The Sunday Oregonian. (Portland, Ore.) 1881-current, June 14, 1903, Page 6, Image 6

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perature, C9; minimum temperature, 55; pre
cipitation, .33 of an Inch.
TODAT'S WEATHER Partly cloudy and oc
casionally threatening; westerly winds.
"God," says Emerson, "offers to
every mind Its choice between truth
and repose. Take Which you please.
Tou can. never have both." Truth,
therefore, though men strive for It
never so earnestly, is not repose; and
no one who has any real knowledge
of human nature can doubt how much
more pleasurable to most men and
women it is to live under the empire
of invincible prejudice, deliberately
shutting out every consideration that
could shake or qualify cherished be
liefs, than to contend for truth and to
try to follow wherever It may lead.
And yet the highest form of Intellect
ual virtue is that love of truth for Its
own sake which breaks up prejudices,
tempers enthusiasm by the full ad
mission of opposing arguments and
qualifying circumstances, and places
in the sphere of possibility or proba
bility many things which we would
gladly accept as certainties. Yet con
science Itself, when it is very sensi
tive and very lofty, is far more an
element of suffering than of pleasure
unless we give highest place In the
list or pleasures to those especially
that give us most p'aln.
So full of3 contradictions and of
paradoxes Is the nature of man. Man
seeks truth with an eagerness that
often devours him, yet finds actual
repose only in beliefs that he never
can reconcile to his reason. But this
paradox has Its uses In the economy
of life, since it is what may without
violence to truth be called the preju
dices of men that holds human soci
ety together. In their search for
truth and their speculations about It
men follow such divergent paths that,
without their prejudices to serve as
an anchor, there could be no body of
opinion strong enough to hold as a
real bond among men.
Yet there Is a criterion of truth' in
the choice between good and eviL This
plunges us at once into the contro
versy about free will, where men
"find no end, in wandering mazes
lost." All superficial thinking on the
subject tends to denial of free will In
man, upon the assumption that man
is merely the creature of circum
stances, on which his motives, de
sires and actions are directed. But is
it an inevitable conclusion? Man Is
nothing if the will may not be su
perior to the desire, and It is the busi
ness of character to make it so. The
feeling of moral responsibility Is an
essential and Inseparable part of
healthy and developed human nature,
and It inevitably presupposes free
will. The best argument in Its favor
is that it is impossible to disbelieve it
No human being can prevent himself
from viewing certain acts with an In
dignation, shame, remorse, resent
ment, gratitude, enthusiasm, praise or
blame, which would be perfectly un
meaning and irrational, if these acts
could not have been avoided. "We can
have no higher eyidence on the sub
ject than Is derived from this fact
It is impossible to explain the mys
tery of free will, but until d man
ceases to feel these emotions he has
not succeeded in disbelieving it. He
never, therefore, can argue himself
out of his. sense of responsibility and
duty. The foundation of the social
fabric in morals is here; and In large
degree its foundation in religion, too.
But this has nothing to do with spe
cial or ecclesiastical creeds. These
eerve a purpose, by constituting a
body of feeling or opinion which con
centrates powerful forces in support
of principles necessary for the con
duct of life. Not that any system of
belief, any church creed, can be forever
and infallibly true; for changes or ad
justment to new conditions mark the
.whole course of their history. The
members, and still more the minis
ters, of an ancient church, bound to
formularies and creeds that were
drawn up in long bygone centuries,
ere continually met by the difficulties
of reconciling these forms with the
changed conditions of human knowl
edge; and there are periods when the
pressure of these difficulties is felt
with more than common force. Per
haps no part of this movement and
jwork has given more concern to a
3arge class of minds than the prog
ress of biblical interpretation, on the
principles made necessary by 'growth
of the philosophy of history. Multi
tudes of good souls maintain their
peace of mind by resolute refusal to
ioln in this inquiry, or even to toler
ate it.
But there Is gain, in many ways. It
Is good for the human mind that phe
nomena once attributed to isolated
and capricious acts of soirltual or di
vine Intervention are recormlzed now
as regulated by Invariable, Inexorable
and all-pervasive law. "We turn this
knowledge to account in our dealings
with Nature, and with each other. In
Innumerable ways. There Is gain, too.
In the increaslnsr tolerance It enforces
In government and In Individual life.
Church and state are now all but com
pletely separated, and mental and
moral perverseness is no longer at
trlbuted to those who apply the spirit
of historical and literary inaulry to
the study of the religious history of
man, including the Bible of the Jewish
and Christian world. For all minds
there Is not satisfaction in this process
or In results, since It upsets many cher
lshed beliefs never accomplished with
out pain; but it Is -the only way to es
cape from fixed states of mind In z
whole people, which preclude Intellect
ual growth and moral growth with It.
So If, as Emerson says, we cannot have
repose with truth (he means with our.
suit of truth), let us deem ourselves
better off with truth, or with the pur
suit of it, than with repose alone. It is
an enigma of life, but Inescapable.
