The Sunday Oregonian. (Portland, Ore.) 1881-current, May 20, 1900, Page 6, Image 6

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iGatered at the PostoOce at Portland, Oregon,
i a vecond-clftUi matter.
Kfiltortal Koos:s....l6G I Buslnes Office.. ..OCT
Br Mall (postage prepaid). In Advaaoe
Dally. withSunday. per month. .... ...JO S3
jDatly. Sunday excepted, per year ........ 7 00
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Sunday per year ..... 2 00
!Tbe "Weekly, per year .... . 1 50
IThe "Weekly. 3 months...........-. ...... 60
To aty Subscribers
.ally, per week, delivered, Sundays excepted.lRs
pally, per week, delivered. Sundays lacluded.20o
News or discussion intended for publication In
The Oregonlan should be addressed Invariably
"Editor The Oregonlan. not to the name of
ny Individual. letters relating to advertising,
subscriptions or to any business matter should
e addressed simply "The Oregonlan."
The Oregcntan does not buy poems or stories
Erom Individuals, and cannot undertake to re
turn any manuscripts sent to it without solicita
tion. No ctamps should be Inclosed lor this
Paget Sound Bureau Captain A. Thompson.
effice at 1111 Pacific aveuue, Tacorni. Jox 803,
ffneoma postoffiee.
Eastern Business Offle t iMhm twiiid.
Lteg. New Tork city; "The Rookery." Chicago;
ae to. u. ueckwlth special agency. New York.
1 POT sale in Run PvatiftlMw .. -T ir fw
!6 Market street, near the Palace hoteL and
imi Goldsmith Bros.. 230 Sutter street.
snor sale in Chicago by the P. a News Co,
til Dearborn street.
, TODAY'S WEATHER. Threatening, with
possibly showers; northerly winds.
;PORTLAJiD, SUXDAY, 3IAY 20, 1000.
Many persons must have wondered
te.t the Imposing: array of Trominent
apeople sprung with such cheerful free-
I ,om by the woman suffragists as sup-
)jjieia ui meir cause. All such will
thought in this telegram, received by
ZLne uregonian from Lakevlew yester
day: In list of chairmen of countv fnmmiiiiw nf
(the Oregon State Equal Suffrage Association
The same of Mrs. Bernard Daly appears as
'Chairman for LaJf f!niintTT Thft nnrtlA rtf T nlr
I 'County would like to know through jour col-
wmns wno Mrs. Bernard Daly, of Lake County,
jts. So far as we know, Bernard Daly Is a bach
elor. Is the fusion candidate for Congress in
!the First District misrepresenting to this or
ganization in order to get votes? Mrs. Ber
mrd Daly, of Lake, is a myth.
Rep. Consri Com. for Lake County.
This develonmenr rmtR Tir- "noli- n
fcrery uncomfortable hole. The natural
revenue of escape, to deny responslbll-
i ty tor the mistake, Is closed to him,
pifeecause of his extreme and uniform
gallantry. No European court ever
turned out a more affable, ura-
cious and deferential manner thnn
I the Lakeview doctor and candidate in-
'Variably manifests in the presence of
'the fair sex. Apparently the only
course open to him Is to remain silent
end tacitly confess Judgment. "Who
ever has put the genial doctor in this
awkward predicament is certainly no
A circular scattered from door to
door about town in the interests of the
so-called Citizens Legislative ticket
makes violent war on certain Repub
lican candidates because of positions of
trust and honor they have hitherto held
.nd may possibly hold in the future. It
must be confessed at once that offenses
of this sort can be urged against very
l .few on the alleged Citizens ticket.
Sympathy is a good thing, even when
on a misapprehension of the
facts, but there are other considera
tions to be taken into account in the
selection of public officers. Mr. Aus
tin's campaign for City Engineer
jseems to be based entirely upon erro
neous charges against Mr. Chase, the
-present incumbent. He is said to be
working up considerable sympathy on
this score. Surely an election cannot
I "be turned, with intelligent voters, -by
an appeal restincr on a falsft hnis nf
I facts. The just and logical effect of
I such methods should be a damaging
recoil upon their authors. If Mr. Chase
is not re-elected, it will simply be that
the City of Portland does not know
"when It has a competent official and
1 coes not understand the danger In
volved in taking up with Incompetence,
fiuch an outcome is not likely to occur.
Mr. Chase Is entitled to re-election by
tevery consideration of common justice,
political fair dealing and sound nubile
I-policy. He should be elected by a de-
Ive majority.
In a discussion of the forthcoming
-census, printed in this column yester
day, the vote of Oregon for President
rin 1896 was given as 83,000. The correct
figures are 99,337. The discrepancy.
however, does not affect the conclusion
.arrived at, because the state census of
1895, with which the vote of 1896 was
'Compared, was, as stated, utterly un-
ptrustworthy. The principal argument,
"based on the Federal census, still
A case is soon to be heard In Brus-
teels that Illustrates the corrupt qual
ity of the leading Boer "patriots." The
Transvaal Government is suing the
Northern Railroad Company, of the
South African Republic, on the ground
of crookedness in contract work. The
company, in denying excessive profits
Ijnade on the work, declares that part
of their outlay was in the form of
"bribes needed to secure the concession.
