THR SUjSDAT DREGONIAN. P011TLANB, JUNE 14, 1905. OREGON: PAST TWO PR BSENT BU WILLIAM MACLEOD 'RAIME (Copyright, 1903, Pearson Publkhme Company. Pe&usfeed by Courtesy of Pearson's Magazine.) To Old Oregon" comprising the r.ent States of 'Oregon, Washlng ma. 'idaho and parts of Montana ana Wyoming a special Interest -ati-taches by reason of the fact that It Is the only-territory possessed by the "United Frates to -which the title, has been ac quired by disqovery. About It centers our National epic of exploration." as well as tho keenest contest lor terri torial supremacy that has yet been waged without bloodshed on the American con tinent. The coast country bordering on the North Pacific has been in turn claimed by Spain. Russia, Prance, Great Britain and the United States, but the survival of the fittest has left -only the Anglo Saxon cousins to shake, hands across the boundary line between "Old Oregon" and Eritish Columbia. In the brave old days when nations claimed a continent - because some frail craft timorously touched Its .coast and hoisted a flag between tides, Cabrillo and Fcrrelo, representing Spain, then tho first nation In Xurope, sailed along the North Pacific and sighted Cape Blanco. More than two centuries cjapsed before Juan Perez In 1774 discovered Nootka Sound for Spain. A year later Heceta, skirting the coast under the same flag, filed a caveat on behalf of his nation -for everything in sight. But "Vitus Behrlng had already on July IS. 174L hoisted the Russian colors while exploring the coast of Alaska. He also" discovered that tho Icebound' north was rich in eeals and furst and as early as 1738 Slavic traders and sailors occupied the North Pacific for commercial pur poses, claiming; the whole ' country from Behring Strait -to the mouth of the Co lumbia. In 1S12 tho Russians founded by permission of tho Spanish a trading post at Bodega Bay. near San Francisco. So they occupied -points both north and south of -Oregon. , England. ,and the United States protested against' this, and Russia was forced to withdraw reluctant ly from the-strugglc for Oregon. The claims of Great Britain and the United States to the disputed territory were of a more substantial nature. They rested on exploration as well as discovery, and depended upon occupation and posses sion for their strength. For England, Sir Francis Brake. Captain James Cook and Captain Mcares made voyages of explora tion on which .claims more or less fragile were based, but Great Britain's valid rights to territory in the Northwest rest ed upon the voyages of Vancouver and the explorations of Sir Alexander Mac kenzie. Curiously enough, both these Englishmen, by a singular oversight, left a flaw in thejr titles to the Oregon terri tory, while establishing beyond a doubt their country's right to the land farther north. Tlie First Americans. On April 29, 1792, Captain Gray, a young American in command of the Columbia, fitted out In Boston for the purpose of fur trading, spoke . to Vancouver, who, with three consorts of the rqyal navy, was then exploring the Northwest Coast. The American told him that he hadbeen for nine days at the mouth of a great river farther south, but had been unable to enter because of the outsettlng tide. The British captain discredited this re port He had already observed, the coast recession at this point, but had decided that there was no inlet Heceta, for Spain, and Mcares. lor Great Britain, had already missed the mouth of the river. Now, Vancouver, too, lost to his nation the chance that comes nly once In a lifetime. On May 11 Gray eptered the river with all sails set, hoisted the Amer ican flag, and remained till -the 20th. The first man to cross the American continent was Sir Alexander Mackenzie, who started In 1792 up the Peace River in a birch bark canoe on a search for a route to the Pacific Already by mistake. while searching for this route, he had as cended the river which bears his name. to the Arctic Ocean, and had acquired for Great Britain the immense Hudson Bay country- He now crossed the summit of the Rockies, and came upon waters flow ing toward the Pacific This river was the Fraser, but he mistook it for the head waters of the Columbia. Following It for a. distance, he finally reached the Pa clfic Just north of Vancouver Island, at the mouth of the Eellacoola River, He then journeyed up Cascade Canal and on a large rock painted; ''Sir Alexander Mackenzie, from Canada, by land, the twenty-second of July, one thousand seven hundred and ninety-three loere is no more interesting story in the history of colonization than this one of the fight for "Old Oregon." It was contest of hard work and endurance, and brains and diplomacy. First the Span iard, with all the clamor of the brilliant steel-clad adventurer, strode across the stage of Its history, but there was not In the haughty Don the stuff that en dures. The Slav made his spurt, but at last tkcitiy surrendered the field to the Anglo-Saxon. . The Gaul, warm-hearted and vividly . Imaginative, eager for cm plre and the salva'tlon of souls, labored mightily to ' win this new continent for France. Far and wide uor voyageurs. her ccureurs de bols and her devoted mis sionary priests carried the Influence of the motherland. But the Instinct for practical colonization was lacking to the' Frenchiran. The strenuous Anglo-Saxon