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Truth, therefore, though men strive for It never so earnestly, is not repose; and no one who has any real knowledge of human nature can doubt how much more pleasurable to most men and women it is to live under the empire of invincible prejudice, deliberately shutting out every consideration that could shake or qualify cherished be liefs, than to contend for truth and to try to follow wherever It may lead. And yet the highest form of Intellect ual virtue is that love of truth for Its own sake which breaks up prejudices, tempers enthusiasm by the full ad mission of opposing arguments and qualifying circumstances, and places in the sphere of possibility or proba bility many things which we would gladly accept as certainties. Yet con science Itself, when it is very sensi tive and very lofty, is far more an element of suffering than of pleasure unless we give highest place In the list or pleasures to those especially that give us most p'aln. So full of3 contradictions and of paradoxes Is the nature of man. Man seeks truth with an eagerness that often devours him, yet finds actual repose only in beliefs that he never can reconcile to his reason. But this paradox has Its uses In the economy of life, since it is what may without violence to truth be called the preju dices of men that holds human soci ety together. In their search for truth and their speculations about It men follow such divergent paths that, without their prejudices to serve as an anchor, there could be no body of opinion strong enough to hold as a real bond among men. Yet there Is a criterion of truth' in the choice between good and eviL This plunges us at once into the contro versy about free will, where men "find no end, in wandering mazes lost." All superficial thinking on the subject tends to denial of free will In man, upon the assumption that man is merely the creature of circum stances, on which his motives, de sires and actions are directed. But is it an inevitable conclusion? Man Is nothing if the will may not be su perior to the desire, and It is the busi ness of character to make it so. The feeling of moral responsibility Is an essential and Inseparable part of healthy and developed human nature, and It inevitably presupposes free will. The best argument in Its favor is that it is impossible to disbelieve it No human being can prevent himself from viewing certain acts with an In dignation, shame, remorse, resent ment, gratitude, enthusiasm, praise or blame, which would be perfectly un meaning and irrational, if these acts could not have been avoided. "We can have no higher eyidence on the sub ject than Is derived from this fact It is impossible to explain the mys tery of free will, but until d man ceases to feel these emotions he has not succeeded in disbelieving it. He never, therefore, can argue himself out of his. sense of responsibility and duty. The foundation of the social fabric in morals is here; and In large degree its foundation in religion, too. But this has nothing to do with spe cial or ecclesiastical creeds. These eerve a purpose, by constituting a body of feeling or opinion which con centrates powerful forces in support of principles necessary for the con duct of life. Not that any system of belief, any church creed, can be forever and infallibly true; for changes or ad justment to new conditions mark the .whole course of their history. The members, and still more the minis ters, of an ancient church, bound to formularies and creeds that were drawn up in long bygone centuries, ere continually met by the difficulties of reconciling these forms with the changed conditions of human knowl edge; and there are periods when the pressure of these difficulties is felt with more than common force. Per haps no part of this movement and jwork has given more concern to a 3arge class of minds than the prog ress of biblical interpretation, on the principles made necessary by 'growth of the philosophy of history. Multi tudes of good souls maintain their peace of mind by resolute refusal to ioln in this inquiry, or even to toler ate it. But there Is gain, in many ways. It Is good for the human mind that phe nomena once attributed to isolated and capricious acts of soirltual or di vine Intervention are recormlzed now as regulated by Invariable, Inexorable and all-pervasive law. "We turn this knowledge to account in our dealings with Nature, and with each other. In Innumerable ways. There Is gain, too. In the increaslnsr tolerance It enforces In government and In Individual life. Church and state are now all but com pletely separated, and mental and moral perverseness is no longer at trlbuted to those who apply the spirit of historical and literary inaulry to the study of the religious history of man, including the Bible of the Jewish and Christian world. For all minds there Is not satisfaction in this process or In results, since It upsets many cher lshed beliefs never accomplished with out pain; but it Is -the only way to es cape from fixed states of mind In z whole people, which preclude Intellect ual growth and moral growth with It. So If, as Emerson says, we cannot have repose with truth (he means with our. suit of truth), let us deem ourselves better off with truth, or with the pur suit of it, than with repose alone. It is an enigma of life, but Inescapable. THE BOSTOX RELIGION. Under the caption bf "The Boston Re- Hgion," M. A. Dewolfe Howe con tributes to