wnyggj BW THE STOtDAY 0REG0EIA2T, PORTLAND, MAY 20, 1900. fre xzQ&mttxu iGatered at the PostoOce at Portland, Oregon, i a vecond-clftUi matter. I TELEPHONES. Kfiltortal Koos:s....l6G I Buslnes Office.. ..OCT REVISED SUBSCRIPTION RATES. Br Mall (postage prepaid). In Advaaoe Dally. withSunday. per month. .... ...JO S3 jDatly. Sunday excepted, per year ........ 7 00 Sally, -with Sunday, per year...... 9 00 Sunday per year ..... 2 00 !Tbe "Weekly, per year .... . 1 50 IThe "Weekly. 3 months...........-. ...... 60 To aty Subscribers .ally, per week, delivered, Sundays excepted.lRs pally, per week, delivered. Sundays lacluded.20o News or discussion intended for publication In The Oregonlan should be addressed Invariably "Editor The Oregonlan. not to the name of ny Individual. letters relating to advertising, subscriptions or to any business matter should e addressed simply "The Oregonlan." The Oregcntan does not buy poems or stories Erom Individuals, and cannot undertake to re turn any manuscripts sent to it without solicita tion. No ctamps should be Inclosed lor this purpose. Paget Sound Bureau Captain A. Thompson. effice at 1111 Pacific aveuue, Tacorni. Jox 803, ffneoma postoffiee. Eastern Business Offle t iMhm twiiid. Lteg. New Tork city; "The Rookery." Chicago; ae to. u. ueckwlth special agency. New York. 1 POT sale in Run PvatiftlMw .. -T ir fw !6 Market street, near the Palace hoteL and imi Goldsmith Bros.. 230 Sutter street. snor sale in Chicago by the P. a News Co, til Dearborn street. , TODAY'S WEATHER. Threatening, with possibly showers; northerly winds. ;PORTLAJiD, SUXDAY, 3IAY 20, 1000. Many persons must have wondered te.t the Imposing: array of Trominent apeople sprung with such cheerful free- I ,om by the woman suffragists as sup- )jjieia ui meir cause. All such will thought in this telegram, received by ZLne uregonian from Lakevlew yester day: In list of chairmen of countv fnmmiiiiw nf (the Oregon State Equal Suffrage Association The same of Mrs. Bernard Daly appears as 'Chairman for LaJf f!niintTT Thft nnrtlA rtf T nlr I 'County would like to know through jour col- wmns wno Mrs. Bernard Daly, of Lake County, jts. So far as we know, Bernard Daly Is a bach elor. Is the fusion candidate for Congress in !the First District misrepresenting to this or ganization in order to get votes? Mrs. Ber mrd Daly, of Lake, is a myth. I! J. E. M GARRET. Rep. Consri Com. for Lake County. This develonmenr rmtR Tir- "noli- n fcrery uncomfortable hole. The natural revenue of escape, to deny responslbll- i ty tor the mistake, Is closed to him, pifeecause of his extreme and uniform gallantry. No European court ever turned out a more affable, ura- cious and deferential manner thnn I the Lakeview doctor and candidate in- 'Variably manifests in the presence of 'the fair sex. Apparently the only course open to him Is to remain silent end tacitly confess Judgment. "Who ever has put the genial doctor in this awkward predicament is certainly no gentleman. A circular scattered from door to door about town in the interests of the so-called Citizens Legislative ticket makes violent war on certain Repub lican candidates because of positions of trust and honor they have hitherto held .nd may possibly hold in the future. It must be confessed at once that offenses of this sort can be urged against very l .few on the alleged Citizens ticket. Sympathy is a good thing, even when on a misapprehension of the facts, but there are other considera tions to be taken into account in the selection of public officers. Mr. Aus tin's campaign for City Engineer jseems to be based entirely upon erro neous charges against Mr. Chase, the -present incumbent. He is said to be working up considerable sympathy on this score. Surely an election cannot I "be turned, with intelligent voters, -by an appeal restincr on a falsft hnis nf I facts. The just and logical effect of I such methods should be a damaging recoil upon their authors. If Mr. Chase is not re-elected, it will simply be that the City of Portland does not know "when It has a competent official and 1 coes not understand the danger In volved in taking up with Incompetence, fiuch an outcome is not likely to occur. Mr. Chase Is entitled to re-election by tevery consideration of common justice, political fair dealing and sound nubile I-policy. He should be elected by a de- Ive majority. In a discussion of the forthcoming -census, printed in this column yester day, the vote of Oregon for President rin 1896 was given as 83,000. The correct figures are 99,337. The discrepancy. however, does not affect the conclusion .arrived at, because the state census of 1895, with which the vote of 1896 was 'Compared, was, as stated, utterly un- ptrustworthy. The principal argument, "based on the Federal census, still rctands. A case is soon to be heard In Brus- teels that Illustrates the corrupt qual ity of the leading Boer "patriots." The Transvaal Government is suing the Northern Railroad Company, of the South