shculdcml him out of the field. His grip rn the north land loosened. The Hudson s Bay basin, Newfoundland. Acadia, and finally Canada itself were won In turn by England. Yet France was virile, een though she was no match for her sturdy rival. She still cherished dreams of sovereignty in the New "World. Driven from the north, she turned to the south. The mighty Na pel eon, possessed by his iridescent dream of universal empire, bought back the western half of old Louisiana, and so, under the ancient Spanish title, claimed Oregon. A few years later, hard-pressed at home and fearful Jest England might t?fce it perforce, he sold' to the United S tites Louisiana, including his title to C'riT.n." There remained' then in the field r- Great Brftaln and the United States s. Anglo-Saxo had held on' grimly. "Who Saved 4,Otd X)refironf Vurh controversy -has been waged as to v s. ' saved "Old Oregon" to tho United S'l'-s. In the list of claimants the name o Thomas Jefferson must be accorded t pp.cuous place, for it was through his ctz that the Lewis and Clark expedition r.z 1 Its inception. For 20 years Jefferson had' cherished the idea of anxpcdltion to explore an overland route to the Pacific la the latitude of the United States. Se 4sto the Revolution was woJl ended "he v. as writing to General George Rogers Clark about it: i lino tney nave subscribed a. very lrrge sum of money in England for cx plTlng the country from the Mississippi t3 California. They pretend It is only to promote knowledge. I am afraid they have thoughts of coionlzing Jnto that quarter. Some of us have been talking here In a feeble way of making the at' terr.nt to search the country. But I doubt wfcetner we have enough of that kind cf iplrlt to raise the money. How would 7Tu like to lead such a party? Though I am afraid our prospect is not worth ask ing 'the question." As a private Individual, he made re peated efforts to promote the exploration cf the Northwest, but it was not until he attained the Presidency that his pet plan reach"d fruition. He wap at the head of a r Vi-al party that vas opposed, to pub- - cijk ndlture cf the National funds for such purpose, but. as the Louisiana pur chase" rtras iijsh6w" a lew jrionlhs later. Jefferson was great-minded enough to free himself at times from party prin ciple. The exploration of the water courses of the Pacific was held by him to be a matter of National Import, and in 1S03 he secured from Congress an appro- j priation of J2oC0 "for the purpose of ex- tending the external commerce ot the ; United States." It is entirely probable thai 'Jefferson coveted for the United States this great stretch of unexplored territory in" the Northwest, but the ostensible object of the Lewis and Clark expedition was scientific- and. commercialwrather than po litical. That 1t -directly induced a train of events that later put the United States Into a commanding commercial and po litical position on the Pacific Is indubit able- It was the first and most pregnant of a series of now historic happenings that eventually added to our Federal Union a, group of states of the greatest promise From it was born to the Na tional consciousness the desire of win ning this territory for the Union. Future Government explorations under Long, Pike, Fremont and others found their justification in its success. Lewis and Clark. On May 14, 1804, the Lewis and Clark expedition, numbering at first 30 persons, left the month of the Missouri on its long journey into tho unexplored wilds. The command was vested In two sturdy young Virginians, Captain Meriwether Lewis, a grandnephew of George "Washington, and Lieutenant "William -Clark, whose brother. George Rogers Clark, was & distinguished Revolutionary General. This journey across the continent was an undertaking not less arduous than that of .Stanley In hhv excursions into the heart of Africa. Tact, wisdom, endur ance and a high quality of leadership were requisites to success in this march of over 4000 miles to the sea through hos tile Indian tribes. The flrat "Winter was spent at Fof t Mandan. N. D.. whence the explorers continued to the Three Forks of the Missouri, up the Jefferson Branch and across the Continental Divide at Lem hi Pass. .The Bitter Root range was crossed to the Clearwater, which stream was followed to the Snake, the Snake to the Columbia, and the Columbia to the Pacific. The historical importance of the acquisition of "Old Oregon" as a direct sequence and effect ot the Lewis and Clark achievement is not likely to be overestimated. The Pacific Coast was then more remote from New England than China or India, Its Inhabitants more strange and the difficulties of access a hundredfold greater, yet today a young giant of an empire stands as a monument to Jefferson's foresight and his lieuten ants' energy and Intrepidity. That the Centennial Exposition In contemplation should be held at Portland In 1805 to com memorate this great historical event la eminently fitting. The first of America's long list of cap tains of industry whose big brains hnve conceived and carried out gigantic com mercial enterprises was John Jacob As tor. He had already become a millionaire In the fur trade, but It was his dream to establish a long line of trading posts to stretch across the continent In 1SH he. together with Ramsay Crooks and other partners, built a fort at the