the current number of the Atlantic Monthly an admirable article concerning the civil war that raged within the Congregational Church of Jew England In the early days of the nineteenth century, and out of which jgrew the American Unitarian Church. Jonathan Mayhew, whose political ser mon of 1750 has been called "the morn ing gun of Ihe Revolution." was the first prominent dissenter from the es tablished Calvinlstic Church of New England. Calvinlstic Congregationalism was then the established church, guard ed by civil laws, taxing the whole com munity for church support, and deal ing with ecclesiastical affairs from the point of view of the unity of church and state; but In the closing years of the eighteenth century Boston and Salem began to welcome the pulpit ex pression of doubts respecting the doc trines of the trinity and of human de pravity. The inland towns of New England remained Intensely orthodox, but the seaports became more latitudl narlan, because their deep-sea navi gators became, through world-wide ex perience, divested of Puritan Insularity of thought. and manners. As early as 1600 there was one church in Boston avowedly Unitarian, King's Chapel. Originally the first Episcopal Church In New England, it became the first Uni tarian Church in America. The con gregation authorized Its rector. James Freeman, to revise the trinity out of the liturgy. Denied Episcopal ordina tion for this act. Freeman became the first professedly Unitarian minister in America. Other orthodox ministers of Boston, instead of openly denying the doctrine of the trinity and other tenets of Calvinism, were content in practice to Ignore such matters. But In 1805 the election of Rev. Henry "Ware to the va cant Hollls professorship at Harvard caused an outburst of violent Indigna tion and protest on part of orthodox Congregationalism. The newly elected professor of divinity was a pronounced Unitarian; his election was bitterly con tested, but without avail. In natural sequence, from the Hollls professorship dispute came the found ing of the Andover Seminary in 180S. and of the Park-Street Church In 1809. Finally in 1815 the controversy became so hot that orthodox Dr. Morse pub lished a pamphlet entitled "Are You of the Boston Religion or of the Christian Religion?" to which a Boston lawyer, John "Lowell, made answer In the pamphlet, "Are You a Christian or a Calvlnist?" There were a number of leading Unitarians, Including Dr. Chan nlng and Dr. N. L. Frothlngham, who were reluctant to see a new sect found ed. Channlng would have preferred to see the Congregational body undivided, but leavened by Unltarlanlsm. In the religious war that followed, the courts ruled in case of a country parish that although only two church members re mained with the church when the or thodox minister and all the rest of his people seceded, those two were the church and retained all its property. In 18S3 the Massachusetts law formal ly separated the functions of church and town." Dr. Channlng was really the Influential leader of the Boston Unitarians, and he preached continual ly the dignity, not the depravity, of human nature. While the preaching of Channlng was strongly ethical rather than doctrinal, nevertheless he did not discard supernaturalism In religion nor a divine revelation of Christian truth, and believed In the Bible, Old Testa ment and New. Harvard College and nearly all the wealth and fashion of Boston became allies of the new faith. Rev. Dr. Lyman Beecher, a man of very great ability, confessed that for six years, from 182G to 1832, he battled In vain against the rising tide of Boston Unltarlanlsm. Then came the famous revolt within Unltarlanlsm itself, a controversy in troduced by Emerson and Theodore Parker. In 1S3S Emerson delivered his divinity school address at Harvard, which was denounced as heretical by the leader of the divinity school. Rev. Andrews Norton, who stigmatized it as "the latest form of infidelity." Em erson had repudiated the rite of the Lord's Supper, had separated himself from the Unitarian ministry and retired to Concord, chanting: "Good-bye, proud world; I'm going home." But the seed scattered by Emerson had taken deep root in Theodore Parker, who as min ister of the First Church in "West Rox- bury preached in 1841 a sermon which included a bold declaration that Chris tianity needed no support from mir acles, and that it could still stand firm as the absolute religion, even if it could be proved that Its founder never lived. The orthodox Unitarians were as much startled by the voice of Parker as the orthodox Congregational Church had been shocked by the voice of Channlng a quarter century before. Channlng doubted whether Parker could even he called a Christian, "for without miracles the historical Christ Is rone." Rev. Dr. N. Lu Frothlngham, father of Rev. O. B. Frothlngham, who wrote the stand ard life of Theodore Parker, said that ! the difference between Trinitarians and Unitarians is a difference in Chris tianity, but the difference between Mr- Parker and the association of Unitarian ministers is a difference between no Christianity and Christianity." Parker was "frozen out" of the Unitarian Church, and when James Freeman Clarke exchanged pulpits with him. fifteen of his most influential families joined themselves to another church. The orthodox Unitarian Church bullded better than it knew: for when it dropped Its old flag of liberty In thOUtrht and SOftMih Psrlrpr nnlv grasped