African Republic, on the ground of crookedness in contract work. The company, in denying excessive profits Ijnade on the work, declares that part of their outlay was in the form of "bribes needed to secure the concession. . Ther list runs as follows: Mrs. Kroger, $5000. Eloff, Kruger's son-in-law, $2500 cash, 10.000 i shares. snwal Joubert. S2COO0 in shares. General Smlt, Vice-President of the Trans- Ivaal, $2500 in cash. President of the Volksraad, $G25 In cash. Bok, member of the Executive Council, $2500 '-in cash, $5000 In shares. Secretary to the Volksraad, $1000 in cash. Is $ 1000 in shares. Mare, member of Volksraad, $5000 In shares. In addition "Christmas" presents were show- pqd all through the Volksraad. and the com- , iuay, while not listing it, is said to have gh en $20,000 In cash and $100,000 In shares. Tbe postal scandal In Cuba points ;tly to the radical difference be- EweenHhe administration of public af fairs there by the Americans and Span iards. Peculation under American rule Lis discovered and stepped, and the of- lenders punished. Under Spanish con ;trol it went on forever, like the chat- Lterlng brook. Mrs. Fischer seems to be a talking lelegate. She assures us the Boers do lot want the Americans to fight, only to give a declaration of sympathy. (which would throw the balance of sen- lent in Europe to her people. "What "t did? Somebody would have to it or threaten to do so to influence England to stop short of absorption of ie Transvaal and Free State into her Luth African colonies. Mere senti ent will not do it, "We might, to be fe, declare ourselves sentimentally gain the hostility of England wlth- out benefiting the Boers, provided enough of us entertained such senti ments, but even then foreign countries would not follow our example unless they were prepared to interfere in a substantial way. Every foreign gov ernment knows that there Is an election this year in the United States, and a set of resolutions on the African ques tion would be received with a smile and a shrug of the shoulders by every dip lomat in Europe. If the powers want us to take the initiative, and by a merely sentimental expression pave the way for them to Interfere more sub stantially, that is another matter. There is probably not a majority of citizens of the United States desirous of setting the nations at the throat of Great Britain. lOUISIAXA AM) OREGON. Historical error is persistent. Some times its vitality is due to superficial acceptance of whatever one may see in print, to the neglect of acknowledged authorities, and sometimes to the in fluence of sentiment and the desire to score a point. To sentiment may be ascribed the persistent assertion of the exaggerated claims in reference to "Whitman, and to the Influence of 'boom ing for local purposes Is due the recent statement by the St. Louis press that Oregon was included in the Louisiana purchase. The claim does not stop there, but is carried clear to the old Alaska boundary at 54 degrees and 40 minutes. "With a flourish that brushes aside all historical authority, one of these boom journalists says: Attempts have also been made to show that the Louisiana purchase did not include Wash ington and Oregon. But In point of fact it not only included the area now comprised in those states, but it extended clear up to latitude 54 degrees 40 minutes that is, to what Is now the southern boundary of Alaska. If It had not been for the large indifference of our treaty making statesmen in 1842-40 to the future pos sibilities of our great Western domain, the hun dredth anniversary of the Louisiana purchase might bae been celebrated over an unbroken area stretching from tho southern boundary of California to the Arctic Ocean. St. Louis Is preparing for a great fair on the centennial of the Louisiana pur chase, and the boom spirit is abroad in the land. It Is a small feat to jump the summit of the Rocky Mountains and carry the western boundary of Louisiana clear to the Pacific, and yet is it necessary? Cannot St. Louis arouse interest, enough in her fair without slopping over Into the whole surrounding territory and seeking to push the canebrakes of Louisiana into the glaciers of Alaska? "We of Ore gon can rejoice with her in the pros perity of the "West, can contribute our share to make the fair a success, and can even visit it and wonder at its marvels, without being drawn in-by the Louisiana territorial dragnet. There never has been any question about Oregon not being included In the Louisiana purchase In the minds of his torical students. Louisiana stopped at the summit of the Rocky Mountains, which was the extreme limit of the French explorations, and such title as was possessed to the Oregon country prior to the discovery of the Colum bia by Gray was In dispute between Spain and England, whose explorers had coasted along It and claimed it in the names of their sovereigns. The Spanish title was transferred to us by the Florida treaty In 1819, and we finally