mouth of tho Columbia and named it Astoria. Neck and neck with him in the race for the "Old Oregon" fur trade was the great Hudson Bay Company, which had been chartered by Charles II In 1S70, with the exclusive privilege of -establishing trading posts on the shores of that bay and Its tributary rivers. Gradually this company had consolidated and extended Its opera tions, till It was almost invincible. In Western British America It crushed com petition, absorbed Its rivals and became a great political power. The Hudson Bay Company stood, for Great Britain In the Northwest, and fought stubbornly, un yieldingly for Oregon. For long it was an irrestlble force It controlled territory to exceed the United States today, includ ing .Alaska and the Philippines. In fact. so far as the Northwest was concerned. the Hudson Bay Company was Great Britain. Their officials made and execut ed the laws, controlled tho commercial In put and output, throttled rival companies. built roads, posts and forts. sk aasoiuteiy did it dispense justice that in the hands of Its m&hagers lay the power of lire ana death. Its thousands ot employes trapped and traded through the pathless forests. Its chain of ports stretched across the continent, and began to reach down along the Pacific toward California. Its story beggars romance. "When In 1S46 England conceded the right ot the United States to Oregon, the company claimed property within the territory amounting to 5o.oifl,- 000. Dr. John McLonRalln. Before Astoria rind yet been completed. the Hudson Bay Company, thrqugh Its agent. Dr. John McLoughlln, began to build at Fort Vancouver. Soon, like -ants from the heap, Canadian trappers spread out over the surrounding country in tne earch for furs. This was tantamount to a declaration that England was In the fight for Oregon to a finish. Both par ties to the controversy were aiert ana cn crgotic. and for long the lines of battle were drawn between them, tsetrayea oy his partners. Astor's fort fell into the hands of the British, but at the close of the War of 1S12 was returned, according to the terms of the treaty of peace, which left each nation in control of territory possessed by it before the war. The policy of the Hudson nay company was to hold back -civilization, and to re tain Oregon as a great game preserve: the policy of the emigrants from the states was to settle and civilize it This difference in strategy, by filling the coun try with Americans, ultimately deter mined which country was to hold sway over the territory. But for a long time the Canadians were numerically, com mercially and politically in the ascendant throughout the Oregon country. Nathaniel J. Wyeth, a shrewd New England trader. ventured - to contest the field with the Hudson Bay Company, but he fought a losing fight. His foes--cre too strong. too watchful, too well established. They outbought and undersold him. No less an achievement than the linking together or the trade of both ends ot the continent in one vast monopoly was their aim. Dr. McLoughlln was personally courteous, genial, hospitable, a charming host, yet he never relaxed his vigilance. In those Old stockades ot the company where the Highland Macdonalds. the Mackenzles and the MaeTavlshes held sway In old feudal fashion, feasting and revelry might be the order of the night, but none the less the shrewd Scotchmen watched with. lynx eyes the interests of their employers. Wycth, beaten at all points, was forced to sell out to his stronger opponents, and, save for a little American outpost at As toria, Dr. John McLoughlln. the genial autocrat, ruled alone over his feudal de pendents in wise, tolerant and broad minded fashion. Eorly Missionaries. Hard on th heels of the explorer and the trapper came inevitably the plonee: and the missionary. Rev. Jason Lee, the Methodist, was on the ground with Wycth, and remained after that sturdy trader had been forced out by competi tion. Then came the Marcus Whitman party, sent out by the American Board of Commissioners for Foreign Missions. Of Whitman's famous Winter ride back to civilisation, of his efforts to interest influential politicians in tne uregon ques- ton. of the large parly of immigrants which he led back across the Rockies next year, and of his martyr death in the In dian massacre shortly after, there has been much written. While Whitman was still in tho East there convened at Champocg. May 2, 1S43, a public meeting of- tlie Inhabitants of the Willamette tor tne purpose or organizing themselves into a civil community under DR. JOIIX M'LOTGIILIX. authority of the Hudson's Bay Company. The Canadians attending the meeting were naturally opposed to the proposed plan, but by the close vote of 52 to 50 the first American Government on the Pacific Coast was organized. Tho result of this was far-reaching, and had great effect In determining the future of Oregon. It is Indisputable that the wise laws enacted by the Provisional Government, and the Inflexible Justice with which they were administered contributed very largely to the future prosperity of Oregon. This or ganization not only made adequate pro vision for protection to life and property by an equitable, competent and ecnoml cal government, but It also by an overt, formal act declared the purpose of those settlers owing allegiance to the United States to hold the country for