Under the caption bf "The Boston Re-
Hgion," M. A. Dewolfe Howe con
tributes to the current number of the
Atlantic Monthly an admirable article
concerning the civil war that raged
within the Congregational Church of
Jew England In the early days of the
nineteenth century, and out of which
jgrew the American Unitarian Church.
Jonathan Mayhew, whose political ser
mon of 1750 has been called "the morn
ing gun of Ihe Revolution." was the
first prominent dissenter from the es
tablished Calvinlstic Church of New
England. Calvinlstic Congregationalism
was then the established church, guard
ed by civil laws, taxing the whole com
munity for church support, and deal
ing with ecclesiastical affairs from the
point of view of the unity of church
and state; but In the closing years of
the eighteenth century Boston and
Salem began to welcome the pulpit ex
pression of doubts respecting the doc
trines of the trinity and of human de
pravity. The inland towns of New
England remained Intensely orthodox,
but the seaports became more latitudl
narlan, because their deep-sea navi
gators became, through world-wide ex
perience, divested of Puritan Insularity
of thought. and manners. As early as
1600 there was one church in Boston
avowedly Unitarian, King's Chapel.
Originally the first Episcopal Church In
New England, it became the first Uni
tarian Church in America. The con
gregation authorized Its rector. James
Freeman, to revise the trinity out of
the liturgy. Denied Episcopal ordina
tion for this act. Freeman became the
first professedly Unitarian minister in
America. Other orthodox ministers of
Boston, instead of openly denying the
doctrine of the trinity and other tenets
of Calvinism, were content in practice
to Ignore such matters. But In 1805 the
election of Rev. Henry "Ware to the va
cant Hollls professorship at Harvard
caused an outburst of violent Indigna
tion and protest on part of orthodox
Congregationalism. The newly elected
professor of divinity was a pronounced
Unitarian; his election was bitterly con
tested, but without avail.
In natural sequence, from the Hollls
professorship dispute came the found
ing of the Andover Seminary in 180S.
and of the Park-Street Church In 1809.
Finally in 1815 the controversy became
so hot that orthodox Dr. Morse pub
lished a pamphlet entitled "Are You of
the Boston Religion or of the Christian
Religion?" to which a Boston lawyer,
John "Lowell, made answer In the
pamphlet, "Are You a Christian or a
Calvlnist?" There were a number of
leading Unitarians, Including Dr. Chan
nlng and Dr. N. L. Frothlngham, who
were reluctant to see a new sect found
ed. Channlng would have preferred to
see the Congregational body undivided,
but leavened by Unltarlanlsm. In the
religious war that followed, the courts
ruled in case of a country parish that
although only two church members re
mained with the church when the or
thodox minister and all the rest of his
people seceded, those two were the
church and retained all its property.
In 18S3 the Massachusetts law formal
ly separated the functions of church
and town." Dr. Channlng was really
the Influential leader of the Boston
Unitarians, and he preached continual
ly the dignity, not the depravity, of
human nature. While the preaching
of Channlng was strongly ethical rather
than doctrinal, nevertheless he did not
discard supernaturalism In religion nor
a divine revelation of Christian truth,
and believed In the Bible, Old Testa
ment and New. Harvard College and
nearly all the wealth and fashion of
Boston became allies of the new faith.
Rev. Dr. Lyman Beecher, a man of very
great ability, confessed that for six
years, from 182G to 1832, he battled In
vain against the rising tide of Boston
Then came the famous revolt within
Unltarlanlsm itself, a controversy in
troduced by Emerson and Theodore
Parker. In 1S3S Emerson delivered his
divinity school address at Harvard,
which was denounced as heretical by
the leader of the divinity school. Rev.
Andrews Norton, who stigmatized it
as "the latest form of infidelity." Em
erson had repudiated the rite of the
Lord's Supper, had separated himself
from the Unitarian ministry and retired
to Concord, chanting: "Good-bye, proud
world; I'm going home." But the seed
scattered by Emerson had taken deep
root in Theodore Parker, who as min
ister of the First Church in "West Rox-
bury preached in 1841 a sermon which
included a bold declaration that Chris
tianity needed no support from mir
acles, and that it could still stand firm
as the absolute religion, even if it could
be proved that Its founder never lived.
The orthodox Unitarians were as much
startled by the voice of Parker as the
orthodox Congregational Church had
been shocked by the voice of Channlng
a quarter century before. Channlng
doubted whether Parker could even he
called a Christian, "for without miracles
the historical Christ Is rone." Rev. Dr.
N. Lu Frothlngham, father of Rev. O.
B. Frothlngham, who wrote the stand
ard life of Theodore Parker, said that !
the difference between Trinitarians
and Unitarians is a difference in Chris
tianity, but the difference between Mr-
Parker and the association of Unitarian
ministers is a difference between no
Christianity and Christianity." Parker
was "frozen out" of the Unitarian
Church, and when James Freeman
Clarke exchanged pulpits with him.
fifteen of his most influential families
joined themselves to another church.
