The Sunday Oregonian. (Portland, Ore.) 1881-current, June 21, 1903, PART FOUR, Page 34, Image 34

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T- PETERSBURG, June 2. (Special
Correspondence.) The Czar. Is in fa
vor of universal peace, but he has
the largest army of the world. He has
more officers than we have officers and
men In our regular Army, and even In
these piping times of peace his troops
exceed 1,000,000. Should war be declared
he could increase them to 6,000,000. and
could put into the field 500,000 of the best
horses in the world.
For the paat SO years military service,
lias been obligatory upon all Russians.
Every boy on becoming of age is liable to
service, and there- are 870,000 new recruits
every year. Of these, 219,000 are taken Into
the active army and fleet, and of the rest
the majority go Into the militia. They
serve oft and on until they are 43 years
old, and are always ready to be called out
in case of war.
It takes a vast number of troops to keep,
this great empire In order. The frontiers
are enormous. During the Chinese War
200,000 men were sent into Siberia and a
great wall of fortifications has to be kept
up along the western "'frontier to guard
against invasion from Europe. The fron
tier guard now amounts to 33,000 men. and
in addition vast numbers have to be scat
tered throughout the various states and
the Russian territories In Asia.
Soldiers From Everywhere,
These Russian soldiers come from every
where over the empire and they serve
everywhere. Some of them are sent to
Russian Turkestan, where they- form part
of camel troops taking long: marches over
the desert. Others are Cossacks serving
in Southern Russia and different parts of
Asia, and also with the regular troops In
other eections. There are Finns from Fin
land, great Russians and little Russians,
Tartars and Circassians, and, indeed, -so
many races that some regiments could not
possibly make themselves understood out
side their own army division. I see many
of the different characters here in St.
Petersburg. The uniforms are of all col
ors. Here is a long-haired officer from the
Caucasus with a coat reaching down to
his feet, there a Cossack with a cap of
black astrakan making his head like that
of tho Medusa, and farther along a noble
Russian in the swell uniform of one of
His Majesty's pet regiments.
Anions? the Cossacks,
I am much Interested in the Cossacks.
They are dark-faced, rough-looking fel
lows from about the Black Sea. There
are about S.O00.000 of them all told, and
they furnish 150,000 men for the army.
They are sent out by the various Cossack
states, each of which equips, clothes and
arms its own soldiers. They belong mos.t
ly to the cavalry, and are among the fin
est horsemen of the world. Indeed, It Is
said that the average Cossack can ride
bareback, standing up, like the athlete of
tho circus.
These men are professional soldiers, and
the Czar keeps as many of them as he
can in the army. They are loyal, but are
very Independent, and are better treated
than the other soldiers. They know but
one thing: that is, to obey, and they will
fight to the death. It was these Cossacks
who gave Napoleon so much trouble when
he retreated from, Moscow. They hung
about him and kept up a continual attack,
"When the French soldiers threw away the
gold and silver they had stolen at Moscow
the Cossacks gathered it up and gave It to
the Kazan Cathedral of St. Petersburg.
It has been molded Into a silver fence
and it now surrounds the altar of that
With the Recruits.
As It is now. every family in the Rus
sian empire has something to do with the
army. There are in all about 25.000,000
families. They are recorded and a record
is kept of all births and deaths. The
ages of the boys are watched and every
year a call Is issued to those who are 21
to come forth for Inspection. They draw
lots and 250.000 of them are put Into the
regular service, while the most of the
others are assigned to the militia. Those
in the active army serve Ave years and
later on have 18 years In the first and sec
ond reserves.
The Russian army Is one of the great
civilizing forces of this country. The
peasants are very ignorant, and there are
but few schools. Those drafted into the
army are taught to read and write and
they are sent back home with new ideas
gotten through their service in different
parts of the Russian world. Indeed, the
change is so marked that a man who has
had military service can command 23 per
cent higher wages in almost any pursuit
than those who have not served.
Russia has a large number of military
schools. It has academies which will rank
with West Point, and also subordinate
schools for every branch of the service.
There are three such schools In St Peters
burg and one In Moscow. St- Petersburg
has a cavalry school, an artillery school
and a school for military engineering.