compromised with England in 1846, dividing the disputed territory be tween us. In the 30 years of diplo matic controversy with England over the possession of Oregon, our title through the Louisiana purchase was not asserted, as it would have been had there existed any foundation to rest It upon. Mere mention of this purchase to bolster up our claim by right of con tiguity and continuity of territory "was all the use made of it, and this feature of our title received scant considera tion. Both Bancroft and Greenhow, the only Pacific Coast historians of original Investigation, declare that the territory then known as Oregon and now em bracing Oregon, "Washington, Idaho and a portion of Montana, was not Included in the Louisiana purchase. The most concise statement on the subject is given in Blaine's "Twenty Tears in Congress," which says: Texas was also included In the transfer, but Oregon was not. The Louisiana purchase did not extend bej ond the main range of the Rocky Mountains, and our title to that large area, which Is Included in tho State of Oregon and in the territories of Washington and Idaho, rests upon a different foundation, or. rather, upon a series of claims, each of which was strong under tho law of nations. We claimed It flrst by right of original discovery of the Columbia River by an American nailgator In 1702; sec ond, by original exploration In 1S05; third, by original settlement In 1810. by the enterprising company of which John Jacob A? tor was the head; and. lastly and prlnclpally.'by the trans fer of the Spanish title in 1S19, many years after the Louisiana purchase was accomplished. The St, Louis fair boomers will hunt a long time before they find any good authority for Including Oregon In Lou isiana. Yet, indirectly, the purchase of Louisiana led to our possession of Oregon. Had not this been done, it is doubtful if Jefferson, the great Ameri can expansionist, would have dis patched the Lewis and Clark expedi tion across the country to the mouth of the Columbia, thus laying the foun dation for one of our 'strongest claims of title. Had we not possessed the in tervening and contiguous territory ac quired with Louisiana, American set tlement, which was after all the deter mining factor in the final agreement, would probably not have reached the development it had in 1846. Further more, as Mr. Blaine suggests, without our possession of Louisiana we proba bly would not have been able to pur chase Florida from Spain; so it may fairly be said that the Louisiana pur chase led directly to our possession of Oregon, though it did not include it. Cannot the fair boomers be satisfied with this much? MAY RAISE OUR OWX SUGAR, A receiver was appointed the other day at Utica, N. Y for the First New York Beet Sugar Company. The neigh boring farmers did not raise enough beets to supply the factory, so the com pany had to send to "Western New York for its raw material. Factories can be erected profitably only where the beet Is grown successfully, so that the ground shall be within easy reach. The capital invested for the New York en terprise was also reported as insuffi cient. The case is exceptional. Sugar is our largest Import; we con sume more sugar per capita than any other country. "We spend a great deal more money for foreign sugar than we receive for the wheat we sell abroad. Last year we sold wheat to foreign countries to the value of $SL44",405, but we paid $108,127,877 for the sugar we bought, an excess of $26,630,472. The especial report on sugar-beet raising submitted by the Secretary of Agricul- ture In 1898 said that the industry could only thrive in regions that are specially favorable to the crop, which were to be found in all the Pacific Coast States. The beet-sugar Industry of California is on a more profitable footing than that of any European country. "With our large sugar-cane lands we ought at no very distant day to be able to raise our own sugar, just as we do our breadstuffs, provisions and cotton. Cer tainly we shall soon be able to do with out European sugar, once Cuba and the Philippines are brought into active production. THE MODERX ORATOR, The interstate forensic contest at Seattle Friday night, though the first between the state universities of Ore gon and "Washington, is but one of a number of like contests that have taken place between various colleges In the two states. Everywhere, in academies, colleges and universities, there Is a re vival of debating societies, once such an important feature of college life. "We are threatened with the extinction of the orator, in the sense in which that word was understood only fifty years ago. The printing press has usurped the function of. the public speaker to such a degree that the study and prac tice of oratory have seriously declined. Before huge dally papers, containing not only all the news, but exhaustive discussions of all subjects of interest, political, financial, scientific and liter ary, were to be seen In every house