The orthodox Unitarian Church bullded
better than it knew: for when it
dropped Its old flag of liberty In
thOUtrht and SOftMih Psrlrpr nnlv
grasped it 4fe .mora firmly, planted It ,
In his independent nulolt of Music Hall
and drew 3000 deserters from orthodox
Unltarlanlsm to hear him every Sun
day. Today the Rev. John "White
Chadwlck, who can speak with author
ity for his denomination, declares of
Theodore Parker, the Unitarian arch
heretic of 1845: ""From then tlU now
Unitarian progress has been along the
-line illuminated hy his beacon light."
The victory of Unltarlanlsm Is found
in the fact that it forced orthodoxy to
let out its belt a number of holes or
die of heart failure. The leading voices
in all the great Calvinlstic churches are
attuned today to accents of liberal
Christianity, and for this we are in
debted to the Unitarian movement that
began under Channlng and rose-to Its
Dest maturity under Parker and his
apostles. Parker, was the pioneer in
the higher biblical criticism and the
preaching of the humanity of Christ.
Lyman Abbott and PhilliDs Brooks in
their respective churches confessed by
their teachings that Parker's voice had
enlarged the circle of orthodox learn
Ing and humanity.
The Inevitable chances in the mode
of living, the prosperity and the mental
attitude of a nation are nowhere re
flected more sensitively than In the
character of Its amusements and the
patronage extended to them. The
islander of the Southern seas, attired
In a few feathers snatched from the
flamingo and the parrakeet, still dances
gleefully before a nlle of skulls. The
sybarite of decadent Rome languished
on scented divans while Nubian cap
tives made soft music for him. To
tempt his sated appetite, and deserts
and the seas were sacked. On every
side, in answer to the popular de
mand, arose new schemes to Interest
the jaded mind, and today the mighti
est monument that Rome has left Is
the Coliseum, a temple of amusement.
After a wave of barbarism, crested
by the Goth, the rude "Vandal anfl ths
Hun, had Inundated Europe, amuse
ment was no longer thoutrht of seri
ously. The dally and belligerent life of
the People afforded them nil the e-r-
cltement needed, Later, when -the gov
ernments became more settled, recrea
tion began,' though slowly, to appear
again. The tournament and other war
like sports grew on the public favor,
and as strife between the nations
waned, amusements multiDlled. Alwavs
has a change of the character of the
peoples sport announced, but not her
alded, a change In the necessities and
needs of their life.
And so It would seem that the rapid
rise of the vaudeville theater amongst
us, the surrendering in Chicago and
New York of great dramatic temples to
the new specialty entertainments, and
the recent appearance as vaudevllllans
of many celebrities of the stage, may
well warrant a serious analysis.
It were Idle to suppose that so radical
a change as that marked by the rapid
obsolescence of the tragedy and the
Shakespearean drama, and the adop
tion in their stead of the careless Jovs
of the vaudeville, Is due only to a pass
ing caprice of popular fancy. Its rea
son Is based on firmer ground, and the
advent of entertainment for the enjoy
ment of which thought Is not necessary,
and which evokes no mental process
but a smile. Is merely a slrm of n.
change In the daily life and habits of
the Nation.
The dally life of the averatre man
today Is so complex and full that he
feels no desire to eke out his experience
at second hand by having his feellnrrs
harrowed up by the mimic wrongs of
the heroine In a theatrical drama. Nor
does he feel the necessity, or even ad
vantage, of adding to his store of phil
osophy by listening to the saws and
sayings that have lifted Shakespeare to
the dizziest height of literature.
In older days, when restricted facili
ties for communication narrowed the
experience of any one person to the
actual happenings of his own town or
circle that might come within his ken.
there was perhaps a paucity of emo
tions. People became heart-hunrrrv-
Locked within the confines of their own
acquaintanceship and unable to learn
or follow the nathos. humor and
tragedy of other lives in other com
munities and other spheres, it was
natural that the public should rush
eagerly to whatever promised them a
change from the deadly sameness of
their lives.
But with the rapid growth of great
newspapers and the Improvement of
rapid transit, at least the urban popu
lation of the country has become some
what Immune from excitement. Dally
at their doors are laid the tales of the
doings of the day before. And these
are teal tales of suffering.- deceit tri
umph, Intrigue and vindicated Inno
cence, well told by skilled writers, the
Incidents of each story set forth In
proper sequence, each motive carefully
analyzed, so that It may be mentally
digested at once and without effort
"What wonder Is It that the public of to
day no longer thrills at the melancholies
of Hamlet the Dane, nor Is spellbound
by the eloquent portrayal of Imagi
nary woe. The unreal Is no more pic
turesque nor yet as interesting as the
But if the theater Is no longer to in
struct it Is decreed that It shall amuse.
And therefore it Is that theatrical man
agers all over America are building new
vaudeville houses and turning theaters
where Edwin Booth and Lawrence Bar
rett have trod the boards into ultra
ornamental resorts where the can and
bells and Jester's motley may ba enshrined.
