near New
Tork with my co-operation. I persuad
ed hlfn to remain in Washington, and
offered him the aid of my department
at the university. He constructed, at
his own expense, this laboratory for
the the larger apparatus. We had, at
the outset, to choose between two uen
eral methods of measuring air-resist
guseg of Siberia dance, when they dance
at all. in. a stately and decorous manner
that recalls the old-fashioned minuet.
The man gives his right band to tho
woman, bowing gracefully, .and' they
move round slowly in a circle, keeping
time to the cadence of an impressive
chant. In another dance of which the
Tunguses are fond, a large company of
men and women form in a circle and
move around slowly, folding one another
by the tall of their fur coats and swaying
backwards and forwards in time to the
monotonous rhythm of a folk song.
The Tunguses are a .numerous and wide
ly dispersed people. One branch of tha
tribe herds reindeer; the other live3 hy
fishing. The former are wealthy and far
more civilized than most of the dwellers
In and around the Arctic Circle They
are passionately fond of chess, which
they play continually during the long.
Arctic night. It Is supposed that they
learned the game from the Chinese, and
Russian explorers who have played with
them testify that they -are remarkably
expert. They carve their chessmen very
elaborately out of mammoth's teeth.
The Reindeer Koryaks. another tribe
of fearless. Independent nomads who bear
a remarkable resemblance to the North
American Indians, are exceedingly fond
of wrestling and foot-races. They are in
veterate gamblers, and will stake, "air
their belongings, even, their wives, on
their strength and skill in those, sports.
(Copyright. 1905.)- GERALD NASH".
Seven Stages of a Jag.-
Not one man with a Jag plays many parts.
His acta being seven stages. At first the Jovial,
The cheerful stage; he claps you on the back
And asks you what you'll have. And then
There comes the boasting stage; he prates
And tell of money he hath made and deals
That he will yet put through. 'And then
He .grows pugnacious, prone, to- take offense,
Jealous In honor, sudden and quick, in quarrel,
Until a chance comes o'er -his fantasy
And gradually he slip? into .the soft. . , ,
And loving- stage. .He' leans upon you, then.
Swears undying friendship' on your vest.
Such thoughts' conduct his mind to still '
Another stage, the family stage. He recollects
And tells with tears what a nice family
He hath left at home. Then follows fast
The maudlin stage; ho has no ' friends, the
Is cold and nareh, a man of sorrows he.
And so calls for gin. and getting nonk
Being refused, he bows' his head and weeps
Sadly upon the bar. Last scene of all.
That ends this strange, eventful history.
Is second childishness and mere oblivion,
San sense, sans coin, eans wit, sans everything.
ance; either to propel the body against
the air or the air against the body. To
drive the body against the air, it might
be mounted on a whirling table-; or,
better still, on a carriage running along
a straight, level track. For a while we
followed the latter plan. But to give
the best results, the track should be in
a closed building of- great length, to
allow time to attain uniform speed and
take deliberate observations. Such a
plant would be very expensive to build,
and we did not know of one available.
Even with the best whirling table, or
with a running car, it might be a hard
task to measure the skin-friction on a
straight surface 30 feet in length, and
be sure It was flying through undis
turbed air, unless, perhaps, It were sus
pended from a traveling crane. So we
finally decided to make the air flow in
uniform stream against the body, thus
securing the additional advantage Of
having the instruments on quiet, sta
tionary supports, while the impactual
pressure against the body might con
tinue constant for an indefinite time.
Measuring the Air's Resistance.
"So wc built this wooden tunnel, 50
feet long, six feet square in cross-section,
Emoothly papered inside, and hav
ing, as you see, numerous window
panes along its ceiling and walls. At
one end we placed this five-foot suction
fan, driven by a 10 horse-power electriu
motor. Bet this apparatus in motion,
and you have a practically even swirl
of air through the tunnel. The veloc
ity of the current Is exactly measured
by appropriate instruments, as is the
resistance of forms introduced into- the
tunnel. Here is" a series ot wooden
models of the usual dirigible balloon
design, of the same major axis, but
varying greatly in length. These wer
suspended in the tunnel and their re
sistance measued by turns. The re
sistance diminished steadily as tha
elongation increased until a certain
length was reached, but greater
lengths, contrary to the theory of Mr.
Mattulath, ofTered proportionately In
creasing resistance, owing to the skin
friction, which was thu.s demonstrated
to be an important clement.
"By means of thus accurately gaug
ing head resistance and skin-friction of
various forms, the designs of the dif
ferent parts ot a flying machine are
determined with greater nicety than
are the lines of a racing yacht, and to
more practical purpose, since these are
vital points in the acUal possibility of
mechanical flight. From the prospects
at the present stage of the art, while
the coming of the flying machine is an
assured thing, I do not think that it is
destined to revolutionize the ordinary
modes of traffic now in Vogue. It will
be classed with the automobile, and be
valuable In time of war. I have been
told by persons who have ridden on
air-ships and gliding machines that the
motion Is extremely exhilarating, more
so than that of any land or water con
veyance, so that the sporting element
jof the population will, no doubt, find in
machines that can speed through air
with the velocity of birds on th,e wing
a great and new zest in life,"