. Ther list runs as follows:
Mrs. Kroger, $5000.
Eloff, Kruger's son-in-law, $2500 cash, 10.000
i shares.
snwal Joubert. S2COO0 in shares.
General Smlt, Vice-President of the Trans-
Ivaal, $2500 in cash.
President of the Volksraad, $G25 In cash.
Bok, member of the Executive Council, $2500
'-in cash, $5000 In shares.
Secretary to the Volksraad, $1000 in cash.
Is $ 1000 in shares.
Mare, member of Volksraad, $5000 In shares.
In addition "Christmas" presents were show-
pqd all through the Volksraad. and the com-
, iuay, while not listing it, is said to have gh en
$20,000 In cash and $100,000 In shares.
Tbe postal scandal In Cuba points
;tly to the radical difference be-
EweenHhe administration of public af
fairs there by the Americans and Span
iards. Peculation under American rule
Lis discovered and stepped, and the of-
lenders punished. Under Spanish con
;trol it went on forever, like the chat-
Lterlng brook.
Mrs. Fischer seems to be a talking
lelegate. She assures us the Boers do
lot want the Americans to fight, only
to give a declaration of sympathy.
(which would throw the balance of sen-
lent in Europe to her people. "What
"t did? Somebody would have to
it or threaten to do so to influence
England to stop short of absorption of
ie Transvaal and Free State into her
Luth African colonies. Mere senti
ent will not do it, "We might, to be
fe, declare ourselves sentimentally
gain the hostility of England wlth-
out benefiting the Boers, provided
enough of us entertained such senti
ments, but even then foreign countries
would not follow our example unless
they were prepared to interfere in a
substantial way. Every foreign gov
ernment knows that there Is an election
this year in the United States, and a
set of resolutions on the African ques
tion would be received with a smile and
a shrug of the shoulders by every dip
lomat in Europe. If the powers want
us to take the initiative, and by a
merely sentimental expression pave the
way for them to Interfere more sub
stantially, that is another matter.
There is probably not a majority of
citizens of the United States desirous
of setting the nations at the throat of
Great Britain.
Historical error is persistent. Some
times its vitality is due to superficial
acceptance of whatever one may see in
print, to the neglect of acknowledged
authorities, and sometimes to the in
fluence of sentiment and the desire to
score a point. To sentiment may be
ascribed the persistent assertion of the
exaggerated claims in reference to
"Whitman, and to the Influence of 'boom
ing for local purposes Is due the recent
statement by the St. Louis press that
Oregon was included in the Louisiana
purchase. The claim does not stop
there, but is carried clear to the old
Alaska boundary at 54 degrees and 40
minutes. "With a flourish that brushes
aside all historical authority, one of
these boom journalists says:
Attempts have also been made to show that
the Louisiana purchase did not include Wash
ington and Oregon. But In point of fact it not
only included the area now comprised in those
states, but it extended clear up to latitude 54
degrees 40 minutes that is, to what Is now the
southern boundary of Alaska. If It had not
been for the large indifference of our treaty
making statesmen in 1842-40 to the future pos
sibilities of our great Western domain, the hun
dredth anniversary of the Louisiana purchase
might bae been celebrated over an unbroken
area stretching from tho southern boundary of
California to the Arctic Ocean.
St. Louis Is preparing for a great fair
on the centennial of the Louisiana pur
chase, and the boom spirit is abroad in
the land. It Is a small feat to jump
the summit of the Rocky Mountains
and carry the western boundary of
Louisiana clear to the Pacific, and yet
is it necessary? Cannot St. Louis
arouse interest, enough in her fair
without slopping over Into the whole
surrounding territory and seeking to
push the canebrakes of Louisiana into
the glaciers of Alaska? "We of Ore
gon can rejoice with her in the pros
perity of the "West, can contribute our
share to make the fair a success, and
can even visit it and wonder at its
marvels, without being drawn in-by the
Louisiana territorial dragnet.
There never has been any question
about Oregon not being included In the
Louisiana purchase In the minds of his
torical students. Louisiana stopped at
the summit of the Rocky Mountains,
which was the extreme limit of the
French explorations, and such title as
was possessed to the Oregon country
prior to the discovery of the Colum
bia by Gray was In dispute between
Spain and England, whose explorers
had coasted along It and claimed it in
the names of their sovereigns. The
Spanish title was transferred to us by
the Florida treaty In 1819, and we
finally compromised with England in
1846, dividing the disputed territory be
tween us. In the 30 years of diplo
matic controversy with England over
the possession of Oregon, our title
through the Louisiana purchase was
not asserted, as it would have been had
there existed any foundation to rest It
upon. Mere mention of this purchase
to bolster up our claim by right of con
tiguity and continuity of territory "was
all the use made of it, and this feature
of our title received scant considera
tion. Both Bancroft and Greenhow, the
only Pacific Coast historians of original
Investigation, declare that the territory
then known as Oregon and now em
bracing Oregon, "Washington, Idaho and
a portion of Montana, was not Included
in the Louisiana purchase. The most
concise statement on the subject is
given in Blaine's "Twenty Tears in
Congress," which says:
Texas was also included In the transfer, but
Oregon was not. The Louisiana purchase did
not extend bej ond the main range of the Rocky
Mountains, and our title to that large area,
which Is Included in tho State of Oregon and in
the territories of Washington and Idaho, rests
upon a different foundation, or. rather, upon a
series of claims, each of which was strong
under tho law of nations. We claimed It flrst
by right of original discovery of the Columbia
River by an American nailgator In 1702; sec
ond, by original exploration In 1S05; third, by
original settlement In 1810. by the enterprising
company of which John Jacob A? tor was the
head; and. lastly and prlnclpally.'by the trans
fer of the Spanish title in 1S19, many years
after the Louisiana purchase was accomplished.