hold In the country, the people depend ed for enlightenment upon these sub jects on the public speaker. Espe cially In matters political did the masses look to the orators for light. It was not possible then for a candidate for President to make a great speech in some selected place and have It lying on the breakfast table In nearly every house from Maine to California the next morning. It was not possible then for some member of Congress to secure leave to print in the Record an undeliv ered speech and send it out by thou sands under his frank to every voter in his district. If a man wanted to be elected Governor or Representative, or to go to the Senate, and desired the people to know how he stood on the great questions of the day, he was com pelled to take the stump and tell them face to face. It was then the arts and gifts of the prator were of supreme Importance. The manner of speaking was often of more importanco than the substance of the speech. Eloquence swayed the vast crowds that assem bled on such occasion, and the eloquent sophist carried the day over the less entertaining logician. There was then, as there had been always up to that time, every encouragement for the young man to study and acquire the arts and graces of oratory. The printing press is responsible for the decadence of the orator. Public speakers we have In abundance, and doubtless the substance of public addresses-averages much higher In logic and thought and substantial evidences that convince the thinking mind than did the more flowery and eloquent ora tions of half a century ago, yet few to day sway their audiences at will and carry them off their feet in bursts of enthusiasm as did the great orators of the flrst half of the century. However, they are better suited to their environ ment and the conditions under which the results of their efforts were reaped. "When there was no speech in cold type to be studied and its weakness exposed, the impression made by an eloquent sophist remained stamped upon the minds of his hearers; now it passes off like an Impress in the sand. The strong man is not he who sways his audience with oratory; glittering gen eralities, brilliantly tinted flowers of speech, but the one who says something so convincing, so logical and so backed up with evidence that It appeals to the man with his eggs and coffee In the morning even stronger than it did dur ing the excitement of the night before. The daily paper is the safety valve against the excessive steam of the ora torical hypnotist. The gas balloon of the political demagogue is punctured by the little types. Here is Bryan's greatest weakness. "What he says may be read and studied by all, free from his oratorical spell. The manner of saying it is eliminated. He must stand upon the substance of his speeches, and not upon the effect produced by his per sonality and manner of delivery. Yet, notwithstanding the substitu tion of the printing press for the stump speech and the platform lecture, there is an inviting future for oratory, but it must be substantial and logical if the effect produced is to be a lasting one. Our young men who are now par ticipating in this revival of collegiate debating must learn that substance must receive from them as much atten tion as style if they would become suc cessful public speakers, and that for real accomplishment In convincing their fellow-men substance can never be omitted, though the personal graces of the oratorical artist may. It is in the combination of both their highest success will be found. AATIQUITY OF THE MORAL SHOW. Exhibitions of trained animals, such as have delighted large assemblages of people in Portland the past week, are, like so many of our modern forms of amusement, relics of remote antiquity. The annals of Rome are familiar to all. The old Anglo-Saxon manuscripts con tain pictures of an audience In an am phitheater diverted by a musician, to whose music a man is dancing, while another performer exhibits a tame bear that feigns to be dead. In Charles Reade's novel, "The Cloister and the Hearth," is a graphic picture of the public sports with which Philip, Duke of Burgundy, father of Charles the Bold, delighted his subjects in the fif teenth century. There were dancing bears and horses that beat the kettle drum with the fore feet. An illustrated manuscript of the Middle Ages shows dancing bears, apes, an ox balancing Itself upon a horse's back, a horse on a tightrope, another walking on its hind legs, and fencing, as It were, with a man armed with a sword and buckler. Shakespeare has .more than one refer ence to the dancing horse "capering upright, shaking his bells." This re ferred to one Banks and his perform ing horse, "Morocco," that danced and solved arithmetical questions like the card-playing pig at our American fairs. Ben Jonson alludes to the early use of the circus poster. In 1654 Evelyn saw the prototype of the "Happy Fam ily" of the modern circus in shape of "a tame lion that played