the Stars and Stripes against all comers. By prior discovery, by prior exploration, by prior settlement, by the acquisition of the old Spanish title through the Lou isiana Purchase, they felt the title of the United States to be good; they did not purpose to let It lapse for want of energy. The Oregon Question. Up till this time, ever since the first days of the Joint occupation treaty, the British Influence had been dominant, but now, with the increase ot American im migration, the balance of power gradu ally shifted. The Oregon question became a vital Issue in politics. Relations be tween Great Britain and the United States grew strained over the boundary problem. "Fifty-four forty or light" "Oregon to Alaska," became Presidential battle cries. More acute and bitter grew the matter: war was imminent Then great-hearted Rufus Choate said the right word at the right time: "In my Judgment this notion of a Na- tlonal enmity of feeling toward Great Britain belongs to a past age ot our his tory. We arc born to happier feelings. We look on England as we do on France. We look on them from our new world, not unrenowned, yet a new world still. And the blood mounts to our cheeks; our eyes swim; oar voices are stifled with emulousness ot so much glory: their trophies will not let us sleep; but there is no hatred at all, no hatred; all for honor, nothing for hate. If you will answer for the politicians. I think I will venture to answer for the people." The better counsel prevailed, and the war clouds lifted. Concessions were made by both dies, and in 1S46 a treaty was concluded with Grtat Britain, according to the terms of which the Northwest boundary ran along the 43th parallel west ward from the Rockies, Just north ot the present State ot Washington, Tho Journey to Oregon across the plains took six months of most arduous travel, but for some years the migration had been so. steady that the young common wealth, separated though It was by thou sands ot miles from the rest of the coun try, felt Justified in asking for a terri torial form of government. Judge J. Quinn Thornton was sent to Washington by the Provisional Government to ask Congress for this. The bill which he drew up and presented to that body con tained an antl-slarery clause. Strong In ducements were offered him to withdraw the objectionable fiature, but as the peo ple had twice voted adversely on the question of slavery, and had Incorporated a prohibitive clause In their temporary constitution, he felt that tho bill as It stood represented their wishes, and re fused to amend it. There was In conse quence a bitter fight in Congress over tho bill. Senators Calhoun and Butler, of South Carolina, Jefferson Davis and Foote of Mississippi. Mason of Virginia, and others fought the measure to the end. It was warmly defended by Webster, Ben ton. Douglas. Dlx. and Houston of Texas. and eventually, after a bitter, acrimonious debate, passed both Houses on August 14, 1K8. Tho Governorship ot the new territory was offered to Abraham Lincoln. He de clined it, but there is room for curious speculation as to how the future of our country would have been affected had ho accepted, and so cut himself from any chance ot the Presidential nomination ten years lately General "Joe" Lane, a Mex ican War veteran, was then appointed first Governor. In 1SS9 the Territory ot Oregon was admitted to statehood. A comparison ot the first official cen- the American Has. and independent ot the . bus of "Old Oregon," taken In 1E50, with the latest Government enumeration, is not without interest. The population of i the territory at that time was 13,294. In the same country there arc now, accord- j ing to the latest count, 1.16S.116 residents. Portland has grown from a village of 821 1 inhabitants to a beautiful city of 90,423 persons. I To this day Oregon retains the peculiar ! and Individual characteristics which she j Inherited from the pioneer settlers. There was about them something of the same Intrepid spirit that fired the old Puri tans. It was the spirit of adventure and the lust for gold that sent the Argonauts to California in '49, but the Oregon pio neers were possessed rather by a com bination of religious and patriotic en thusiasm. The missionary clement was strong, and, even among those of the im migrants who had not been distinctively influenced by the religious impulse, there was a sturdy seriousness of mind and steadiness of purpose that augured well for the future of the young country. Oregon Is more sufficient to Itself than the neighboring States of California or Washington. It Is more steady and con servative, less cosmopolitan. While it is as progressive as either of them, tradi tion holds greater sway. The social re lations ot the early settlers were by rea son of Isolation unusually close, and that kindly community Interest has perpetu ated Itself even to the present time. Port land is u stable city, steadfast and sure. Quietly and unobtrusively it has pushed forward to a commanding commercial po sition on the Pacific, until today it la one of the richest cities per capita in the United States. A curious testimony to this tenacity of local feeling may be found In the fact that 'nobody except a native Oregonian has ever made a dis tinctive success ot a newspaper in Port land. A stranger, no matter how alert and how competent he might be, haa