The St, Louis fair boomers will hunt
a long time before they find any good
authority for Including Oregon In Lou
isiana. Yet, indirectly, the purchase
of Louisiana led to our possession of
Oregon. Had not this been done, it is
doubtful if Jefferson, the great Ameri
can expansionist, would have dis
patched the Lewis and Clark expedi
tion across the country to the mouth
of the Columbia, thus laying the foun
dation for one of our 'strongest claims
of title. Had we not possessed the in
tervening and contiguous territory ac
quired with Louisiana, American set
tlement, which was after all the deter
mining factor in the final agreement,
would probably not have reached the
development it had in 1846. Further
more, as Mr. Blaine suggests, without
our possession of Louisiana we proba
bly would not have been able to pur
chase Florida from Spain; so it may
fairly be said that the Louisiana pur
chase led directly to our possession of
Oregon, though it did not include it.
Cannot the fair boomers be satisfied
with this much?
A receiver was appointed the other
day at Utica, N. Y for the First New
York Beet Sugar Company. The neigh
boring farmers did not raise enough
beets to supply the factory, so the com
pany had to send to "Western New York
for its raw material. Factories can be
erected profitably only where the beet
Is grown successfully, so that the
ground shall be within easy reach. The
capital invested for the New York en
terprise was also reported as insuffi
cient. The case is exceptional.
Sugar is our largest Import; we con
sume more sugar per capita than any
other country. "We spend a great deal
more money for foreign sugar than we
receive for the wheat we sell abroad.
Last year we sold wheat to foreign
countries to the value of $SL44",405, but
we paid $108,127,877 for the sugar we
bought, an excess of $26,630,472. The
especial report on sugar-beet raising
submitted by the Secretary of Agricul-
ture In 1898 said that the industry
could only thrive in regions that are
specially favorable to the crop, which
were to be found in all the Pacific
Coast States.
The beet-sugar Industry of California
is on a more profitable footing than
that of any European country. "With
our large sugar-cane lands we ought
at no very distant day to be able to
raise our own sugar, just as we do our
breadstuffs, provisions and cotton. Cer
tainly we shall soon be able to do with
out European sugar, once Cuba and
the Philippines are brought into active
The interstate forensic contest at
Seattle Friday night, though the first
between the state universities of Ore
gon and "Washington, is but one of a
number of like contests that have taken
place between various colleges In the
two states. Everywhere, in academies,
colleges and universities, there Is a re
vival of debating societies, once such
an important feature of college life.
"We are threatened with the extinction
of the orator, in the sense in which that
word was understood only fifty years
ago. The printing press has usurped
the function of. the public speaker to
such a degree that the study and prac
tice of oratory have seriously declined.
Before huge dally papers, containing
not only all the news, but exhaustive
discussions of all subjects of interest,
political, financial, scientific and liter
ary, were to be seen In every house
hold In the country, the people depend
ed for enlightenment upon these sub
jects on the public speaker. Espe
cially In matters political did the
masses look to the orators for light.
It was not possible then for a candidate
for President to make a great speech
in some selected place and have It lying
on the breakfast table In nearly every
house from Maine to California the
next morning. It was not possible then
for some member of Congress to secure
leave to print in the Record an undeliv
ered speech and send it out by thou
sands under his frank to every voter
in his district. If a man wanted to be
elected Governor or Representative, or
to go to the Senate, and desired the
people to know how he stood on the
great questions of the day, he was com
pelled to take the stump and tell them
face to face. It was then the arts and
gifts of the prator were of supreme
Importance. The manner of speaking
was often of more importanco than the
substance of the speech. Eloquence
swayed the vast crowds that assem
bled on such occasion, and the eloquent
sophist carried the day over the less
entertaining logician. There was then,
as there had been always up to that
time, every encouragement for the
young man to study and acquire the
arts and graces of oratory.
The printing press is responsible for
the decadence of the orator. Public
speakers we have In abundance, and
doubtless the substance of public addresses-averages
much higher In logic
and thought and substantial evidences
that convince the thinking mind than
did the more flowery and eloquent ora
tions of half a century ago, yet few to
day sway their audiences at will and
carry them off their feet in bursts of
enthusiasm as did the great orators of
the flrst half of the century. However,
they are better suited to their environ
ment and the conditions under which
the results of their efforts were reaped.
"When there was no speech in cold type
to be studied and its weakness exposed,
the impression made by an eloquent
sophist remained stamped upon the
minds of his hearers; now it passes
off like an Impress in the sand. The
strong man is not he who sways his
audience with oratory; glittering gen
eralities, brilliantly tinted flowers of
speech, but the one who says something
so convincing, so logical and so backed
up with evidence that It appeals to the
man with his eggs and coffee In the
morning even stronger than it did dur
ing the excitement of the night before.