familiarly with a Iamb, a six-legged sheep, and a four-legged goose." In 1652 "William Stokes published a picture which showed him vaulting over horses and leaping on- them, whether bareback or wearing the saddle. The Duke of Bur gundy in the fifteenth century kept a giant and a dwarf, and every court in Europe had a monster of some sort. "Walter Scott Introduces the famous dwarf, Geo'ffrey Hudson, Into his pic ture of the Court of Charles H, which illuminates his novel of "Peveril of the Peak." At Bartholomew fair, in Lon don, in 170S, was shown "a leopard from Lebanon, a great mare of the Tar tarian breed, and a little hairy monster from the desert of Arabia." A "young mermaid taken on the coast of Aca pulco" was shown In London in 1748, the showmen anticipating Barnum by nearly 150 years as a humbug. The Astleys, who began in London in 1780, were the founders of the modern cir cus, and were the first to introduce elephants, camels, etc.. Into their horse spectacles. They were succeeded by Ducrow, who was the first to Intro duce the equestrian pageant and per forming elephants. Tent or traveling circus began in England in 1805, and on the start had but two horses and but few feats by a single performer. The American circus dates back to 1780, but it was a feeble plant until 1S3C, when Purdy and "Welch organized a circus of twenty-four gray horses and a full band of eight members. UNITARIAXISM. Today the American Unitarian Asso ciation begins at Boston the celebration of its seventy-fifth anniversary, though the active Unitarian movement in this country Is really as old as the present century, and there was an organized Unitarian Church in England as early as 1773. The final rupture between the Unitarian and Trinitarian Congrega tionalists took, place in 1815, as the re sult of a controversy between Dr. Channlng and Dr. "Worcester, when many of the oldest Puritan churches went completely over to Unitarianlsm. In its early days In this century, Uni tarianlsm was conservative and evan gelical compared with the present school of biblical criticism, which to day causes unrest and occasional seces sion within the Presbyterian and other orthodox churches. Dr. Cbanning had a devout reverence for the authority of the Scripture, and while the Rev. Dr. Gilbert, a professor of a Trinitarian theological seminary, finds no evidence of the pre-exlstence of Christ in the words of Jesus, Dr. Channlng believed In It and thought that Christ came down from heaven for the salvation of men. The Rev. Dr. Orvllle Dewey, who was assistant pastor with Dr. Channlng, In his puolished sermons was equally as evangelical as his great teacher. Dr. Channlng, to ' whom Daniel "Webster loved to listen, preached a beautiful gospel of convincing moral and humane earnestness when sixty years ago he voiced the slowly awakening conscience of good men against slavery and in temperance. From Emerson, who left the Unitarian pulpit because he did not believe in the rite of communion, dates the Unitarianlsm of today, which represents no church, no pulpit, no pro fessor's chair, no stated authority ex cept In the sense that It rests on essen tial religion, the simple love of God and love of manj which was Jesus' defini tion of the foundation of dh'e law and the prophets. "What Emerson's spirit ual philosophy has done for Unitarian lsm in America Martlneau did for Uni tarianlsm in England, which has com pletely utrun the Unitarianlsm of Priestley, who was treated as a heretic in the last century. The real Luther of Emersonian Uni tarianlsm was Theodore Parker, who as late as 1844 was an Evangelical Uni tarian and administered the rite of baptism. He was.the flrst great preacher of America to accept the higher biblical criiiclsm as then set forth by the great German, De "Wette, and he continued to preach the humane gospel of his first teacher. Dr. Chan- nlng; but as a religious and spiritual reformer Parker was inspired by the philosophy of Emerson. He was Em erson's interpreter and expounder to the people. Counting Channlng the no blest representative of the Unitarian gospel of humane living to the end of holy dying, the list of able preachers and teachers of Unitarianlsm that have succeedea him have Included James Freeman Clarke, Cyrus A. Bartol, Ed ward E. Hale, Robert Collyer, and on the Pacific Coast Thomas Starr King and Horatio Stebblns. The glory of American Unitarianlsm today is that while it has outgrown the evangelical faith of Dr. Channlng, It still stands for the liberating spirit of his gospel of religious freedom and tol erance. It recognizes the Immanence of God and the direct influence of his spirit. Its purpose is to help man Into sympathy with God, the beginning and the end of the soul's life, and marks In its latitude and freedom the limit of Christian dissent from ecclesiastical authority. It believes that The hour Is coming when men's holy church Shall melt away In ever-widening walls. And bo for all .mankind; and in its place