Miss Helen Bradford Thompson, late
professor of experimental psychology
in the Chicago University, and now di
rector of the psychological laboratory
at Mount Holyoke College, has demon
strated to her own satisfaction that
men are more emotional than women.
as well as superior to them In physical
strength and Inventiveness. This con
clusion was reached after two years of
careful experiment with a class of
twenty-five young men and an equal
number of young women. Her findings
and the experiments upon which they
are based will be published by the Chi
cago University press, advance sheets
of which are now out. In a work en
titled "The Mental Traits of Sex." Miss
Thompson has through her Investiga
tions reached the by no means original
conclusion that the superior ingenuity
and strength of men are not due to a
difference of mind Induced by sex, but
to the influence of society as now or
ganized, and more especially to the fact
that the boy Is taught to be Independ
ent In thought and action, while the
girl Is taught obedience and depend
ence. The case may be stated and
argued under the head of "Nature vs.
That there Is something in Miss
Thompson's, last contention is mani
festly true. That the fact stated, upon
being tested, speedily reaches Its lim
its Is Rise true; The trouble with this
theory Is similar to that "under which
the Christian Scientist labors when
pushing his theory of healing beyond
the point where it can be sustained by
demonstration. The theorists In both
cases assert more than they are able
to prove. Elated by the supposed dis
covery of a truth or the discovery of
a supposed truth, fhey seek to make
exhaustive application of It only to be
confronted by Insuperable facts In Na
ture and experience. '
"We await the publication of Miss
Thompson's findings to be convinced
that men are more emotional than
women." This, at least has the merit
of an original proposition, and the evi
dence offered in support of it will be
awaited with some Interest and not a
little curiosity. Against the idea, how
ever, that woman only lacks opportu
nity and training to become the coun
terpart of man In -physical strength and
public achievement, Nature herself en
ters silent protest Longfellow makes
a succinct statement of this matter
when he says:
As unto the bow the cord is,
So Is man unto the woman:
Though she bends him, she obeys htm.
Though sho leads him yet she follows
Useless each without the other.
The whole contention about the rela
tive position of the sexes is summed up
In these lines, and the conclusion
reached in the last one Is firmly estab
lished In the experience and history of
A French sociologist, Leopold Mabll
leau, In a recent lecture before the
University of Chicago, denounced what
he termed the weak spot In the higher
education In America: "Professors In
American universities are like caged
employes. They may not speak, they
may scarcely even think as they please,
They must respect the opinions and In
terests of the trustees who employ them
and of the rich men whose millions
make the Institutions possible." In
France, he says, they have a better
system universities supported by the
state, which assures to professors a
life tenure and entire freedom of
thought and speech.
It Is true that In several cases the
opinions of university professors have
cost them their position. President E
B. Andrews, of Brown University, lost
his chair by his senseless and extrava
gant championship of free silver at 16
to 1. Some of the professors of Stan
ford University are reported to have
been frozen out because Mrs. Stanford
did not consider their views on science
and religion as thoroughly orthodox.
but It is not true that France Is free
from this Intolerance. At least one of
the eminent professors In France lost
his position because of his indignant
protest against the crime against Cap
tain Dreyfus and his denunciation of
the conduct of the military court which
presided over his second trial. If a
man of the genius and influence of Zola
barely escaped being lynched because
of his openly expressed sympathy for
Dreyfus, it Is morally certain that a
comparatively obscure university pro
fessor would not be protected through
any ancient tradition of "academic
freedom." This French lecturer boasts
not wisely, but too well. In no country
In the world Is there less "academic
freedom" than in France when burning
Issues are under public discussion.
In Great Britain there Is far more
"academic freedom" than In Frence,
but in France there Is a pretense of
academic freedom which Is solemnly
maintained until some great public
question comes under fiery discussion.
Then, If leading professors criticise the
government with bitterness and sharp
ness, "the academic freedom" proves
but a weak defense, for on some pre
tense or subterfuge the offending. pro
fessor Is soon expelled from his chair.
It Is a weakness in our privately en
dowed Institutions of higher education
that the donors of the money which es
tablished them regulate and repress the
utterances of Instructors In the depart
ments of economics and sociology.
This Is no more true of America than
it is of France. It Is worse In France,
because the public sentiment of this
country would make It Impossible to
expel an honored and able professor
from his chair because he stood up
boldly and denounced such a crime
against public justice as the successful
conspiracy against the liberty of Cap
tain Dreyfus. There Is no "academic
freedom" in France that will prevent
the martyrdom of scholar and teacher
who defies public opinion and arraigns
the government for its Indifference to
public justice. If France should be in
volved in such a war today as we had
on our hands in 1893-1300 in the Philip
pines, we do not believe that her uni
versity professors would be permitted
to denounce the expansion policy of the
government without rebuke If they
spoke as bitterly as did Professor Nor
ton, of Harvard. The university pro
fessors of France know enough to keep
still, and when they do not they are
obliged promptly to step down and out,
as did the eminent French scholar of
Protestant lineage who spoke up fear
lessly In favor of Dreyfus.