it 4fe .mora firmly, planted It , In his independent nulolt of Music Hall and drew 3000 deserters from orthodox Unltarlanlsm to hear him every Sun day. Today the Rev. John "White Chadwlck, who can speak with author ity for his denomination, declares of Theodore Parker, the Unitarian arch heretic of 1845: ""From then tlU now Unitarian progress has been along the -line illuminated hy his beacon light." The victory of Unltarlanlsm Is found in the fact that it forced orthodoxy to let out its belt a number of holes or die of heart failure. The leading voices in all the great Calvinlstic churches are attuned today to accents of liberal Christianity, and for this we are in debted to the Unitarian movement that began under Channlng and rose-to Its Dest maturity under Parker and his apostles. Parker, was the pioneer in the higher biblical criticism and the preaching of the humanity of Christ. Lyman Abbott and PhilliDs Brooks in their respective churches confessed by their teachings that Parker's voice had enlarged the circle of orthodox learn Ing and humanity. THE THEATER THAT AMUSES. The Inevitable chances in the mode of living, the prosperity and the mental attitude of a nation are nowhere re flected more sensitively than In the character of Its amusements and the patronage extended to them. The islander of the Southern seas, attired In a few feathers snatched from the flamingo and the parrakeet, still dances gleefully before a nlle of skulls. The sybarite of decadent Rome languished on scented divans while Nubian cap tives made soft music for him. To tempt his sated appetite, and deserts and the seas were sacked. On every side, in answer to the popular de mand, arose new schemes to Interest the jaded mind, and today the mighti est monument that Rome has left Is the Coliseum, a temple of amusement. After a wave of barbarism, crested by the Goth, the rude "Vandal anfl ths Hun, had Inundated Europe, amuse ment was no longer thoutrht of seri ously. The dally and belligerent life of the People afforded them nil the e-r- cltement needed, Later, when -the gov ernments became more settled, recrea tion began,' though slowly, to appear again. The tournament and other war like sports grew on the public favor, and as strife between the nations waned, amusements multiDlled. Alwavs has a change of the character of the peoples sport announced, but not her alded, a change In the necessities and needs of their life. And so It would seem that the rapid rise of the vaudeville theater amongst us, the surrendering in Chicago and New York of great dramatic temples to the new specialty entertainments, and the recent appearance as vaudevllllans of many celebrities of the stage, may well warrant a serious analysis. It were Idle to suppose that so radical a change as that marked by the rapid obsolescence of the tragedy and the Shakespearean drama, and the adop tion in their stead of the careless Jovs of the vaudeville, Is due only to a pass ing caprice of popular fancy. Its rea son Is based on firmer ground, and the advent of entertainment for the enjoy ment of which thought Is not necessary, and which evokes no mental process but a smile. Is merely a slrm of n. change In the daily life and habits of the Nation. The dally life of the averatre man today Is so complex and full that he feels no desire to eke out his experience at second hand by having his feellnrrs harrowed up by the mimic wrongs of the heroine In a theatrical drama. Nor does he feel the necessity, or even ad vantage, of adding to his store of phil osophy by listening to the saws and sayings that have lifted Shakespeare to the dizziest height of literature. In older days, when restricted facili ties for communication narrowed the experience of any one person to the actual happenings of his own town or circle that might come within his ken. there was perhaps a paucity of emo tions. People became heart-hunrrrv- Locked within the confines of their own acquaintanceship and unable to learn or follow the nathos. humor and tragedy of other lives in other com munities and other spheres, it was natural that the public should rush eagerly to whatever promised them a change from the deadly sameness of their lives. But with the rapid growth of great newspapers and the Improvement of rapid transit, at least the urban popu lation of the country has become some what Immune from excitement. Dally at their doors are laid the tales of the doings of the day before. And these are teal tales of suffering.- deceit tri umph, Intrigue and vindicated Inno cence, well told by skilled writers, the Incidents of each story set forth In proper sequence, each motive carefully analyzed, so that It may be mentally digested at once and without effort "What wonder Is It that the public of to day no longer thrills at the melancholies of Hamlet the Dane, nor Is spellbound by the eloquent portrayal of Imagi nary woe. The unreal Is no more pic turesque nor yet as interesting as the real. But if the theater Is no longer to in struct it Is decreed that It shall amuse. And therefore it Is that theatrical man agers all over America are building new vaudeville houses and turning theaters where Edwin Booth and Lawrence Bar rett have trod the boards into ultra ornamental resorts where the can and bells and Jester's motley may ba enshrined. "USELESS EACH "WITHOUT THE OTHER." Miss Helen Bradford Thompson, late professor of experimental psychology in the Chicago University, and now di rector of