A mightier church shall come, whose covenant Shall be the deeds of love. UnitariaiKsm today Is a blend of the humane gospel of Channlng and the ethical philosophy of Emerson. Chan nlng's well of feeling was his deep, un fathomable, humane heart, which kept bubbling out of his lips all his days, like the ceaseless flow of the great gey sers of the Yellowstone. Channlng was an acute and logical thinker, an ex quisite writer; but the genius of the man resided in his absolute sincerity, his moral enthusiasm, his sincere love, sympathy, charity and compassion for his fellow-men, without any distinction of color, race, creed, sect or condition of life. His preaching, in its fine color of enthusiasm, its utter elimination of all pulpit sensationalism, or clerical quackery. Its sweet, humane and ten der eloquence, was of Immense benefit to his day and generation. Then came Emerson, the greatest lay preacher in America, measured by the large and tolerant nobility of his discourse; the speech of a man whose pure and beau tiful youth always survived, a cheerful, genial optimist in his philosophy of men and things, whose eloquence did not He so much In the manner as In the poetic prose of his discourse. Because of Channlng and of Emerson, Unitari anlsm came to stand for a nobler faith than that of the great New England oracle of the dismal science of the ology, Jonathan Edwards. Twenty-two entries for one harness race at the State Fair meeting looks like a revival of Interest in the busi ness of breeding light harness horses. Oregon in the past has turned out some of the fastest and finest horses on earth; in fact, has earned a reputation in that line that Is as broad as the continent. "We still have the matchless climate, water and feed, which act as an elixir of life to any kind of an anl- mal, and as for blood, there never was & time in the history of the state when there were so many promising standard-bred horses as there are now. The manner In which entries poured In when the State Fair offered a thousand-dollar purse for the pacers showed that there were plenty of good horses in the state, and also that big purses would bring them out. "With big fields of contestants and large purses to strive for, the attendance at race meetings is always heavy. Portland should take the lead in the encourage ment of this industry, which has added so much to the wealth of the state, and a good meeting to precede or follow that at the State Fair, If handled by honest, responsible men, would prove a direct paying venture, and Indirectly would be still more profitable through the Interest It would awaken in a neg lected Industry for which Oregon is ex ceptionally well fitted. The advocates of the shipping sub sidy bill will no doubt make the most of the "object-lesson" given to some of the members of Congress by Representa tive "Wachter. This gentleman took a few of the Congressmen around Balti more harbor, and they 'were touched by the fact that nothing but British and German steamships were In sight, According to press dispatches, Mr. "Wachter asked them If It was not about time to do something to restore the American flag to the seas. This is de cidedly superficial argument, or rather is not 'argument at all. Each of these ships will carry on a single trip the products of a hundred farms. The question is. Shall the hundred farmers be taxed for the benefit of the one ship owner, or shall he have the benefits of the world's competition in sending his products to market by the cheapest possible method? "We do not hire the farmer to do business; why should we hire the shipowner? As a pact of our representative ex tracts of English literature, we print this 'morning a portion of Mr. Henry Drummond's celebrated essay, "The Greatest Thing In the "World," a piece of writing which has enjoyed a wider vogue than any other modern work of evangelical Christianity. Professor Drummond's religious and scientific discussions have not only moved the masses, but interested great critics like Matthew Arnold, who admired boto his spirit and his sincerity. No apostle of the Protestant Church has reached so large a number of readers as has Mr. Drummond. The extract given affords a faithful key to his conception of the religious life and his theory of practi cal Christianity. The reluctance of bicyclists to pay the tax levied by special law for path building cannot mean that the interest in bicycle riding Is on the wane, since apparently more persons use the wheel now than ever before. There is no specific complaint in regard to the manner in which the tax collected last year was expended, hence the failure to pay the tax must be accredltpfl tn the dllatorlness which is characteristic of American citizens in matters which must be attended to within a pre scribed limit. It is believed that there is no general intention to evade pay ment of this tax, and that in due course of time a majority of cyclists will pay up. A bill to appoint 'General "William B. Franklin, lately Colonel of the Twelfth Infantry, and a distinguished Major General of Volunteers during the Civil "Wa?, a Colonel on the retired list has been Introduced by Representative Henry, of Connecticut, of which state General Franklin is now a resident. General Franklin was graduated at the head of his class at "West Point in 1843. Among his classmates was Grant, who ranked 21 in a clas& of 39 members. General Franklin Is about 7S years of age. He commanded th Ri-rth rn of the Army of the Potomac, from May, 1862, until January. 