There is certainly as much "academic
freedom" In Harvard or Yale Univer
sity as there Is In any state university
In France. "When there Is a violation
of academic freedom in the endowed
educational institutions of America, It
Is found In some seven-by-nlne fresh
water college or in some institution like
Stanford University, whose great re
sources and rich endowment has been
tied to a woman's apron-string, or like
the University of Chicago, which Is sub
ordinate to John D. Rockefeller when
ever he chooses to control It The small
colleges of some states of the Middle
"West, under the transient triumph of
Populism, suffered the loss of their en
tire faculties. Little Emory College. In
Georgia, dismissed Professor Sledd for
his liberal views on the negro question.
Another petty Southern college dis
missed a professor foe merely owning
Matthew Arnold's "Literature and
Dogma" and "God and the Bible."
But In none of the really great col
leges of the country, such as Harvard,
Yale, Columbia or Cornell, Is there any
danger of the dismissal of an efficient
professor because his opinions are un
popular. New England has been solid for the
protective tariff since the foundation of
the Republican party In 1S5G, yet during
nearly all of this time Professor Sum
ner taught free trade at Yale Univer
sity, and Professor Perry, at "Williams
College. Even In the matter of Presi
dent Andrews and the sliver question
In 1897, while not a member of the fac
ulty agreed with him, a majority pro
tested against the action of the corpo
ration jn putting pressure on Andrews
and the corporation receded from its
position. "When Mrs. Stanford put
Professor Rom out of his chair, in 19yd
the majority of the faculty stood fey
their guns and supported Rose as &
matter of principle. Academic freedom
Is not absolute and perfect in the
United States: neither Is It In France.
Privately endowed especially denomi
nationalInstitutions have the right to
expect adherence In general to their
traditions. The roan who cannot re
spect them should seek for employment
U. S. Grant the third, grandson of
the hero of Yicksburg, took third
place in a class of nearly 100 at the
final examination at "West Point This
announcement has called forth the er
roneous statement that the great sol
dler of the Civil "War graduated near
the foot of his class, for General Grant
ranked No. 21 in a class . of . 39
members. He was the finest mathe
matlclan in his class and the most dar
ing horseman in the military academy.
His rank about midway In his class
was that attained by the majority of
the distinguished graduates of "West
Point A. few very famous Generals,
such as Longstreet did graduate at the
foot of their class, but Grant was not
among them.
General C. F. Smith, who made a fa
mous charge at the head of his brigade
at Fort Donelson, the finest soldier of
the class of 1825, ranked 19 In a class of
37. General Albert Sidney Johnston,
killed at ShIIoh, was No. 8 in a class of
41 members. General Robert E. Lee
was graduated In 1829, second in rank
In a class of .46, and among hl3 class
mates was General Joseph E. Johnston,
who ranked No. 13. Jefferson Davis
ranked .23 In a class of 33 members.
Generals Humphreys and Emory, dis
tinguished soldiers, ranked 13 and 14
In a class of 33 members. General
Meade ranked 19 In a class of 56 mem
bers. The Confederate General Bragg
ranked No. 5 In a class of 50 members.
General Early was No. 19, General John
Sedgwick No. 24, and General Joseph
Hooker No. 29 of. the same class that
of 1837. General Beauregard was sec
ond In a class of 45 members. General
Hardee was No. 26 and General A. J.
Smith No. 36 In the same class. Isaac
I. Stevens led the class of 1839. General
Halleck was No. 3, General Rlcketts
No. 16, General Ord No. 17, General
Henry J. Hunt No. 19 and General
Canby was No. 30 In the same clas3,
which had 31 members. General Paul
O. Hebert led the class of 1840, which
contained 42 members. Hebert never
rose above the rank of Confederate
Brigadier. "William T. Sherman was
No. 6, George H. Thomas No. 12 and
George "W. Getty No. 15 and the Con
federate General Ewell was No. 13 In
the same .class. General Z. B. Tower
led the class of 1841, which numbered
52 members. General H. G. "Wright
was No. 2, General Nathaniel Lyon was
No. 11, General John F. Reynolds was
No. 26, General Buell No. 32, General
Richardson No. 38 and General Brooks
No. 46. General Henry L. Eustis, who
made a very poor Brigadier In the
Sixth Corps, led the class of 1812, num
bering 56 members. General John New
ton was No. 2, General Rosecrans No.
5, General John Pope No. 17, General
Doubleday No. 24, the Confederate Gen
eral D. H. Hill No. 28, General George
Sykes No. 39, the Confederate General
McLaws No. 48, General Van Dorn 'No.
52 and General James Longstreet No.
54. General "William B. Franklin led
the class of 1843. George Deshon, now
a Catholic priest In New York -City, was
second; General Frederick Steele, one
of Grant's best officers before VIcks
burg, was No. 30, and General Rufus
Ingalls was No. 32 In this class of 39
members. General Hancoak ranked' 18
In a class of 25. Generals "William Fl
Smith, Thomas J. "Wood, Charles R.