Some of the best of the recruits get Into
these schools, and they are also attended
by the sons of the nobility and military
officials. About 3000 new officers are need
ed every year, and the increase of the
service owing to the pushing forward of
matters In Asia gives many chances for
One Cent a. Day.
On the whole, however, there Is. little
Inducement for a poor man to go Into the
Russian army as an officer, and none
whatever for him to serve as a soldier.
Tho common private does not receive, all
told, more than cent a day the year
through, although his food and clothes
are found. His regular allowance la llttla I
more than a rouble a year, but he has
other extras which bring It up to a little
less than Ji.
Think of $i a year for spending money,
Including cigars and drinks, and you have
the condition of 900,000 of Russia's 1,000,000
men. Of course, many get money from
home, but the families of others are too
poor to send them any. Do you wonder at
the occasional extortion? I don't The ofV
fleers are a little better paid, but not much.
A lieutenant in the infantry gets about
$200 aj year, a Captain about $300 and a
Major $450. The officers are expected to
receive support from their families, and
if they marry It must be wjth girls who
are rich.
?CQ,000 for a Rnnnlnn Husband.
An Instance illustrating this occurred
some years ago when the daughter of
one of our Ministers to St Petersburg
wedded a Russian officer. The officer came
to America and before the wedding called
upon his prospective father-in-law and
demanded a settlement
"What settlement do you want?" asked
the old man. who was rich.
"I want a settlement upon my .wife,"
was the reply. "I suppose that you In
tend to give her something to support the
"I had not thought of that" said the
IN JAPAN the preliminaries of mar
riage are as follows: The match is
arranged for the parents by a discreet
married friend, who acts as a middle
man. Having fixed on an eligible, parti,
this individual arranges for the "mutual
viewing" a meeting at which the pair are
allowed to see and sometimes even speak
to each other. If the man objects to the
girl, or the girl to the man, there is an
end to the matter, In theory at least but
in practice the young people are not sup
posed to have opinions different from
those of their parents.
Strange Marriage Castoaas,
It would be tedious to describe the pres
ents of silk, wine and condiments that are
interchanged by brides and bridegrooms;
the sword of dignity for the -father-in-law;
the clams for wedding soup; the two
candles lighted and extinguished together;
the table with the two carved wag-tails
upon U; the nine tiny cups of saki which
are drunk, or at least tasted by bride and
groom; and the other ceremonies of mar
riage amongst well-to-do people. It will
be enough to observe that marriage Jn
Japan is very different from what It is jn
Europe. In the former the bride has no
bridesmaids, and goes on no honeymoon.
She Is not only supposed to obey her hus
band and his mother, but actually does
so, while the husband. If well off, prob
ably has a concubine, sometimes even In
the same -house with his wife. In one of
the Japanese classics there Is the follow
ing passage: "When the goddesses saw
the gofls lor tho nrst time they cried out
Oh, what beautiful males!' At this the
gods were anything but pleased, and said:
'We who are strong and powerful should
have been the first to speak; how Is It
that these females have spoken first?"
This Illustrates the relative position
which Japanese men and women have, or
used to have (In the upper classes they
have altered in this respect much) Jn mat
rimonial affairs.
"We marry our wives, but we love our
concubines," remarked a Korean gentle
man, and this la very much what happens
la China.
And yet the Chinese marriage do con
venance not seldom becomes a marriage
of affection. The following story trans
lated from the Chinese illustrates the fact
that men to whom women's society is al
most unknown are most apt to fall In
love at first sight
A Chinese who had not been happy,
though married, retired with his infant
son to a mountain inaccessible to women.
He never mentioned women to the boy.
or brought hlra with him when he de
scended to buy. necessaries, lest he should
see one of them. When ho grew old and
feeble, however, he one day took .the
young man wltn him to carry the bag of
rice. As they were leaving the market
town together the youth suddenly stopped
and, pointing to three appreaeMng ob
man. "And iiow much do you think she
ought to hafe?"
"Well?" said the Colonel, with a hem
and a haw, "It seems to me she ought to
have about 100,000 roubles ($50,000), but
200,000 would be better."