the psychological laboratory at Mount Holyoke College, has demon strated to her own satisfaction that men are more emotional than women. as well as superior to them In physical strength and Inventiveness. This con clusion was reached after two years of careful experiment with a class of twenty-five young men and an equal number of young women. Her findings and the experiments upon which they are based will be published by the Chi cago University press, advance sheets of which are now out. In a work en titled "The Mental Traits of Sex." Miss Thompson has through her Investiga tions reached the by no means original conclusion that the superior ingenuity and strength of men are not due to a difference of mind Induced by sex, but to the influence of society as now or ganized, and more especially to the fact that the boy Is taught to be Independ ent In thought and action, while the girl Is taught obedience and depend ence. The case may be stated and argued under the head of "Nature vs. Education." That there Is something in Miss Thompson's, last contention is mani festly true. That the fact stated, upon being tested, speedily reaches Its lim its Is Rise true; The trouble with this theory Is similar to that "under which the Christian Scientist labors when pushing his theory of healing beyond the point where it can be sustained by demonstration. The theorists In both cases assert more than they are able to prove. Elated by the supposed dis covery of a truth or the discovery of a supposed truth, fhey seek to make exhaustive application of It only to be confronted by Insuperable facts In Na ture and experience. ' "We await the publication of Miss Thompson's findings to be convinced that men are more emotional than women." This, at least has the merit of an original proposition, and the evi dence offered in support of it will be awaited with some Interest and not a little curiosity. Against the idea, how ever, that woman only lacks opportu nity and training to become the coun terpart of man In -physical strength and public achievement, Nature herself en ters silent protest Longfellow makes a succinct statement of this matter when he says: As unto the bow the cord is, So Is man unto the woman: Though she bends him, she obeys htm. Though sho leads him yet she follows Useless each without the other. The whole contention about the rela tive position of the sexes is summed up In these lines, and the conclusion reached in the last one Is firmly estab lished In the experience and history of mankind. ACADEMIC FREED 031. A French sociologist, Leopold Mabll leau, In a recent lecture before the University of Chicago, denounced what he termed the weak spot In the higher education In America: "Professors In American universities are like caged employes. They may not speak, they may scarcely even think as they please, They must respect the opinions and In terests of the trustees who employ them and of the rich men whose millions make the Institutions possible." In France, he says, they have a better system universities supported by the state, which assures to professors a life tenure and entire freedom of thought and speech. It Is true that In several cases the opinions of university professors have cost them their position. President E B. Andrews, of Brown University, lost his chair by his senseless and extrava gant championship of free silver at 16 to 1. Some of the professors of Stan ford University are reported to have been frozen out because Mrs. Stanford did not consider their views on science and religion as thoroughly orthodox. but It is not true that France Is free from this Intolerance. At least one of the eminent professors In France lost his position because of his indignant protest against the crime against Cap tain Dreyfus and his denunciation of the conduct of the military court which presided over his second trial. If a man of the genius and influence of Zola barely escaped being lynched because of his openly expressed sympathy for Dreyfus, it Is morally certain that a comparatively obscure university pro fessor would not be protected through any ancient tradition of "academic freedom." This French lecturer boasts not wisely, but too well. In no country In the world Is there less "academic freedom" than in France when burning Issues are under public discussion. In Great Britain there Is far more "academic freedom" than In Frence, but in France there Is a pretense of academic freedom which Is solemnly maintained until some great public question comes under fiery discussion. Then, If leading professors criticise the government with bitterness and sharp ness, "the academic freedom" proves but a weak defense, for on some pre tense or subterfuge the offending. pro fessor Is soon expelled from his chair. It Is a weakness in our privately en dowed Institutions of higher education that the donors of the money which es tablished them regulate and repress the utterances of Instructors In the depart ments of economics and sociology. This Is no more true of America than it is of France. It Is worse In France, because the public sentiment of this country would make It Impossible to expel an honored and able professor from his chair because he stood up boldly and denounced such a crime against public justice as the successful conspiracy against the liberty of Cap tain Dreyfus. There Is no "academic freedom" in France that will prevent the martyrdom of scholar and teacher who defies public opinion and