Stone and FItz John Porter ranked
fourth, fifth, .seventh and eighth, re
spectively, In the class of 1845, which
had 41 members. The Confederate Gen
eral Bee, killed at Bull Run, ranked 33
and General David A. Russell ranked
38 In this class. General -McClellan was
No. 2 In a class of 59 members, and at
the foot of the class was General
George E. Pickett, who led the great
Confederate charge at Gettysburg.
Stonewall Jackson ranked 17 In this
class, and General Cadmus C. "Wilcox
ranked 54, General Reno No. 8 and Gen
eral Couch 12.
The Confederate General A. P. Hill
ranked 15 In a class of 38, Burnside
ranked 18, General Gibbon 20, General
Ayres 22, General Griffin 23, and at the
foot of the- class was General Henry
Heth, one of Dee's most brilliant di
vision commanders. General John Bu
ford ranked 16 in a class of 38 members.
General G. K. "Warren was No. 2 In a
class of 44 members. General Cuvler Gro-
ver was fourth In the same class. General
Henry "W. Slocum was No. 7 in the class
of 1852, which had 43 members. Gen
eral D. S. Stanley was No. 9, General
A. D. McCook No, 30, General A. V.
Kautz No. 35 and General George Crook
No. 38. General McPherson led the
class of 1853; General Schofield was No.
7, General Philip H. Sheridan was No.
34 and the Confederate General John B.
Hood No. 44 In a class of 52 members.
General Ruger was No. 3 and General
O. O. Howard No. 4 In the class of 1854.
The Confederate Generals P'egram and
J. E. B. Stuart ranked 10 and 13, re
spectively, in this class, which had 46
members. General Stephen D. Lee
ranked 17, and the Confederate General
Pender, killed. at Gettysburg, ranked 19
in this class. General A. S. "Webb ranked
13 In a class of 34 members. General
Samuel S. Carroll ranked 44 In a class
of 49 members. General Charles G.
Harker ranked 16 In a class of 27 mem
bers. The Confederate General Ram-
seur ranked 14 in a class of 41 mem
gers. General J. H. Wilson ranked 6
and General "Wesley Merrltt ranked 22
In the same class that of 1860. General
Ames ranked 5, General Upton 8, Gen
eral Guy V. Henry 27 and General Jud
son Kllpatrlck 17 In a class of 45 mem
bers, and General George A. Custer
graduated at the foot of his class.
General Joe "Wheeler was 19 In a class
of 22.
These figures show that superior mili
tary scholarship Is no more assurance
of success in the application of the art
of war to the sudden emergencies of
the campaign and the battlefield than
superior scholarship at the law school
Is assurance of success In the trial of
a great cause In court In the Civil
"War many of the first scholars at "West
Point did not show superior aptitude
for generalship In the field. This only
proves that outdoor executive energy
and creature pugnacity are essential to
a General as well as knowledge of the
scientific principles of -strategy and
grand battle tactics.
The old axiom that truth Is stranger
than fiction was never better illustrated
than in the story of the Servian trag
edy. In this age of electricity, steam
and high-pressure civilization, whea
Jsclenca makes greater, advances in a J
year than It used to make In twenty,
when higher education Is supposed to
be lifting all mankind to a loftier
plane, the whole world Is shocked by a
crime the details of which for sickening
horror find but few parallels since the
Dark Ages. The story of the assassina
tion of the King and Queen of Servia
reads, not like a twentieth-century
piece of news, but rather like one of
those partly legendary stories of .the
old days when might made right The
art and .Imagination of the most gifted
playwright could conjure un no more
awful, thrilling scene than that which
was enacted la the palace of Servla's
icing shortly after midnight last
"Wednesday. All of the elements of
the romantic tragedies of centuries aeo
were there the treacherous army, the
Judas who betrayed his master, the
midnight summons and wild flight
through the halls of the palace from
which there was no escape, and Anally
the terrible climax in which the disso
lute tyrant lighted up the dark deeds of
nis lire by a final Act of heroic devotion,
yielding up his own life for the rjrivl
lege of avenging an Insult to the woman
he undoubtedly loved. That modern
miracle, the electric telegraph, had
flashed the news of this tragedy, with
all of its gory details, to the uttermost
ends of the earth before the bodies of
the victims had become cold. For this
reason the Servian horror does not
offer for the purpose of historical ro
mance so good an opportunity as It
would had had If It had happened 400
or 500 years ago. Nevertheless, none of
the old tales of blood and warfare ex
celled It in dramatic effect, and, regard
less of the character of the murdered
monarchs, It will not soon be forgotten.
Public sympathy and common justice
are on the side of the settlers In "War
ner Valley, whom the "Warner Valley
Stock Company Is trying to dispossess
of lands long occupied as homesteads
and Improved and Hyed upon as such.