"Indeed," replied the old gentleman,
"that is a good round sum, and such
things are not customary here, but I will
see about it He did see about it and as
the story goes he raised $50,000 and put it
in the bank before the wedding took place.
I am told that most of the higher officers
are rich. They are the sons of nobles, or
well-to-do families and they constitute, to
a large extent the aristocracy of the
country. They are spirited fellows and
high livers. Many of them gamble and
some are very extravagant The social
jects, asked: "Father, what are those
things? Look! Look! what are they?"
The father hastily answered: "Turn
away your head; they are devils." The
Bon, in alarm, instantly turned away
from the things so bad, and which were
gazing at him from under their fans. He
walked to the mountain top In silence,
ate no supper, and from that day lost bis
appetite and was afflicted with melan
choly. For some time his anxious and
puzzled parent could get no answer to his
inquiries; but at length the young man
burst out almost crying from an inex
plicable pain: "Oh. father, that tallest
devil! that tallest devil, father!"
Ho vr Chinamen Treat Their Wives,
A wife In China has to obey not only
her husband, but his parents, under
whose roof she lives. A kiss between
husband and wife would be regarded
as Inexplicable. v If they walk out to
gether tho wife follows. If she die the
husband does not go to her funeral, but
sends the children. When husband and
wife are burled side by side, the grave of
the husband must be on the left side,
which In that country Is the place of
Confucjus said: "The man stands in Im
portance before tho woman; It is the right
of the strong over the weak!" This Is,
of course, the very opposite of Western
chivalry, but even In China, where tlto
worda of Confucius are considered to bo
inspired, when a woman is loved she can
rule both her house and her husband.
The paternal bearing to their wives of
some Chinese men known to the writer is
"pretty to see," as Pepys would have
In Korea, a youth is a being of no
account a "hobbledehoy," until he mar
ries or -rather Is married by his father.
After marriage he wears a black hat and
a long coat and Is spoken to even by his
former companions by the equivalent of
"Mr." A husband addresses hjs wife by
a term meaning "Lookhere," which la
significant of her relations to hjm. In
thea higher classes a woman must not
speak tp her husband on the wedding
day. If she uttered a word or. made a
sign she would become an pbject of ridi
cule and contempt It may be weeks or
months before the husband knows the
sound of his wife's voice. It Is "good
form" to pay outward respect to one's
wife, but a man would be Jeered at if he
showed her affection or treated her as a
companion. Indeed it Is the custom that
a bridegroom, after spending three or
four days with his bride should leave her
for a considerable time to show his In
difference. On his way to his marriage a man
In Korea is attended by several friends
carrying unllghted red silk lanterns. One
man, dressed In red, bears before him a
goose which la symbolic of conjugal fidel
ity. The bride's face is covered with white
powder and red spots, and her p.yelids
are glued- together wlth-an adhesive. At
standard of military men Is very high all
over Europe, especially In Germany, where
they are fast building up a military aris
tocracy. It Is less -so here, and there Is
more chance for the ordinary soldier to
rise to a good position. -
The Russian Cavalry Horses.
Russia has some excellent cavalry. The
men ride like Texas cowboys and their
horses are among the finest in the world,
The common cab horses of the Russian
capital are better than the swell carriage
horses of Washington. They are Orloff
stallions, as black as coal, with fine ac
tion and great spged.
There are splendid horses all over Rus
sia, and Indeed the empire has more
the Instigation of the two women who
place her. after coming In state, opposite
to the bridegroom, she bgws twice to him,
and he four times to her. It Js this
public reciprocal "salutation" which
alone constitutes a valid marriage. When
she has been received by her father and
mother-in-law, tho bride Is carried back
to the house of her dwn parents, her
eyelids aro unsealed, and the powder is
washed from her face. After a while the
bride is again carried, not now in an
ornamental chair as before, but in a
plain though rigidly closed one to her
future home, under the rpof of her par-ents-ln-law,
where she Is allotted a room
or rooms In the seclusion of the women's
The higher and more spiritual love that
ought to exist between men and women is
unknown In Japan, In China, in Korea,
and in several other countries in the
East and until this is changed (it has
already changed much In Japan) these
countries will not be civilized In the
best sense of that word,
liOVe.MaUlns Amoqg English. Peoples
We hope that love-making will never
go out of fashion In England, and that
though we live in a busy age. time will
always be made for this delightful oc
cupation. If we need not be go long
winded as used to. bo the fashion, still
a reasonable amount of time spent In
wooing is certainly owed any girl whom
a man thinks it worth while to ask. A
lover proposed too abruptly to a certain
Scotch girl, and. she replied; "Yes, Ja
mie, I'll marry you, but you must give
me my dues of courting for all that"
All wise people in America and in
Great Britain, at least, believe In falling
in love. They think that the imagina
tion should be kindled and the heart
touched," they believe that there should
be enthusiasm and even rornanco In the
happy months that precede the marriage
of young people. This sort of thing is
quite unknown in the East, and the loss
of happiness that results is sad to con
template. The further we go West the
more are women courted and made of.