arraigns the government for its Indifference to public justice. If France should be in volved in such a war today as we had on our hands in 1893-1300 in the Philip pines, we do not believe that her uni versity professors would be permitted to denounce the expansion policy of the government without rebuke If they spoke as bitterly as did Professor Nor ton, of Harvard. The university pro fessors of France know enough to keep still, and when they do not they are obliged promptly to step down and out, as did the eminent French scholar of Protestant lineage who spoke up fear lessly In favor of Dreyfus. There is certainly as much "academic freedom" In Harvard or Yale Univer sity as there Is In any state university In France. "When there Is a violation of academic freedom in the endowed educational institutions of America, It Is found In some seven-by-nlne fresh water college or in some institution like Stanford University, whose great re sources and rich endowment has been tied to a woman's apron-string, or like the University of Chicago, which Is sub ordinate to John D. Rockefeller when ever he chooses to control It The small colleges of some states of the Middle "West, under the transient triumph of Populism, suffered the loss of their en tire faculties. Little Emory College. In Georgia, dismissed Professor Sledd for his liberal views on the negro question. Another petty Southern college dis missed a professor foe merely owning Matthew Arnold's "Literature and Dogma" and "God and the Bible." But In none of the really great col leges of the country, such as Harvard, Yale, Columbia or Cornell, Is there any danger of the dismissal of an efficient professor because his opinions are un popular. New England has been solid for the protective tariff since the foundation of the Republican party In 1S5G, yet during nearly all of this time Professor Sum ner taught free trade at Yale Univer sity, and Professor Perry, at "Williams College. Even In the matter of Presi dent Andrews and the sliver question In 1897, while not a member of the fac ulty agreed with him, a majority pro tested against the action of the corpo ration jn putting pressure on Andrews and the corporation receded from its position. "When Mrs. Stanford put Professor Rom out of his chair, in 19yd the majority of the faculty stood fey their guns and supported Rose as & matter of principle. Academic freedom Is not absolute and perfect in the United States: neither Is It In France. Privately endowed especially denomi nationalInstitutions have the right to expect adherence In general to their traditions. The roan who cannot re spect them should seek for employment elsewhere. MILITARY SCHOLARSHIP. U. S. Grant the third, grandson of the hero of Yicksburg, took third place in a class of nearly 100 at the final examination at "West Point This announcement has called forth the er roneous statement that the great sol dler of the Civil "War graduated near the foot of his class, for General Grant ranked No. 21 in a class . of . 39 members. He was the finest mathe matlclan in his class and the most dar ing horseman in the military academy. His rank about midway In his class was that attained by the majority of the distinguished graduates of "West Point A. few very famous Generals, such as Longstreet did graduate at the foot of their class, but Grant was not among them. General C. F. Smith, who made a fa mous charge at the head of his brigade at Fort Donelson, the finest soldier of the class of 1825, ranked 19 In a class of 37. General Albert Sidney Johnston, killed at ShIIoh, was No. 8 in a class of 41 members. General Robert E. Lee was graduated In 1829, second in rank In a class of .46, and among hl3 class mates was General Joseph E. Johnston, who ranked No. 13. Jefferson Davis ranked .23 In a class of 33 members. Generals Humphreys and Emory, dis tinguished soldiers, ranked 13 and 14 In a class of 33 members. General Meade ranked 19 In a class of 56 mem bers. The Confederate General Bragg ranked No. 5 In a class of 50 members. General Early was No. 19, General John Sedgwick No. 24, and General Joseph Hooker No. 29 of. the same class that of 1837. General Beauregard was sec ond In a class of 45 members. General Hardee was No. 26 and General A. J. Smith No. 36 In the same class. Isaac I. Stevens led the class of 1839. General Halleck was No. 3, General Rlcketts No. 16, General Ord No. 17, General Henry J. Hunt No. 19 and General Canby was No. 30 In the same clas3, which had 31 members. General Paul O. Hebert led the class of 1840, which contained 42 members. Hebert never rose above the rank of Confederate Brigadier. "William T. Sherman was No. 6, George H. Thomas No. 12 and George "W. Getty No. 15 and the Con federate General Ewell was No. 13 In the same .class. General Z. B. Tower led the class of 1841, which numbered 52 members. General H. G. "Wright was No. 2, General Nathaniel Lyon was No. 11, General John F. Reynolds was No. 26, General Buell No. 32, General Richardson No. 38 and General Brooks No. 46. General Henry L. Eustis, who made a very poor Brigadier In the Sixth Corps, led the class of 1812, num bering 56 members. General John New ton was No. 2, General Rosecrans No. 5, General John Pope No. 17, General Doubleday No. 24, the Confederate Gen eral D. H. Hill No. 28, General George Sykes No. 39, the Confederate General McLaws No. 48, General Van Dorn 'No. 52 and General James Longstreet No. 54. General "William B. Franklin led the class