These people evidently acted In good
faith, and to dispossess them utterly
on the legal basis or claim that the
land taken Is swamp land, and not sub
ject to homestead entry, will work
hardship and suffering upon them. The
case Is one of a -type that arouses bitter
and often unreasoning hostility to cor
porations and Incites not Infrequently
to acts of violence. It may be hdped
that equitable adjustment of this case
will be reached, since neither party to
the contention can afford to urge or ac
cept a settlement upon any other basis.
Land feuds are exceedingly bitter, and
are proverbially slow In dying out A
company. In a case of this kind, even
If It has the law upon its side, can much
better afford, even as a financial propo
sition, to buy settlers out than arbi
trarily to dispossess them, while there
can be no doubt as to the ethics of such
a proceeding as judged by the stand
ard of the golden rule.
Ranchers of the Rocky Mountain
States who lost from 25 to 40 per cent
of. their Spring lambs and calves In the
May blizzard that swept the great
plateau estimate that their losses will
be offset by the heavy snowfall on the
ranges, that almost certainly insures
an abundance of grass -to bring their
stock to market in the Fall In prime
order. This view of the case Is hard
on the creatures that perished, but the
typical rancher is not troubled with
"feelings." He Is in the sheep and
cattle business for money, not for
sympathy with the animals that are the
source of his wealth. More's the pity,
since very much of the suffering Im
posed upon stock on the range and In
transit to market might be avoided by
the exercise of the humane Instinct In
connection with the business.
Mr. Thomas "White, one of the Ken
tucky "feudists" who shot Lawyer
Macrum In the back, is reported to
have wept In Jail, and to be feeling
very despondent This seems strange,
considering the bravery exhibited In
murdering an unarmed man In cold
blood. If there is any justice accom
panying that Kentucky "honah" of
which we have heard so much, Mr.
"White will soon change from despond
ent to pendant with a six-foot drop
and then to recumbent In a pine box
in the Potter's field. The present gen
eration of Kentucky desperadoes seem
to be as brave as coyotes, and the
moonshine novel built around such
characters as Thomas "White and Cur
tis Jett would be a poor seller.
There is silly debate on the question
whether a man, entering an elevator
In the presence of women, should re
move his hat and remain uncovered.
No more than if he were entering a
street-car. An elevator in a public
building Is a public place; It Is a pub
lic conveyance, and often, moreover, is
subject to drafts, under which the
head should not be uncovered. In any
circumstances, If one meets In an ele
vator women whom he knows, It is
enough to lift or touch his hat, as else
where. Statistics for ten months of the fiscal
year which ends June 30, 1903, indicate
that the foreign trade of the United
States for the year will exceed in vol
ume and value that of the banner year
of 190L The figures, already verified,
are sent out by the Treasury Depart
ment form the basis for an estimate of
exports amounting to $1,500,000,000, with
Imports approaching the 51,000,000,000
mark. This estimate shows a balance
In our favor of $500,000,000, an average
of nearly $10,000,000 a week for the
year. .
The powers of Europe should Insist
on punishment with death of the au
thors and perpetrators of the Servian
massacre. All relations with, the coun
try should be refused so long -as these
red-handed murderere are In favor
with the Servian government Nobody
believes the favorite whom ihese mur
derers are placing on the throne when
he says he Is "shocked" at the mas
sacre, and didn't know It was Intended.
An American now In the Orient con
tributes to this Issue of The Oregonlan
a short, clear statement of conditions
in Manchuria, so far as they affect the
United States. It Is well worth read
ing by those who have not kept close
track of Russia's invasion. His opinion
that this country cannot avoid Joining
hands with England and Japan in a
conflict with Russia may or may not
be' sound; still, It Is interesting.
The school election tomorrow prom
ises to be an exceedingly tame affair.
With but one Director to elect, and but
one candidate In the field, It cannot be
otherwise. Public apathy In this mat
ter Is not easilj- explained. The public
Is fortunate In 'that It has not often
brought the. schools into disrepute
through mismanagement or poltlcal In
trigue. '
The "Weather Knockers.
There's a great big bunch of 'knockers .
Who make the public sigh.
They are sore about the weatner, ,
And they're hard to satisfy.
In Summr when the sky Is bright
They howl and howl tor raw. ,
And when the Winter makes things damp
They want the sun again.
What's la a Xame.
BELGRADE, June 13. (By tireless tel
egraph.) There . was a wild scene in the.
Skuptschlna. Assembly held here today.
Seven cases of lockjaw and three frac
tured jawbones aro the result of the
first meeting of the national senate.
The Skuptschlna opened up with the
following officers:
AvachewskI Carryagunski, Premier.
Brogan Hltthe plpeskovltch. Minister of
the Interior.
Hotshotos Bludandthunderousklt Minis
ter of War.
Twobit Nlckellntheslotskl, Minister of
Qeorgeus Brownellovltch, President of
the Senate.
Before the reading clerk got half way
through the list of names -he had to be
gagged and taken from the Senate cham
ber on a shutter. Colonel Muttonchops
kovitchskl rose to the occasion and moved
that all the names of officers be changed
to Smith, and a moment later he was re
moved to the emergency hospital, having
been assaulted by General Takeashotat
theklngskl, wno threw one of the seven
teen volumes of the city directory at his
Then In the tumult that ensued Minis
ter Hittheplpeskovltch tried to mount a
table and call the members to order, but
he, too, had to be sent out suffering
from lockjaw.