In this respect America is as much more
advanced than England as England Is
thin China.
Courting and flitting differ from each
other as a good thing differs from a bad
one. Courting is good and beautiful,
flirting flippant and vulgar. Flirtation
has been well described as "a spoon with
nothing iq it," courtship, though it may
be a spoon too, Is a spoon with some
thing In Jt that Is to say. the Intention to
marry. Flirting Is, In our opinion,
as hateful as honest courting is beautiful.
It Is associated with ogling bar-maids and
leering bar-mashers. Healthy young men
and maidens have no time for a pursuit
that means nothing, certainly nothing
good. They prefer to mount their bi
cycles and wheel away to the pure air
and beauty of the country A female flirt
is nofan amlahle'character, Dut she Is riot '
TuKE 21, 1903.
horses than any other country in the
world. According to ths statistics of our j
Agricultural Department all the horses
on earth number about 65,000,000. Russia j
alonehas 30,000,000, or, estimating four
-persons to each family, aboutone horse
to every family In the -whole empire.
The most of the Russian horses belong
to the peasant farmers, but a vast num
ber are found on the steppes or high
plains and In the lowlands. The steppe
horses are speedy and have unlimited '
powers of endurance. There is a breed
alpng the River Don produced by cross
ing the native horse with the English
thoroughbred, which is famous for Its
riding horses. The Czar takes 5000 of
them every year for the cavalry.
And then there are the Kalmuck
Iiorses, bred by. the wandering tribes of
Southeastern Russia and beyond the'Cas
plan Sea In Asia. They number about
Author of "How to Be Happy, Though. Married"
nearly as contemptible as the male of the
species. Even if the girl be one of those
emotional young persons who easily fall in
love, or Imagine that they do, a truly
chivalrous man will rather save her from
"herself from her own Indiscretion than
make a fool of her. N
Flirting means attention without Inten
tion, and the man who makes it an occu
pation, so to speak, ought to be sent about
his business as a Louisville girl once sent
one of the species. "You have asked me,"
she said, "if I can marry you. and I have
answered that I can. I can marry a man
who makes love to a different girl every
month. I can marry a man who boasts
that any girl can be wonwlth the help
of a good tailor and an expert tongue. I
can marry such a man. but I w c n't'"
We must give all the nice modest girls
we kn6w credit for not consciously en
deavoring to catch husbands, but there
are those who, instead pf making them
selves useful and calmly resting in their
maiden dignity, think only pf getting mar
ried, and use questionable- means to
achieve their purpose. One of these ques
tionable means, and one that defeats it
self, is for a girl to woo before she is
wooed. A girl who courts a man may
think that she Is making an impression,
for her attentions please and flatter him;
but she does not win his love. In disgust
he turns to someone else whose womanly
reserve keeps Wm on tenterhooks, and
gives a zest and romance thatiwere want
ing In the other affair.
Less designing perhaps, but no less an-j
enemy very often to herejlf. Is, the co
quette. This lady has more beauty than
sense; more accomplishments than learn
ing; more charms of person than graces
of mind; mora admirers than friends; and
more fools than wise men for attendants.
Many girls throw away their chances of
marrying happily by their frivolity in this
Platonic Friendship.