of 1843. George Deshon, now a Catholic priest In New York -City, was second; General Frederick Steele, one of Grant's best officers before VIcks burg, was No. 30, and General Rufus Ingalls was No. 32 In this class of 39 members. General Hancoak ranked' 18 In a class of 25. Generals "William Fl Smith, Thomas J. "Wood, Charles R. Stone and FItz John Porter ranked fourth, fifth, .seventh and eighth, re spectively, In the class of 1845, which had 41 members. The Confederate Gen eral Bee, killed at Bull Run, ranked 33 and General David A. Russell ranked 38 In this class. General -McClellan was No. 2 In a class of 59 members, and at the foot of the class was General George E. Pickett, who led the great Confederate charge at Gettysburg. Stonewall Jackson ranked 17 In this class, and General Cadmus C. "Wilcox ranked 54, General Reno No. 8 and Gen eral Couch 12. The Confederate General A. P. Hill ranked 15 In a class of 38, Burnside ranked 18, General Gibbon 20, General Ayres 22, General Griffin 23, and at the foot of the- class was General Henry Heth, one of Dee's most brilliant di vision commanders. General John Bu ford ranked 16 in a class of 38 members. General G. K. "Warren was No. 2 In a class of 44 members. General Cuvler Gro- ver was fourth In the same class. General Henry "W. Slocum was No. 7 in the class of 1852, which had 43 members. Gen eral D. S. Stanley was No. 9, General A. D. McCook No, 30, General A. V. Kautz No. 35 and General George Crook No. 38. General McPherson led the class of 1853; General Schofield was No. 7, General Philip H. Sheridan was No. 34 and the Confederate General John B. Hood No. 44 In a class of 52 members. General Ruger was No. 3 and General O. O. Howard No. 4 In the class of 1854. The Confederate Generals P'egram and J. E. B. Stuart ranked 10 and 13, re spectively, in this class, which had 46 members. General Stephen D. Lee ranked 17, and the Confederate General Pender, killed. at Gettysburg, ranked 19 in this class. General A. S. "Webb ranked 13 In a class of 34 members. General Samuel S. Carroll ranked 44 In a class of 49 members. General Charles G. Harker ranked 16 In a class of 27 mem bers. The Confederate General Ram- seur ranked 14 in a class of 41 mem gers. General J. H. Wilson ranked 6 and General "Wesley Merrltt ranked 22 In the same class that of 1860. General Ames ranked 5, General Upton 8, Gen eral Guy V. Henry 27 and General Jud son Kllpatrlck 17 In a class of 45 mem bers, and General George A. Custer graduated at the foot of his class. General Joe "Wheeler was 19 In a class of 22. These figures show that superior mili tary scholarship Is no more assurance of success in the application of the art of war to the sudden emergencies of the campaign and the battlefield than superior scholarship at the law school Is assurance of success In the trial of a great cause In court In the Civil "War many of the first scholars at "West Point did not show superior aptitude for generalship In the field. This only proves that outdoor executive energy and creature pugnacity are essential to a General as well as knowledge of the scientific principles of -strategy and grand battle tactics. The old axiom that truth Is stranger than fiction was never better illustrated than in the story of the Servian trag edy. In this age of electricity, steam and high-pressure civilization, whea Jsclenca makes greater, advances in a J year than It used to make In twenty, when higher education Is supposed to be lifting all mankind to a loftier plane, the whole world Is shocked by a crime the details of which for sickening horror find but few parallels since the Dark Ages. The story of the assassina tion of the King and Queen of Servia reads, not like a twentieth-century piece of news, but rather like one of those partly legendary stories of .the old days when might made right The art and .Imagination of the most gifted playwright could conjure un no more awful, thrilling scene than that which was enacted la the palace of Servla's icing shortly after midnight last "Wednesday. All of the elements of the romantic tragedies of centuries aeo were there the treacherous army, the Judas who betrayed his master, the midnight summons and wild flight through the halls of the palace from which there was no escape, and Anally the terrible climax in which the disso lute tyrant lighted up the dark deeds of nis lire by a final Act of heroic devotion, yielding up his own life for the rjrivl lege of avenging an Insult to the woman he undoubtedly loved. That modern miracle, the electric telegraph, had flashed the news of this tragedy, with all of its gory details, to the uttermost ends of the earth before the bodies of the victims had become cold. For this reason the Servian horror does not offer for the purpose of historical ro mance so good an opportunity as It would had had If It had happened 400 or 500 years ago. Nevertheless, none of the old tales of blood and warfare ex celled It in dramatic effect, and, regard less of the character of the murdered monarchs, It will not soon be forgotten. Public sympathy and common justice are on the side of the settlers In "War ner Valley, whom the "Warner Valley Stock Company Is trying to dispossess of lands long occupied as homesteads and Improved and Hyed upon as such. These people evidently acted In good faith, and to dispossess them utterly on the legal basis or claim that the land taken Is swamp land, and not sub ject to homestead entry, will work