The daily paper is the safety valve
against the excessive steam of the ora
torical hypnotist. The gas balloon of
the political demagogue is punctured
by the little types. Here is Bryan's
greatest weakness. "What he says may
be read and studied by all, free from
his oratorical spell. The manner of
saying it is eliminated. He must stand
upon the substance of his speeches, and
not upon the effect produced by his per
sonality and manner of delivery.
Yet, notwithstanding the substitu
tion of the printing press for the stump
speech and the platform lecture, there
is an inviting future for oratory, but
it must be substantial and logical if
the effect produced is to be a lasting
one. Our young men who are now par
ticipating in this revival of collegiate
debating must learn that substance
must receive from them as much atten
tion as style if they would become suc
cessful public speakers, and that for
real accomplishment In convincing
their fellow-men substance can never
be omitted, though the personal graces
of the oratorical artist may. It is in
the combination of both their highest
success will be found.
Exhibitions of trained animals, such
as have delighted large assemblages of
people in Portland the past week, are,
like so many of our modern forms of
amusement, relics of remote antiquity.
The annals of Rome are familiar to all.
The old Anglo-Saxon manuscripts con
tain pictures of an audience In an am
phitheater diverted by a musician, to
whose music a man is dancing, while
another performer exhibits a tame bear
that feigns to be dead. In Charles
Reade's novel, "The Cloister and the
Hearth," is a graphic picture of the
public sports with which Philip, Duke
of Burgundy, father of Charles the
Bold, delighted his subjects in the fif
teenth century. There were dancing
bears and horses that beat the kettle
drum with the fore feet. An illustrated
manuscript of the Middle Ages shows
dancing bears, apes, an ox balancing
Itself upon a horse's back, a horse on
a tightrope, another walking on its
hind legs, and fencing, as It were, with
a man armed with a sword and buckler.
Shakespeare has .more than one refer
ence to the dancing horse "capering
upright, shaking his bells." This re
ferred to one Banks and his perform
ing horse, "Morocco," that danced and
solved arithmetical questions like the
card-playing pig at our American fairs.
Ben Jonson alludes to the early use
of the circus poster. In 1654 Evelyn
saw the prototype of the "Happy Fam
ily" of the modern circus in shape of
"a tame lion that played familiarly
with a Iamb, a six-legged sheep, and a
four-legged goose." In 1652 "William
Stokes published a picture which
showed him vaulting over horses and
leaping on- them, whether bareback or
wearing the saddle. The Duke of Bur
gundy in the fifteenth century kept a
giant and a dwarf, and every court in
Europe had a monster of some sort.
"Walter Scott Introduces the famous
dwarf, Geo'ffrey Hudson, Into his pic
ture of the Court of Charles H, which
illuminates his novel of "Peveril of the
Peak." At Bartholomew fair, in Lon
don, in 170S, was shown "a leopard from
Lebanon, a great mare of the Tar
tarian breed, and a little hairy monster
from the desert of Arabia." A "young
mermaid taken on the coast of Aca
pulco" was shown In London in 1748,
the showmen anticipating Barnum by
nearly 150 years as a humbug. The
Astleys, who began in London in 1780,
were the founders of the modern cir
cus, and were the first to introduce
elephants, camels, etc.. Into their horse
spectacles. They were succeeded by
Ducrow, who was the first to Intro
duce the equestrian pageant and per
forming elephants. Tent or traveling
circus began in England in 1805, and on
the start had but two horses and but
few feats by a single performer.
The American circus dates back to
1780, but it was a feeble plant until
1S3C, when Purdy and "Welch organized
a circus of twenty-four gray horses and
a full band of eight members.
Today the American Unitarian Asso
ciation begins at Boston the celebration
of its seventy-fifth anniversary, though
the active Unitarian movement in this
country Is really as old as the present
century, and there was an organized
Unitarian Church in England as early
as 1773. The final rupture between the
Unitarian and Trinitarian Congrega
tionalists took, place in 1815, as the re
sult of a controversy between Dr.
Channlng and Dr. "Worcester, when
many of the oldest Puritan churches
went completely over to Unitarianlsm.
In its early days In this century, Uni
tarianlsm was conservative and evan
gelical compared with the present
school of biblical criticism, which to
day causes unrest and occasional seces
sion within the Presbyterian and other
orthodox churches. Dr. Cbanning had
a devout reverence for the authority of
the Scripture, and while the Rev. Dr.
Gilbert, a professor of a Trinitarian
theological seminary, finds no evidence
of the pre-exlstence of Christ in the
words of Jesus, Dr. Channlng believed
In It and thought that Christ came
down from heaven for the salvation of
The Rev. Dr. Orvllle Dewey, who was
assistant pastor with Dr. Channlng, In
his puolished sermons was equally as
evangelical as his great teacher. Dr.