But cannot people of different sexea ba
chums and companions without either flirt
ing or marrying; Is there not such a thing
as Platonic friendship? We do not say
that this la Impossible, for we have seen
the fact accomplished In America. In that
country the system pf educating boys and
girls together which prevails achieves this
result. The best cure for love-making
sometimes Is to allow people to see a good
deal of each other. American boys and
glrjs educated at the same school, joining
In the same games, going, perhaps, to the
same university, and sharing afterwards,
(t may be. In the eame business and pleas
ures these see no mystery In each other,
and are therefore net nearly so liable to
,fall Jn love as are people who have only
been introduced, and who aro therefore
new fangled with each other. We are all
ready to take the unknown for the won
derful, and the cure for sentimental
young ladles and gentlemen Is to let then
see not fewer but more of the opposite
sex. There is safety In numbers apd,
when a young lady' and gentleman is ac
30,000 la mares alone; they are noted for
their cavalry qualities. The Kirghiz,
who live over In Asia, but are governed
by Russia, have something like 4.000,000
norses, and the peasant farmers of Rus
sia have horses which will serve in time
of war. Even the commonest of the plow
animals are good trotters,, and they are
made to go like the wind.
The chief racehorse here is the Orloff
trotter, a breed originated by Prince
Orloff, who imported Arabian and Eng
lish stallions and crossed them with Dutch
and Danish-mares.
The Czar as n. Horsehreetler.
The Czar spends vast sums In the im
provement of the Russian horse. He has
a board of horsebreeders which takes
charge of the government studs. The
finest of Arabian and English hor3es are
Imported, and also British, French and
quainted with a number of the opposite
sex Platonic friendship or, as we prefer
to call it, chum friendship, is often real
ized. There Js a very serious side of courting
which, those who do not consider regard
only as a fit subject for banter and fun.
It is, however, very unwise to say that
when a youth and maiden talk pleasantly
together they are either courting or flirt
ing. This vulgar opinion makes young
people uncomfortable, and puts thoughts
Into their heads that.would not have come
had they been left alone. A widower re
marked to a widow, "They say that you
and I are going td be married.". To this
she replied, "But you and I know better.-'
Why will people try to know, and profess
to know, our business better than we
know it ourselves? How can it matter to
one person whether another I? courting or
flirting or engagca in a PJatonlc friend
ship? We hould interfere in this matter lesa
than we do. Many a would-be-happy mar
riage has been prevented by the foolish
tattle pf gossips, ana, on the .other hand,
people are not seldom goaded by the same
means Into alliances which they never In
tended, and for which they are not fitted.
(The End,)
Remarkable Sargrleai Operation in a
London Hospital,
(Chicago Chronicle Cablegram.)
London, June 6,-Surgeon Furnlvall
successfully stitched a wound In a man's
heart this week in the London hospital.
John Long, a laborer, was tabbed. through
the heart in a ealoon row and Immediately
after he was brought In Dr. Fumlvail de
cided .to' make an effort, to get at the very
center of the wound. Long had lost a
deal of blood, but his life was saved In the
first Instance by the blood becoming con
gealed and closing the wound.
The surgeon had temporarily to displace
the breast cartilage to the ribs and the
lungs. At first" he thought the heart Itself
would have to be removed, but on wash
ing away the blood clots and raising it a
little the puncture was found. With ar
tery forceps he gripped the damaged part
and first with catgut then with silk,
sewed up the small wound the knife had
Almost immediately there was an im
provement of the pulse, and after 70 min
utes Long was wheeled put of" the operat
ing theater to a bed, where he ban contin
ued to imnrore.
A similar case was successfully treated
In the same hospital two years ago.
Anwar the aanny Interesting" exhibits from
Miselsalppl 4t the world's lf. St Louis, will
ba an. Immense panel made .from specimens of
SS tfiffweat varieties of wood srewn m that
Prussian draft horses. The best of these
are pent to different parts of the empire.
In addition there are 31 state stables un
der the management of the chief of this
board, which furnish stallions to tho
farm districts free of charge. There are
many private societies for horse Improve
ment, and about 2300 private sttbles.
Many of the cavalry horses are bought
at the horse fairs, which are held every
Spring and Fall in different parts of Rus
sia, and especially in the stockraising
centers. The horses as a rule are cheap,
an ordinary one for general purposes
bringing 130 or $35-
Russian Fortifications.