found himself continually stumbllntr against the local prejudices, which still strongly endure. Even to the present writing Oregon has only one metropoli tan newspaper. This paper Is part and parcel ot the history of Oregon, and, ir respective of politics. It suffices for tho people- of the "Webfoot State," holding for them something of the position of unavailability that the Thunderer used to hold in England. Portland ns a Seaport. That Portland, Oregon's leading- seaport, is a long way from the sea must be con ceded, but of the leading 23 seaports of the world, ten of them are more than 50 miles inland. Granted access to the sea, every other condition In the growth ot a port must arise from the land. The com mercial metropolis ot a region " must be that point nearest the center of' produc tion that can be most easily reached by the class ot transportation employed In the transaction ot its commerce. It Is here that Portland has In some respects the whip-hand of every city on our West ern Ooast From the northern to the southern boundary of the United States runs a chain ot nigged mountains that separate the Pacific Coast from the coun try back ot them. Railroads pierce these mountains at elevations ranging from 2500 to 7000 feet. At only one point, by way of the Columbia River Valley, may they be crossed at water level and the long mountain haul eliminated from the cost ot transportation, Portland, at the con fluence of tho Willamette and the Colum bia Rivers, Is the natural gateway to the rich valleys of the Rogue River, Umpqua, and Willamette on the south, and to the Columbia Basin north, east and south. From all directions land lines ot trans portation converge toward Portland at easy grades, and the natural effect has been that railroads radiate from Portland, making the city the greatest railroad cen ter on the Pacific Coast. The Jobbing business of the city now reaches annually $120,000,000. As a wheat shipping port but Tour cities of the United States outrank the Oregon metropolis. Its shipments for the year 1S01 aggregating nearly 19.O0O.0CO bushels. Its lumber exports are the great est of any city on the Coast. The vast fields of Eastern Oregon. Eastern Wash ington and oNrthcrn Idaho send down "much of thelr produce by the water-level haul to tidewater via the Portland route, From the Willamette Vallty, the South ern Pacific alone hauled 3C37 carloads of produce as early as 1S37. Not only deca the Columbia River af ford cheap and easy means of communi cation between Portland and the rich In terlor .It Is ' also the medium of access for deep-draft vessels from the sea to the city. The Columbia Is to the Northern Pacific Coast what the Mississippi is to the midland states. With its tributaries this, river, the second largest In the coun try. drains an Immense area of about 245,- 0CO square miles, of which 182,000 miles Ho cast of the Cascades. This latter region equals the combined area of the New Eng land States plus that of New York, Penn sylvania. New Jersey and Maryland. Its navigable waters, including tributaries. aggregate over 2000 miles, and, unlike the Mississippi, seek the ocean In lines para llel to the channels of trade rather than at right angles. Much money has been spent by both tho Government and the people of Port land In Improving the Columbia channel At Its mouth a Jetty has been built that makes it posslbl efor vessels with draft of 25 feet to ascend and descend without trouble. There Is on foot a pro ject to open the river to steamers from Lewlston to the sea, and If this Is ac complished much benefit will undoubted ly accrue to. the state. During the year 1S01 no less than 53 steamers with an av erage carrying capacity, of 5000 ton3 cleared for all over the world; many of theso are Asiatic lines engaged in the In dia, China and Japan trade. During the same year the lumber export was the largest yet handled. 13 vessels alone car rying over 36,000,000 feet. Greatest Timber Belt In the World The greatest timber belt in the world is to be found In Western Oregon and In Washington. According to Government reports, Oregon has about 333.000,000,000 feet of standing timber, mostly fir, cedar. hemlock, spruce and larch. As there Is now cut In tho state about l.OOO.OOO.OOO feet annually, there Is still enough Urn ber left to last for several hundred years at the same rate o cutting, providing sufficient and much-needed precautions are taken for the elimination ot forest fires. In tho timber lands of the Eastern states a yield of 6000 feet of first-class timber Is a good average, but in the lav ish Northwest 300,000 feet to the acre Is not unusual. A fir tree 465 feet high and 220 feet to the first limb was recently cut down. This tree scaled 96,245 feet of lumber, as much as ten acres of aver age Eastern timber. From the Northern Pacific ports timbers JOD feet long and Fr rugged, snow-clad mountains, moisture which Is not precipitated here is carried across the- range and distrib uted through the Willamette. Umpqua and Rogue River Valleys, decreasing from -45 Inches at Portland to 20 inches at tho California line. A common Deuer pre-1 vails that It rains "with- less trouble in Oregon than any other plac eon earth." That this opinion is founded on a mis conception is patent 'when one considers that the annual rainfall of New Orleans ia 60 Inches; of Galveston? 