hardship and suffering upon them. The case Is one of a -type that arouses bitter and often unreasoning hostility to cor porations and Incites not Infrequently to acts of violence. It may be hdped that equitable adjustment of this case will be reached, since neither party to the contention can afford to urge or ac cept a settlement upon any other basis. Land feuds are exceedingly bitter, and are proverbially slow In dying out A company. In a case of this kind, even If It has the law upon its side, can much better afford, even as a financial propo sition, to buy settlers out than arbi trarily to dispossess them, while there can be no doubt as to the ethics of such a proceeding as judged by the stand ard of the golden rule. Ranchers of the Rocky Mountain States who lost from 25 to 40 per cent of. their Spring lambs and calves In the May blizzard that swept the great plateau estimate that their losses will be offset by the heavy snowfall on the ranges, that almost certainly insures an abundance of grass -to bring their stock to market in the Fall In prime order. This view of the case Is hard on the creatures that perished, but the typical rancher is not troubled with "feelings." He Is in the sheep and cattle business for money, not for sympathy with the animals that are the source of his wealth. More's the pity, since very much of the suffering Im posed upon stock on the range and In transit to market might be avoided by the exercise of the humane Instinct In connection with the business. Mr. Thomas "White, one of the Ken tucky "feudists" who shot Lawyer Macrum In the back, is reported to have wept In Jail, and to be feeling very despondent This seems strange, considering the bravery exhibited In murdering an unarmed man In cold blood. If there is any justice accom panying that Kentucky "honah" of which we have heard so much, Mr. "White will soon change from despond ent to pendant with a six-foot drop and then to recumbent In a pine box in the Potter's field. The present gen eration of Kentucky desperadoes seem to be as brave as coyotes, and the moonshine novel built around such characters as Thomas "White and Cur tis Jett would be a poor seller. There is silly debate on the question whether a man, entering an elevator In the presence of women, should re move his hat and remain uncovered. No more than if he were entering a street-car. An elevator in a public building Is a public place; It Is a pub lic conveyance, and often, moreover, is subject to drafts, under which the head should not be uncovered. In any circumstances, If one meets In an ele vator women whom he knows, It is enough to lift or touch his hat, as else where. Statistics for ten months of the fiscal year which ends June 30, 1903, indicate that the foreign trade of the United States for the year will exceed in vol ume and value that of the banner year of 190L The figures, already verified, are sent out by the Treasury Depart ment form the basis for an estimate of exports amounting to $1,500,000,000, with Imports approaching the 51,000,000,000 mark. This estimate shows a balance In our favor of $500,000,000, an average of nearly $10,000,000 a week for the year. . The powers of Europe should Insist on punishment with death of the au thors and perpetrators of the Servian massacre. All relations with, the coun try should be refused so long -as these red-handed murderere are In favor with the Servian government Nobody believes the favorite whom ihese mur derers are placing on the throne when he says he Is "shocked" at the mas sacre, and didn't know It was Intended. An American now In the Orient con tributes to this Issue of The Oregonlan a short, clear statement of conditions in Manchuria, so far as they affect the United States. It Is well worth read ing by those who have not kept close track of Russia's invasion. His opinion that this country cannot avoid Joining hands with England and Japan in a conflict with Russia may or may not be' sound; still, It Is interesting. The school election tomorrow prom ises to be an exceedingly tame affair. With but one Director to elect, and but one candidate In the field, It cannot be otherwise. Public apathy In this mat ter Is not easilj- explained. The public Is fortunate In 'that It has not often brought the. schools into disrepute through mismanagement or poltlcal In trigue. ' NOTE AKD COMMENT; The "Weather Knockers. There's a great big bunch of 'knockers . Who make the public sigh. They are sore about the weatner, , And they're hard to satisfy. In Summr when the sky Is bright They howl and howl tor raw. , And when the Winter makes things damp They want the sun again. What's la a Xame. BELGRADE, June 13. (By tireless tel egraph.) There . was a wild scene in the. Skuptschlna. Assembly held here today. Seven cases of lockjaw and three frac tured jawbones aro the result of the first meeting of the national senate. The Skuptschlna opened up with the following officers: AvachewskI Carryagunski, Premier. Brogan Hltthe plpeskovltch. Minister of the Interior. Hotshotos Bludandthunderousklt Minis ter of War. Twobit Nlckellntheslotskl, Minister of Finance. Qeorgeus Brownellovltch, President of the Senate. Before the reading clerk got half way through the list of names -he had to be gagged and taken from the Senate cham ber on a shutter. Colonel Muttonchops kovitchskl rose to the occasion and moved that all the names of officers be changed to Smith, and a moment later he was re moved to the emergency