The Russian empire Is wejl fortified.
Poland Is defended by four strongholds,
and there are numerous other forts along
the European "frontier. Finland has many
fortifications, and there are great forts
at Kronstadt guarding the capital. I
passed the latter forts as I came here.
They are on an Island at the end of the
St Petersburg and Kronstadt Canal, and
near them are the headquarters of the
Russian navy. From this Island to the
mainland are a number of smaller is
lands, each with a fort upon it, forming
a string of fortifications rising as It were
out of the water. The islands look like
mighty floating batteries.
Within the past few years Russia has
been building great forts In Asia. I was
In Eastern Siberia Just before the war
with China and Japan. There were some
thing like 50,00& men there at that time,
and enormous fortifications had been
erected about Vladivostok. Port Arthur
Is now strongly fortified. It Is about ten
miles from Dalny, the Russian commer
cial metropolis at the Manchurlan end of
the Trans-Siberian road, and Is the Czar3
naval station in the Far East. There are
forts about the Black Sea and in the
Caucasus, so that there is little danger
of the empire being surprised.
The Police and the Army.
Every one fears the Russian police, and
the average tourist who comes here
imagines that spies are always tagging at
his heels. As far as I can see neither
the police nor the army are anything
like so prominent or officious in St
Petersburg as they are In Berlin. ITha
German policeman Is everywhere. The
Russian policeman, provided you have a
passport and register it properly, doe3
not bother you. He Is a very decent
fellow and minds his own business. Ho
is more polite than the New York pollce-
! man and more gentle and kind to tho
I people. Indeed, one might go all over
I Russia and hardly know that the pollco
exist I have traveled thousands of miles
here at one time or another, and have
had no trouble, and that at the same
j time that other Americans imagined they
iwere being persecuted. One correspond
ent claimed that he was expelled from
the country, when I personally know that
he left because he was scared to death
by the ghosts of hl3 own imagination.
How ICennan Left Russia.
At the same time the government does
not extend its hospitality to those they
believe ready to slander and vilify it
This Is the position that George. Kennan
holds in the eyeaof the officials. Every
one knows how he has attacked the Rus
sians, and, many here think, very unjust
ly. Notwithstanding this he came to
Russia about two years ago and took up
his residence litre. He had Just gotten
settled when a policeman called upon him
and Informed him that the government
thought he could do Russia most good
by leaving It The policeman had an pr
der to this effect and at his direction
Mr. Kennan went to his room and re
mained there until arrangements wero
made tor his departure. His meals wero
served in his rooms. He was allowed to
write letters, and his friends were per
mitted to call upon him; but further than
this he was a prisoner. He was seat
away within a few days.
The Police of St. Petersburg,
' The police corps of the Russian capital
numbers about 2000 men. I don't know
the number required for the Greater New
York, but I venture It is double 2000. The
city Is divided up into 42 police districts,
each of which has its police station and
nollce court. A record Is kept of every
citizen, and the police can tell in a mo
ment the history and standing of every
man. I am told that these records are
kept on papers of different colors. Blue,
for instance, may mean "a political sus
pect." yellow may mean "criminally dan
gerous," and white "eminently respect
able and a friend of the government"
I don't say that these are the colors, but
there is no doubt that the government
keeps lists of the names of men dan
gerous to it. and that such lists are sent
to the agents of Russia all over the world.
Police Spies.
The 2000 policemen of St Petersburg
dress In uniform, and aro hence easily
known- There are thousands mqre la tho
secret service who dress in citlzena'
clothes. Indeed, it is said that every
house in the city has Its police agent
and that the Janitors of the various fiats
give monthly reports on their tenants.
The landlords of the hotels are respon
sible for their guests. The Hotel da
Europe, where I am stopping, has a police
bureau right next to the office, and I
had to leave my passport there upon my
arrival. It will be returned to me when
I depart Every hotel takes charge of
your passport the moment you como in,
and this Is the case not only with the
foreigner, but with the Russian as welt
Every citizen of the empire must carr?
a passport, and the native is subject to
the; same rules' as the foreigner.
Cdprrictt 1903.)