4S: of Jackson ville. 54; of New York, 54; of Boston, 43. The productiveness of a region is de pendent more, upon an Invariable rainfall and an exemption from extreme rangEs in temperature than upon any other con dition. The distribution of temperature In these rich valleys Is constant and equable, owing to the balmy influence of the "Chinook" winds, which sweep m from the warm waters" of the ocean, and to the. fence,, or mocnfalns which, acting as a barrier to 'the cold northern winds. deflect to the. cast .the frigid currents that otherwise; would sweep across this sec tions Comparatively speaking, the Sum mers are. cool and. the Winters are warm. The year'ts divided Into two seasons. the rainy ana the" dry. Between rsovem- ber and April the rainfalls pretty con tinuously, and" during thesemonthsaman shouldkeep hi osye on his umbrella and overshoes. One fact, however, to be noted In connection with the heavy rain fall is that, because of the nature of the sella nd physical features of the country. there is no malaria.. Indeed, the official statistics of the Government show that the states of the Columbia River basin are the healthiest three in-the Union. The yearly number of deaths per thousand of population In Idaho Is 6.62; In Oregon, 8.76; In Washington, 9.65 as compared with 19.16 for Massachusetts, 16.58 for New York. That is. In Massachusetts there are three deaths In proportion" to the popula tion for every one in Oregon. The same fact is shown by the death rate of troops stationed in different parts of the coun try. In New York the annual mortality among the soldiers is one in 65; in Texas, one In, 67; in New England, one In 233; in the Pacific Northwest, one in 529. Aaazlag Agxlcaltural Resource!. There Is probably no conutry in the world so rich in natural resources that is at the same time so sparsely settled. The diversity of agricultural possibilities Is continually blng shown by successful ex periments. and the richness of the river valleys beggars description. The North west is pre-eminently th ewonderland of production on the continent. A farmer in the Hoed River country raised on four acres 800 bushels -of potatoes, that nearly all ran from three to eight pounds apiece. There was not in the lot one that weighed less than a pound. Squashes weighing as much as a large man, pumpkins tipping the scale at the hundred-weight, water melons larger than the Southern plckanln nles, whose eyes would bulge at seeing them, turnips larger tha none's head. pears and apples with a circumference of half a yard, are to be seen at the annual fairs of Salem and The Dalles, The biggest apples, the biggest pears, and the biggest cherries at the Chicago expo sitlon were from Oregon, and the charge cannot be made against them that what they gain In size they lose In flavor. The Pomological Society, which io the highest authority on fruits In the country, award ed to the State of Oregon the Wilder med al for the horticultural exhibit at the Pan American. The "Webfoot State" stands first In the production of hops, raising about one-third of the country's? total pro duction. So far as Is known there is no spot on earth, with the exception of East ern Oregon and Washington, and the ad Joining valleys of Idaho, where three or four crops of wheat may be harvested from one Sowing. Yet since the first set tlement of the country these "volunteer" crops have been reaped. A second crop- from a single seeding Is officially reported to have yielded SO, bushels to the acre. On the vast semi-grazing lands of East ern Oregon the raising of cattle, horses and sheep is an increasing Industry. Here the bunch grass obtains, and the animals fed on It thrive excellently. During the cold weather which sometimes prevails east of the mountains the stock suffers, but as a general thing It docs well In the open air. Winter and Summer. A3 Irriga tion increases, much of this grazing land will be reclaimed for farming purposes. but, as the water is more carefully util ized to produce alfalfa and other feed, a much larger number of cattle may be fed on the same terrltory. Fisheries. It Is a great thing for a country to be rich not only in its land3, but In its wa ters, and the waters of the Pacific Coast teem with Tlche3 In the form of fish. Here are to be found cod, herring, halibut, shad. sole, smelt and sturgeon. Jiere, too. trout of various kinds, may be found in the lakes and mountain streams. But above all, "Where Rolls the Oregon," are to be found the great salmon packs which have made the Columbia famous, ' and here alone dwells the royal chinook sal mon. Immense quantities of these are packed during the osason of the "run," caught principally by means of nets and fish traps. The National Government is taking pains to perpetuate this great In dustry by the establishment of salmon hatcheries along the streams. Two years ago nearly 11,000,000 young "chinooks" were planted in the streams of Oregon alone. The development of Oregon's great lum ber Industry, of its agriculture, its min ing, its fisheries. Its dairying, its or chards and Irs stockralslng offers an at tractive field to the homebuilder whose eyes are turned to the West. Till within the past four years Oregon has been shut up within itself, but the Spanish War, by opening the markets of Asia, has awak ened Oregon to a sense ot Its industrial