hospital, having been assaulted by General Takeashotat theklngskl, wno threw one of the seven teen volumes of the city directory at his head. Then In the tumult that ensued Minis ter Hittheplpeskovltch tried to mount a table and call the members to order, but he, too, had to be sent out suffering from lockjaw. At an early hour this morning the scene Is one of the utmost confusion. Premier Carryagunski will dissolve the meeting as soon as it is daylight, and hereafter the roll call will be done by means of phonograph, with cast-steel records. All the telephone wires in the country have been changed to barb wire, as that Is the only variety that will carry the language without burning up. An Easy Convert. The thirsty man stood at the street cor ner and leaned against a telephone pole. He had been long standing thus, and as the day was hot, and as he "was dry and parched, he was meditating as to whether he ought to go around the corner and see a man or not Suddenly he was tapped on the back by a person of solemn appearance, and as he turned the one who tapped said: "Sir, might I Inquire if you are a spiritualist?" "Well," remarked the thirsty man with great rapidity, "I have never had any partlcular aversion, to spirits, and as the day Is hot I don't care I I do." The Adventures of Mr. Busybody Chapter II. Mr. Busybody strolled down the street the other day from the club, where he had partaken freely of an excellent lunch, observing the sights that abounded on every hand. Suddenly, when, he reached a busy part of the thoroughfare, he threw up his hands with an exclamation and fell In a dead faint The crowd pressed around, and sev eral policemen who were near by endeav ored to revive the unfortunate man. Wa ter and other reviving agencies, were re sorted to, but the genial Mr. Busybody remained dead to the world. Finally, an ambulance and a doctor were called, and Mr. Busybody was taken to the hos pital. Later on in the day he came to, and those at his bedside gathered around to learn the cause of his fainting attack. As Mr. Busybody glanced from face to face he began to realize where he was. and then he began to weep bitterly. "What was the trouble, old fellow?" asked a house doctor, sympathetically. "I thought I saw a sprinkling cart In the distance," murmured Mr. Busybody. James McNeill Whistler's portrait of Carlyle Is owned by the corporation of Glasgow. Shortly after it was finished a committee from the corporation visited Mr. Whistler, Intending to purchase the wonderful painting. They wanted to know about the price, which the artist had announced as 1000 guineas. "Didn't you know the price before you came here?" asked Whistler, blandly. "Oh, yes. we knew, but " "Then, let's talk about something else," interrupted Whistler. The canny Scots bought the picture and trust them got a bargain. George Francis Train, who Is being treated for smallpox at an Institution near Stamford, Conn., ate a very late beakfast one day last week. This was because unknown thieves broke Into the pantry the night before, evidently not knowing what sort of a place it Is, and stole everything edible they could find. Citizen Train was much concerned on hearing of the affair, but said that if he chose, he could, by the science of psychic telepathy, locate the guilty parties. On reflection, however, he decided that they probably needed the food, and, therefore, he will make no effort to aid In their cap ture. PLEASANTRIES OF PARAGRAPHERS She Why has Boston the name of being such. & bad city? He Because of the number of crooks In the streets, I suppose. Harvard Lampoon. "What makss you so sure he loves you?" "Because he named his new automobile after me Instead of calling it some sort of 'davlL " Cincinnati Tribune. "Tea, since Mr. Gotrox broke a mirror yes terday, she is convinced that It Is very un lucky." "How superstitious." "Not at all. It was a French plate, and cost $400." Balti more News. He I declare, I feel terribly rattled at the Idea of playing In the tournament before' all that crowd. She Oh, cheer up they probably won't know any mora about tennis than you do. Brooklyn Life. "Old Swaddleford always pretends to be as deaf as a post, but I believe he can hear as well as anybody." "What makes you thtnlc so?1' "Nobody ever Baw hint walking along a railroad track In advance of a train." Chicago Tribune. First Summer girl Isn't that young man I saw you strolling on the beach with this morn ing rather slow? Second Summer girl The slowest ever. Why, I've known him since noon yesterday, and he liasa't proposed yet. Chi cago Dally News. "Of course," said Mr. Staylate, "there are soma things that always go without saying" "Tea. and worse still." Interrupted Miss Pa tience Gonne. yawning at the clock; "thera are soma others that do Just the opposite." Philadelphia Press. "Toung man." said the stern parent to the applicant for a job as son-in-law, "I want you to know that I spent $5000 on my daugh ter's education." "Thanks," rejoined the youth who was trying to break Into the family circle. Then I won't have to send her to a school again." Chicago Dally News. Smith The papers speak enthusiastically of your daughter's singing at the muslcal last weak. Rogers Tea, I am surprised they should all speak so flatteringly. What does the Planet say? Smith There's nothing la the Planet about her. Rogers That's queer. I cer tainly seat the same notice to tha Planet, that I seat to tt otker papers. Bostsa Traascript.