Channlng, to ' whom Daniel "Webster
loved to listen, preached a beautiful
gospel of convincing moral and humane
earnestness when sixty years ago he
voiced the slowly awakening conscience
of good men against slavery and in
temperance. From Emerson, who left
the Unitarian pulpit because he did
not believe in the rite of communion,
dates the Unitarianlsm of today, which
represents no church, no pulpit, no pro
fessor's chair, no stated authority ex
cept In the sense that It rests on essen
tial religion, the simple love of God and
love of manj which was Jesus' defini
tion of the foundation of dh'e law and
the prophets. "What Emerson's spirit
ual philosophy has done for Unitarian
lsm in America Martlneau did for Uni
tarianlsm in England, which has com
pletely utrun the Unitarianlsm of
Priestley, who was treated as a heretic
in the last century.
The real Luther of Emersonian Uni
tarianlsm was Theodore Parker, who
as late as 1844 was an Evangelical Uni
tarian and administered the rite of
baptism. He was.the flrst great
preacher of America to accept the
higher biblical criiiclsm as then set
forth by the great German, De "Wette,
and he continued to preach the humane
gospel of his first teacher. Dr. Chan-
nlng; but as a religious and spiritual
reformer Parker was inspired by the
philosophy of Emerson. He was Em
erson's interpreter and expounder to
the people. Counting Channlng the no
blest representative of the Unitarian
gospel of humane living to the end of
holy dying, the list of able preachers
and teachers of Unitarianlsm that have
succeedea him have Included James
Freeman Clarke, Cyrus A. Bartol, Ed
ward E. Hale, Robert Collyer, and on
the Pacific Coast Thomas Starr King
and Horatio Stebblns.
The glory of American Unitarianlsm
today is that while it has outgrown the
evangelical faith of Dr. Channlng, It
still stands for the liberating spirit of
his gospel of religious freedom and tol
erance. It recognizes the Immanence
of God and the direct influence of his
spirit. Its purpose is to help man Into
sympathy with God, the beginning and
the end of the soul's life, and marks In
its latitude and freedom the limit of
Christian dissent from ecclesiastical
authority. It believes that
The hour Is coming when men's holy church
Shall melt away In ever-widening walls.
And bo for all .mankind; and in its place
A mightier church shall come, whose covenant
Shall be the deeds of love.
UnitariaiKsm today Is a blend of the
humane gospel of Channlng and the
ethical philosophy of Emerson. Chan
nlng's well of feeling was his deep, un
fathomable, humane heart, which kept
bubbling out of his lips all his days,
like the ceaseless flow of the great gey
sers of the Yellowstone. Channlng was
an acute and logical thinker, an ex
quisite writer; but the genius of the
man resided in his absolute sincerity,
his moral enthusiasm, his sincere love,
sympathy, charity and compassion for
his fellow-men, without any distinction
of color, race, creed, sect or condition
of life. His preaching, in its fine color
of enthusiasm, its utter elimination of
all pulpit sensationalism, or clerical
quackery. Its sweet, humane and ten
der eloquence, was of Immense benefit
to his day and generation. Then came
Emerson, the greatest lay preacher in
America, measured by the large and
tolerant nobility of his discourse; the
speech of a man whose pure and beau
tiful youth always survived, a cheerful,
genial optimist in his philosophy of men
and things, whose eloquence did not
He so much In the manner as In the
poetic prose of his discourse. Because
of Channlng and of Emerson, Unitari
anlsm came to stand for a nobler faith
than that of the great New England
oracle of the dismal science of the
ology, Jonathan Edwards.
Twenty-two entries for one harness
race at the State Fair meeting looks
like a revival of Interest in the busi
ness of breeding light harness horses.
Oregon in the past has turned out some
of the fastest and finest horses on
earth; in fact, has earned a reputation
in that line that Is as broad as the
continent. "We still have the matchless
climate, water and feed, which act as
an elixir of life to any kind of an anl-
mal, and as for blood, there never was
& time in the history of the state when
there were so many promising standard-bred
horses as there are now. The
manner In which entries poured In
when the State Fair offered a thousand-dollar
purse for the pacers
showed that there were plenty of good
horses in the state, and also that big
purses would bring them out. "With big
fields of contestants and large purses
to strive for, the attendance at race
meetings is always heavy. Portland
should take the lead in the encourage
ment of this industry, which has added
so much to the wealth of the state, and
a good meeting to precede or follow
that at the State Fair, If handled by
honest, responsible men, would prove
a direct paying venture, and Indirectly
would be still more profitable through
the Interest It would awaken in a neg
lected Industry for which Oregon is ex
ceptionally well fitted.
The advocates of the shipping sub
sidy bill will no doubt make the most of
the "object-lesson" given to some of the
members of Congress by Representa
tive "Wachter. This gentleman took a
few of the Congressmen around Balti
more harbor, and they 'were touched
by the fact that nothing but British
and German steamships were In sight,
According to press dispatches, Mr.
"Wachter asked them If It was not about
time to do something to restore the
American flag to the seas. This is de
cidedly superficial argument, or rather
is not 'argument at all. Each of these
ships will carry on a single trip the
products of a hundred farms. The
question is. Shall the hundred farmers
be taxed for the benefit of the one ship
owner, or shall he have the benefits of
the world's competition in sending his
products to market by the cheapest
possible method? "We do not hire the
farmer to do business; why should we
hire the shipowner?