strength and commanding position; its fu ture is bright with promise. It is not generally known that Oregon is one of .the scenic states of the Union. for two feet square are constantly being I fllmy waterfalls and roaring cataracts. shipped, and to supply this demand for j ior a picturesque profusion of evergreen large timbers there is but one posslblo source In the world. Fcr shipbuilding, masts; bridge timbers, ! car sills and other needs demanding a combination of great length, strength. durability and lightness, the Oregon flr ana fern, the "webfoot State" Is second to none. From Tho Dalles the scenery to the mouth of the Columbia is compar able to that ot tho Hudson. The grand clIfT-liko palisades of basalt tower for thousands of feet above the river gorge. Is unrivaled. Government tests show that Mount Hood, Mount St. Helens, and Mount under pressure It has nearly twice the I Adams, snow-capped throughout the year. strength of oak and three times that of J loom white against the sky line. Farther pine. From each of the five continents up the river, among the ferns and pines, the demand for it is continually Incrcas- the Multnomah Falls drop the melting Ing. The German Emperor's new yacht snowp S00 feet to the river's edge, while ".t,i ... - i . me j-tjihto uiu ut river is jammed royal standard on Windsor Castle floats from a flagstaff of the same wood. The surprising feature of Eastern lumbermen visiting the forests of the Northwest for the. first time, is tire great size of the logs handled by the sawmills, as well as the great height attained by the trees be- together into a long narrow slot of un known depth cut sheer down In the ba salt." On its bank3 are the historic forts, Vancouver and the Cascade Blocl: house, with many another long-forgotten camp where civilization first found Its way through the wildcrnesrv 'Here Grant fore the first limb Is reached. Trees that ana Sheridan began their military careers; were standing when Columbus first dis covered America, and were giants when Gray first put Into the mouth of the Co lumbia, are still sound to the core. Climate of Pacific Trorthvrcst, The climate of the Northwest along the coaxt is so modified by proximity to the ocean, by its hedge of mountains, and by the Japan ulf stream, that latitude Is not by any. means the most Important clement In Its determination. Because ot the different modifying circumstances, a more diverse climate Is hardly to be" found than that of Oregon, the different conditions being produced by Its topo graphical features. Roughly speaking, Oregon is bisected by the Cascade Moun tains, which run north and south through tho state What Is known, as Western Oregon is traversed HkewiseVjjy the Coast range. The warm, raolsture-laden air. J passing from the ocean, reaches "the high er altitude or tne nrst range, is con densed, and falls in the form of rain, so that along the coast an annual rainfall of CO to 70 inches Is not exceptional. The here McLoughlln and Whitman led the vanguard, of the Anglo-Saxon settlers: here Astor and Wyeth tempted fortune in the wilds with Yankee pluck. The Willamette and Umpqua Valleys, too, pos sess their own beauty of stern mountain and perpetual evergreen forest, in addition to the more pastoral charms of waving grain and prosperous homestead rich in fat kine, and loaded orchard, and bloom ing gardens. Blrds-Eye "Vlevr of Orejron History, 1543 Cabrlllo and Fcrrelo sail along Pa cific Coast and discover Oregon. 1575 Sir Francis Drake, In circumnavi gating tho globe, discovered for England the coast ot Oregon, naming it Nova Al bion. 1741 Behring discovered Mount St. Ellas and took possession of all contiguous territory for Russia. 1T74 Juan Perez discovered Nootka Sound and named it San Lorenzo. 1775 Heceta landed on soil of Old Oregon and took possession for Spain. 177S Jonathan Carver heard from the Indians of a great river running Into the Pacific, and calkd it in a book-of travel "the Oregon." Captain James Cook dis covered and named Cape Flattery. Cape Foulwcather and Cape Gregory. 177$ Francois de la Ferouse voyaged around the world and touched the Pa cific Coast. 17S6 Captain John Meares built at Nootka Sound first vessel ever built on Pacific Coast. K32 Vancouver ' explored coast and charted North. Pacific waters. On Mas 11 Captain Robert Gray entered "Decep tion" Bay and discovered the Columbia Rfver. 1793 Alexander Mackenzie was first white man to cross continent. 1803 By purchase, the United States acquired from France her claims to Oregon. 1EOI-6 Lewis and Clark cross continent and sail down the Columbia to the Pacific 1S10 Captain Nathaniel Winshlp builds first house ever constructed on Pacific Coast by a white man. 1S11 Party under W. G. Hunt and Ram say Crooks establish trading post at As toria for J. J. Astor. The Enellsh under Dr. John McLoughlln. representing the Hudson 8 Bay Company, enter Oregon in competition for the fur trade and eventu ally capture it from the Americans. 1812 War between Great Britain and the United States; Astoria captured but eventually returned at conclusion of war. 1519 Treaty between Great Britain and the United States tor the joint occupancy of Oregon. 1S32-7 Nathaniel J. wyeth contests fur- trading Held with the Hudson's Bay Com pany and Is forced out by too close com petition. 