At an early hour this morning the
scene Is one of the utmost confusion.
Premier Carryagunski will dissolve the
meeting as soon as it is daylight, and
hereafter the roll call will be done by
means of phonograph, with cast-steel
records. All the telephone wires in the
country have been changed to barb
wire, as that Is the only variety that
will carry the language without burning
An Easy Convert.
The thirsty man stood at the street cor
ner and leaned against a telephone pole.
He had been long standing thus, and as
the day was hot, and as he "was dry and
parched, he was meditating as to whether
he ought to go around the corner and
see a man or not
Suddenly he was tapped on the back
by a person of solemn appearance, and
as he turned the one who tapped said:
"Sir, might I Inquire if you are a
"Well," remarked the thirsty man with
great rapidity, "I have never had any
partlcular aversion, to spirits, and as
the day Is hot I don't care I I do."
The Adventures of Mr. Busybody
Chapter II.
Mr. Busybody strolled down the street
the other day from the club, where he
had partaken freely of an excellent lunch,
observing the sights that abounded on
every hand. Suddenly, when, he reached
a busy part of the thoroughfare, he
threw up his hands with an exclamation
and fell In a dead faint
The crowd pressed around, and sev
eral policemen who were near by endeav
ored to revive the unfortunate man. Wa
ter and other reviving agencies, were re
sorted to, but the genial Mr. Busybody
remained dead to the world. Finally,
an ambulance and a doctor were called,
and Mr. Busybody was taken to the hos
pital. Later on in the day he came to, and
those at his bedside gathered around to
learn the cause of his fainting attack.
As Mr. Busybody glanced from face to
face he began to realize where he was.
and then he began to weep bitterly.
"What was the trouble, old fellow?"
asked a house doctor, sympathetically.
"I thought I saw a sprinkling cart In
the distance," murmured Mr. Busybody.
James McNeill Whistler's portrait of
Carlyle Is owned by the corporation of
Glasgow. Shortly after it was finished a
committee from the corporation visited
Mr. Whistler, Intending to purchase the
wonderful painting. They wanted to
know about the price, which the artist
had announced as 1000 guineas. "Didn't
you know the price before you came
here?" asked Whistler, blandly. "Oh, yes.
we knew, but " "Then, let's talk about
something else," interrupted Whistler.
The canny Scots bought the picture and
trust them got a bargain.
George Francis Train, who Is being
treated for smallpox at an Institution
near Stamford, Conn., ate a very late
beakfast one day last week. This was
because unknown thieves broke Into the
pantry the night before, evidently not
knowing what sort of a place it Is, and
stole everything edible they could find.
Citizen Train was much concerned on
hearing of the affair, but said that if he
chose, he could, by the science of psychic
telepathy, locate the guilty parties. On
reflection, however, he decided that they
probably needed the food, and, therefore,
he will make no effort to aid In their cap
She Why has Boston the name of being such.
& bad city? He Because of the number of
crooks In the streets, I suppose. Harvard
"What makss you so sure he loves you?"
"Because he named his new automobile after
me Instead of calling it some sort of 'davlL "
Cincinnati Tribune.
"Tea, since Mr. Gotrox broke a mirror yes
terday, she is convinced that It Is very un
lucky." "How superstitious." "Not at all. It
was a French plate, and cost $400." Balti
more News.
He I declare, I feel terribly rattled at the
Idea of playing In the tournament before' all
that crowd. She Oh, cheer up they probably
won't know any mora about tennis than you
do. Brooklyn Life.
"Old Swaddleford always pretends to be as
deaf as a post, but I believe he can hear as
well as anybody." "What makes you thtnlc
so?1' "Nobody ever Baw hint walking along a
railroad track In advance of a train." Chicago
First Summer girl Isn't that young man I
saw you strolling on the beach with this morn
ing rather slow? Second Summer girl The
slowest ever. Why, I've known him since noon
yesterday, and he liasa't proposed yet. Chi
cago Dally News.
"Of course," said Mr. Staylate, "there are
soma things that always go without saying"
"Tea. and worse still." Interrupted Miss Pa
tience Gonne. yawning at the clock; "thera
are soma others that do Just the opposite."
Philadelphia Press.
"Toung man." said the stern parent to the
applicant for a job as son-in-law, "I want
you to know that I spent $5000 on my daugh
ter's education." "Thanks," rejoined the youth
who was trying to break Into the family circle.
Then I won't have to send her to a school
again." Chicago Dally News.
Smith The papers speak enthusiastically
of your daughter's singing at the muslcal
last weak. Rogers Tea, I am surprised they
should all speak so flatteringly. What does
the Planet say? Smith There's nothing la the
Planet about her. Rogers That's queer. I cer
tainly seat the same notice to tha Planet, that
I seat to tt otker papers. Bostsa Traascript.