As a pact of our representative ex
tracts of English literature, we print
this 'morning a portion of Mr. Henry
Drummond's celebrated essay, "The
Greatest Thing In the "World," a piece
of writing which has enjoyed a wider
vogue than any other modern work of
evangelical Christianity. Professor
Drummond's religious and scientific
discussions have not only moved the
masses, but interested great critics like
Matthew Arnold, who admired boto his
spirit and his sincerity. No apostle of
the Protestant Church has reached so
large a number of readers as has Mr.
Drummond. The extract given affords
a faithful key to his conception of the
religious life and his theory of practi
cal Christianity.
The reluctance of bicyclists to pay the
tax levied by special law for path
building cannot mean that the interest
in bicycle riding Is on the wane, since
apparently more persons use the wheel
now than ever before. There is no
specific complaint in regard to the
manner in which the tax collected last
year was expended, hence the failure
to pay the tax must be accredltpfl tn
the dllatorlness which is characteristic
of American citizens in matters which
must be attended to within a pre
scribed limit. It is believed that there
is no general intention to evade pay
ment of this tax, and that in due course
of time a majority of cyclists will
pay up.
A bill to appoint 'General "William B.
Franklin, lately Colonel of the Twelfth
Infantry, and a distinguished Major
General of Volunteers during the Civil
"Wa?, a Colonel on the retired list has
been Introduced by Representative
Henry, of Connecticut, of which state
General Franklin is now a resident.
General Franklin was graduated at the
head of his class at "West Point in 1843.
Among his classmates was Grant, who
ranked 21 in a clas& of 39 members.
General Franklin Is about 7S years of
age. He commanded th Ri-rth rn
of the Army of the Potomac, from May,
1862, until January. 1863.
The passage of the so-called "Grand
Army" pension bill will not encourage
the hopes of those who look forward to
a reduction of the pension payments.
Among other provisions this bill di
rects the Pension Commissioner that he
shall not refuse pensions to widows
having an income not exceeding $250 a
year. The limit had previously been
fixed by the Pension Office at $900 a
year, and a considerable Increase in the
roll will at once take place.
John James Ingalls Isn't reporting
prizefights just now. He is devoting
"his time and such literary ability as
he possesses to. the "good fellow" girl
of the period, whom he declares in
dulges in too much racetrack, midnight
revelries, high kicking, skirt dancing
and "coon songs." There is no doubt
that John James Is still in the ring,
ready to do and to dare according to
his "lights."
Either Agulnaldo has not kept the
close watch upon the doings of Con
gress and the President, or else he is
keeping up, in his recent "proclama"
the policy of deception of the ignorant
masses that has been followed from
the very beginning of tho insurrection.
He will find the commission, sent out
to establish civil government in the
Philippines, sufficiently "official" for
the purpose.
The Ohio and Indiana politicians, who
are responsible for the appointment of
Neely, are political lieutenants of
Hanna. Perry Heath was Hanna's
man In 1896, and was rewarded with
the office of Assistant Postmaster-General.
Heath made Neely part of the
Cuban postal" service. Rathbone, who
Installed Neely In his position as finan
cier, is another pet of Hanna.
Not every craft that sails for Nome
will reach the goal. One already lies
on the sands of Point "Wilson, and oth
ers will be lucky If the water Is as
shallow when they come to disaster.
The Board of Marine Underwriters of
San Francisco takes the right position
when It refuses to Insure craft not
passing a thorough and satisfactory
Inspection. The defense of Mafeklng was a more
wonderful achievement than that of
Ladysmlth or Kimberley, not so much
because longer maintained as because
of the greater strain upon the small
number of defenders. England has
good excuse for being a trifle hysterical
over the relief.
Seattle's heavy bank clearings last
week show the effects of the Cape
Nome trade.
Two years ago, when Major Kennedy
was running against Dan Moore for Clerk
of the Circuit Court, he found that a
large number of gentlemen whom he had
never seen before were so deeply so
licitous for his success that they would
folow him around town and offer hlin
job lo'ts of votes at bargain prices Had
be availed himself of a3 these reason
able offers he would have received more
votes than there were in the whole state,
for the aggregate amount that were
placed at his disposal at ruinous prices
far exceeded the entire vote cast In the
elect'on. One night when. In company
with several other candidates, he was on
his way from a meeting, he met Moore,
and Ralph Hoyt, who was running as an
Mitchell candidate fot County Treas
urer. The candidates stopped, shook
hands warmly, and each went his way.
A lltt'e farther down, the street Major
Kennedy was stopped by one of the self
sacrificing vote brokers.
'Tm workln fur you, Maje," said he.
"I've got 100 votes In the North End,
and they'll all go your way, provldin I
kin git about $25 to keep the boys beered
up proper. Do I git It?"
"I suppose you are supporting the whole
ticket?" Inquired the major.
"No, sir," said the broker impressively.
"I ain't. Tm workln' fur my friends this
time, and there's just three of 'em what
'II git the support of my voters, and
them's you an' Ralph Hoyt and Dan
He didn't get the twenty-five.
There is clouds o dlrty-lcokln smoke a-floatln
round the town,
A-purln' In at windows an' a-driftln up an
Our lungs Is all chuck fuU of It, an' all our
throats Is son).
An If It gets much thicker, why, we cannot
breath no more.