1S34 Jason Lee. the missionary, settles with a party in the Willamette" Valley. 1S36 The AVhltman party sent out by tho American Board; other missionaries soon join them. 1836-40 Migration to Oregon of many American settlers. 184Q Portland founded. 1542 The famous '"Whitman ride" back to Washington to save Oregon. 1543 Organization at Champceg. on May 2, 1S43. of the Provisional Government, the first American government on the Pacific 1544 Willamette University founded. 1346 "Fifty-four-forty or fight!" War with Great Britain lmriinent over Oregon boundary question. By treaty, boundary fixed at 49th parallel. 1S48 Pacific University founded at For est Grove. "Old Oregon" given Territorial form of government. 1545 7S Intermittent Indian wars. 1850 Seat of government located at Sa lem. Population of Portland, 21; first number of The Oregonian Issued December 4. Oregon donation act, by which Congress granted each missionary post and each settler 640 acres of land. 1S51 Battle of Rogue River fought by Maj. Phil Kearny against the Indians. 1S52. Gold discovered. 1853 Washington Territory created out of a part of "Old Oregon:" in 1E63 the ter ritory of Idaho was carved from Oregon, and later part3 of Wyoming and Montana. 1S57 Oregon constitution adopted; ma jority against slavery 50S2. against ad mission of free negroes to the state 7539. 1S3S Oregon admitted to statehood. 1S63 First National Bank of Portland, the oldest west of the Rocky Mountains, established. 1S6S Clnclnnatus H. Miller (Joaquin Miller) appointed judge of Grant County. 1S67 "Irst cargo of wheat shipped dir?ct to Australia, on the bark Whistler. Grad ing began at Portland for Oregon Central Railroad and the Oregon and California Railroad. 1S72 .University of Oregon chartered and built at Eugene. 18S3 The Northern Pacific pushes across the backbone of the continent Into Oregon. 1S91 Auetralian ballot law enacted. 1833 Women over 21 made eligible to all educational offices. . 1SS Building of Cascade locks on the Columbia by the Government. . 1D00 Oregon, with an area of 56.000 square miles (equal to New England and New York combined) has population of 413,536. Stands flret In production of hops. has greater amount of standing timber than any other state, ranks high In quallty of crops, and in many kinds of crops first in quantity produced per acre; holds first place in salmon fisheries. Portland, the principal city, population of 90,426 (an in crease of over 90 per cent in a decade). ranks fifth among the cities ot the United States in wheat and flour export. 1901 Lewis and Clark Centennial cele bration planned for 1905. Nearly a million dollars raised in the state to further it. Some Famnnn Men and Women Iden tified With the History of Oregon. Juan Rodriguez Cabrlllo, Bartholoma Ferrelo, Spanish explorers; first whita men to see coast of Oregon. Juan Perez. Spanish explorer; discov ered Nootka Sound. Heceta, Spanish explorer; first white man to set foot on soil ot great North west. Vitus Behring, Russian explorer; dis covered Mount SL Ellas and Aleutian Islands; Russian claim to Oregon based on this. , Sir Francis Drake, Captain James Cook, Captain George Vancouver, Lieutenant John Meares, English explorers. Captain Robert Gray, American ex plorer; discovered the Columbia. Francois G. de la Perouse, Etlenne Marchand. French explorers. Sir Alexander Mackenzie, English ex plorer; first white man to cross the con tinent. Captain Meriwether Lewis, Lieutenant William Clark, American explorers; crossed continent, sailed down the Co lumbia to Pacific Ramsey Crooks. Wilson Price Hunt, founders of Astoria, the first American settlement on the Pacific Coast, John Jacob Astor, promoter of As toria and other trading posts. Nathaniel J. Wyeth. fur trader. Dr. John McLoughlln, chief factor Hudson Bay Company; founder of Van couver. James Douglas, Hudson Bay factor. Marcus Whitman, missionary and pio neer. Narcissus Whitman, first white woman to cross the continent John Ball, first schoolmaster on Pa cific Coast Thomas Jefferson. President of United States; chief promoter of ' Lewis and Clark expedition. General John C,. Fremont, explorer and soldier. Jason Lee, Cushing Eels, H. H. Spald ing, pioneer missionaries. J. Quinn Thornton. Territorial Judge and Envoy to Congress. Genera Joseph Lane, first Territorial Governor, candidate for Vice-President on Breckenrldge ticket In I860. Lieutenant U. S. Grant. Lieutenant Phil Sheridan, Lieutenant Joseph Hook er, Indian fighters in command ot Gov ernment troops; afterwards famous Gen erals in Civil War. Schan-na-wlch, chief of the Wascoes; led his tribe against the Snakes and the Bannocks under Grant, Sheridan and Hooker, Colonel E. D. Baker, statesman and soldier; killed at battle of Ball3 31uff in Civil War. George H. Williams, former Senator; Attorney-General under Grant. John H. Mitchell. Charles W. Fulton, UnlteH States Senators. George E. Chamberlain. Governor. Sylvester Penndyer, former Governor: famous because of tilt with President Cleveland, Harvey W. Scott, editor The Oregonian. Henry Falling. William S. Ladd. Will iam Hume, business men identified prom inently wtth growth of state. Dr. Thomas L. Eliot, Bishop Morris. Dr A L. Lindsay, promoters of "reform. M. P. Deady. William L. Hill. W. P. Lord. Judges eminent in Jurisprudence. Joaquin Miller, poet. Edwin Markham, poet; born In Oregon. Eva Emery Dye, writer.