It smells somn like & garbage plant, an' some
like burnln' tar,
An all of it la rollln" from the candidate's
This weed alnt' made in Cuba, where tho best
tobacco grows.
Nor in Mexico, Manila, nor in any place like
It don't come from ole Ylrglnny, where the cot
ton blossoms fall.
Fur there Isn't no tobacco used ,in makln it
at all.
It's composed of scraps of rubbage gathered
up from near an' far.
An It costs a cent a thousand, does the candi
date's cigar.
Just what good the dlstribootlon of such air
pollutin' things
To the candidate that' hands them to the
sufTrln voter brings.
Is a question we can't answer, for a man. who'd
smoke one up
Could partake o gall an' wormwood, an re
quest another cup.
But the fact remains you find 'em, ain't no
matter where you are.
An you might as well git used to ihls here
candidate's cigar.
Once upon a Time there was a Legis
lative Ticket, composed of three Repub
licans that had received the Marble
Heart, as a Gift from their Party, and
one Democrat, who had got Into the Habit
of running for Office, and who forgot to
swear off New Year's day. They started
out to run for office together, but soon the
Democrat saw the alleged Republicans
were working a scheme to throw him
Down, and he registered a Kick.
"What arc. you Kicking for?" asked the
Others. "You never had a Chance any
way. What is the good of the Democratic
Party In Oregon if it can't be Used to
Elect Renegade Republicans?" And they
Kept on Knocking him.
Moral Renegades are a hard crowd.
The gentleman who has a hundred votes
under his thumb is around this year, and
he is making life a burden for the inde
pendent candidates. In the wake of some
of the unattached aspirants for office there
is a train of him like the tail of a comet.
He Is so Impressive, so earnest, and so
convincing that he usually succeeds in
mulcting the Independent, who, having
no party behind him, doesn't want to
nmke any more enemies than is absolute
ly necessary. The North End is now full
of gents of this stripe. They pass their
days In the heavy slumbers that custom
arily follow nights of cheerful convivi
ality, and their nights they spend before
bars, drinking up the money of the can
didates, as if the Standard Oil Company
was the smallest thing they owned. If
they have votes under their thumb, they
always keep them there, because the votes
are never cast on election day. In fact,
the gentlemen do not appear on election
day at all. There is no reason why they
should. They are not voters.
The repose of manner and dignity of
bearing which distinguish Judge Thomas
O'Day when he is not cutting the cord
that binds the eagle down on the rostrum
have not deserted him, even in this hour
of sore need. Indeed, he is working the
repose business overtime to the disgust
of the fusion nominees, whom he caused
to be nominated. Judge Thomas Is not
fond of work in a campaign. He will go
out on the stump now and then, and refer
to this glorious country of ours, the op
pressors wrong, the law's delay, the pangs
of disprized love, and the insolence of
office, in measured words and slow, but
the is constitutional.? opposed to that
necessary branch of political endeavor
known as hustling. He got the fusion
ticket nominated, he reasons, he bluffed
their acceptance through the Democratic
convention, now let them get out and
rustle for themselves. He washes his
hands of them.
The Prohibitionists, defying all the tra
ditions that have been theirs since they
began to make war on the inalienable
right of the American citizen to become
intoxicated, have nominated a full ticket.
There is nothing half way about It, either.
It Is gloriously, completely full. If this
ticket does not triumph at the polls and
there are reasons to believe that at least
some of the nominees may come perilously
near defeat it may be taken as a stern
rebuke. The Prohibltionsists ought not
to put up a full ticket another time. Do
they think Mayor Storey isn't able to con
duct that kind of a campaign?
The kinetoscoplc rapidity with which
new candidates have been arising on the
political horizon for the past few month
Is at an end. Nominations for city offices
wore closed yesterday, and any village
-Hampdens who, with dauntless breasts,
the little tyrants of their fields are de
sirous of withstanding, will have to wait
two more years to do it, for they can't
break into a place on the Australian bal
lot. There were only 49 candidates for the
16 city offices, an average of a little more
than three to an office. This will limit the
inevitable disappointment to two candi
dates to every ticket, and each two can
divide It up between them, so it will really
not bo so very hard to bear.
Basis of Christianity Not Faith, but Love
Henry Drummond. t t
Every one has asked himself the great
question of antiquity as of the modern
world: What is the summum bonum tho
supreme good? You have Mfe before you.
Once only you can live It. "What is the
noblest object of desire, the supreme gift
to covet? 0
We have been accustomed to be told tlvit
the greatest thing In the religious world
is faith. That great word has been the
keynote for centuries of the popular re
ligion; and we have easily learned to look,
upon it as the greatest thing in the world.
"Well, we are wrong. If we have been .
told that, wo may miss the mark. I have
taken you, In the chapter which I hava
just lead, to Christianity at its source, '
and there we have seen, "The greatest ot
these Is love."
"Whether there be prophecies, they shall
fall." It was the mother's ambition for
her boy in those days that he should be
come a prophet. For hundreds ot years
God had never spoken by means of any
prophet, and at that time the prophet
was greater than the king. Men waited
wistfully for another messenger to come,
and hung upon his lips when he apppeatcd
as upon the very voice of God. Paul says,
"Whether there be prophecies, they ehall
fail." This book Is full of prophecies.
One by one they have "failed"; that Is,
having been fulfilled, their work is fin
ished; they have nothing more to do now
In the world except to feed a devout
man's faith.
Then Paul talks about tongues. That
was another thing that was greatly cov
eted. "Whether there be tongues, they
shall cease." Consider the words In which
these chapters were written Greek. It
has gone. Take the Latin the other great
tongue of those days. It ceased long ago.
Look at the Indian language. It is ceas
ing. The language of "Wales, of Ireland,
of the Scottish Highlands, Is dying before
our eyes. The most popular book In tho
English tongue at the present time, except
the Bible, Is one of Dickens' works, his
"Pickwick papers." It is largely written
in tho language of London street-life; and
experts assure us that In 50 years It will be
unintelligible to the average English read
er. Then Paul go'es farther, and with even
greater boldness adds: "Whether there be
knowledge. It shall vanish away." The
wi3dom ot the ancients where is It? It Is
wholly gone. A schoolboy today knows
more than Sir Isaac Newton knew. His
knowledge has vanished awayv You put
yesterday's newspaper in tho fire. Its
knowledge has vanished away. You buy
the old editions "of the great encyclopedias
for a few pence. Their knowledge has
vanished away. ,Look how the coach has
been superseded by the use of steam. Look
how electricity has superseded that, and
swept a hundred almost new Inventions
Into oblivion. One of the greatest liv
ing authorities. Sir "William Thompson,
said the other day, "The steam engine
la passing away." "Whether there b2
knowledge, it ehall vanish away."
Can you tell me anything that is going
to last? Many things Paul did not conde
scend to name. He did not mention money,
fortune, fame, but he picked out the great
things of his time, the things the best
men thought had something in them,
and brushed them peremptorily aside.
Paul had no charge against these
things in themselves. All he said about
them was that they would not last. They
were great things, but not supreme things.
There were things beyond them. There is
a great deal in the world, that Is delightful
and beautiful; there is a great deal In it
that is great and engrossing; but it will
not last. All that Is in the world, the lust
of the eye, the lust of the flesh, and the
pride of life, are but for a little while.
Love not the world therefore. Nothing
that It contains Is worth the life and con
secration of an Immortal soul. The im
mortal soul must give itself to something
that is Immortal. And the only immortal
things are these: "Now abldeth faith,
hope, love, but the greatest of these Is
Some think the time may come when
two of these three things will also pass
away faith Into sight, hope into fruition.
Paul does not say so. "We know but lit
tle now about the conditions of the life
that Is to come. But what is certain is
tihat Love must last. God, the Eternal
God, Is Love. Covet therefore that ever
lasting gift, that one thing which it is
certain Is going to stand, that one coin
age which will be current in the Universe .
when all the other coinages of all the na
tions of the world shall be useless and
You will find as you look back upon
your life that the moments that stand
out, the moments when you have really
lived, are the moments when you have
done things in a spirit of love. As mem
ory scans the past, above and beyond all
the transitory pleasures or life, there leap
forward those supreme hours when you
have been enabled to do unnoticed kind
nesses to those around about you, things
too trifling to speak about, but which you
feel have entered into your eternal life.
I have seen almost all the beau,tIul things
God has made; I have enjoyed " almost
every pleasure that he has planned for
man; and yet as I look back I see stand
ing out, above all the life that has gone,
four or five short experiences when the
love of God reflected itself In some poor
imitation, some small act of love of mine,
and these seem to be the things which,
alone of all one's life abide. Everything
else in all our lives is transitory. Every
other good act Is visionary. But the acts
of love whichv no man knows about, or
can ever know about they never fall.
In the Book ot Matthew, where the
Judgment Day Is depicted for us in the
Imagery of One seated upon a throne and
dividing the sheep from the goats, the -test
of a man then is not, "How have I
believed?" but "How have I loved?" The
test of religion, the final test of religion,
is not religiousness, but Love. I say the
final test of religion at that great Day Is
not religiousness, but Love; not what I
have done, not what I have believed, not
what I have achieved, but how I have
discharged the common charities of life.
Sins of commission In that awful indict
ment are not even Teferred to. By what
we have not done, by sins of omission,
we are judged.
It Is the Son of Man before whom tho
nations of the world shall be gathered. It
Is In the presence of Humanity that we
shall be charged. And the spectacle it
self, the mere sight of It, will silently
judge each one. Those will be there whom
we have met and helped; or there the
unpltied multitude whom we neglected or
despised. No dther witness need be sum
moned. No other charge than loveless
ness shall be preferred. Be not deceived.
Tho words which all of, us shall one day
hear sound not of theology but of life,
not of churches and saints but of the
hungry and the poor, not of creeds and
doctrines but of shelter and clothing, not
of Bibles and prayer-books, but of cups
of cold water In the name of Christ.
Thank God the Christianity ot today Is
coming nearer the world's need. Live to
help that on. Thank God men know bet
ter, by a hair's breadth, what religion Is,
what God is. who Christ Is, where Christ
Is. "Who is Christ? He who fed the
hungry, clothed the naked, visited the
sick. And where is Christ? "Where?
whoso shall receive a little child in My
name recelveth Me. And who are
Christ's? Every one that loveth la bora
of God.