1863. The passage of the so-called "Grand Army" pension bill will not encourage the hopes of those who look forward to a reduction of the pension payments. Among other provisions this bill di rects the Pension Commissioner that he shall not refuse pensions to widows having an income not exceeding $250 a year. The limit had previously been fixed by the Pension Office at $900 a year, and a considerable Increase in the roll will at once take place. John James Ingalls Isn't reporting prizefights just now. He is devoting "his time and such literary ability as he possesses to. the "good fellow" girl of the period, whom he declares in dulges in too much racetrack, midnight revelries, high kicking, skirt dancing and "coon songs." There is no doubt that John James Is still in the ring, ready to do and to dare according to his "lights." Either Agulnaldo has not kept the close watch upon the doings of Con gress and the President, or else he is keeping up, in his recent "proclama" the policy of deception of the ignorant masses that has been followed from the very beginning of tho insurrection. He will find the commission, sent out to establish civil government in the Philippines, sufficiently "official" for the purpose. The Ohio and Indiana politicians, who are responsible for the appointment of Neely, are political lieutenants of Hanna. Perry Heath was Hanna's man In 1896, and was rewarded with the office of Assistant Postmaster-General. Heath made Neely part of the Cuban postal" service. Rathbone, who Installed Neely In his position as finan cier, is another pet of Hanna. Not every craft that sails for Nome will reach the goal. One already lies on the sands of Point "Wilson, and oth ers will be lucky If the water Is as shallow when they come to disaster. The Board of Marine Underwriters of San Francisco takes the right position when It refuses to Insure craft not passing a thorough and satisfactory Inspection. The defense of Mafeklng was a more wonderful achievement than that of Ladysmlth or Kimberley, not so much because longer maintained as because of the greater strain upon the small number of defenders. England has good excuse for being a trifle hysterical over the relief. Seattle's heavy bank clearings last week show the effects of the Cape Nome trade. ANTE-ELECTION FACTS AND FANCIES Two years ago, when Major Kennedy was running against Dan Moore for Clerk of the Circuit Court, he found that a large number of gentlemen whom he had never seen before were so deeply so licitous for his success that they would folow him around town and offer hlin job lo'ts of votes at bargain prices Had be availed himself of a3 these reason able offers he would have received more votes than there were in the whole state, for the aggregate amount that were placed at his disposal at ruinous prices far exceeded the entire vote cast In the elect'on. One night when. In company with several other candidates, he was on his way from a meeting, he met Moore, and Ralph Hoyt, who was running as an Mitchell candidate fot County Treas urer. The candidates stopped, shook hands warmly, and each went his way. A lltt'e farther down, the street Major Kennedy was stopped by one of the self sacrificing vote brokers. 'Tm workln fur you, Maje," said he. "I've got 100 votes In the North End, and they'll all go your way, provldin I kin git about $25 to keep the boys beered up proper. Do I git It?" "I suppose you are supporting the whole ticket?" Inquired the major. "No, sir," said the broker impressively. "I ain't. Tm workln' fur my friends this time, and there's just three of 'em what 'II git the support of my voters, and them's you an' Ralph Hoyt and Dan Moore." He didn't get the twenty-five. There is clouds o dlrty-lcokln smoke a-floatln round the town, A-purln' In at windows an' a-driftln up an down; Our lungs Is all chuck fuU of It, an' all our throats Is son). An If It gets much thicker, why, we cannot breath no more. It smells somn like & garbage plant, an' some like burnln' tar, An all of it la rollln" from the candidate's cigar. This weed alnt' made in Cuba, where tho best tobacco grows. Nor in Mexico, Manila, nor in any place like those; It don't come from ole Ylrglnny, where the cot ton blossoms fall. Fur there Isn't no tobacco used ,in makln it at all. It's composed of scraps of rubbage gathered up from near an' far. An It costs a cent a thousand, does the candi date's cigar. Just what good the dlstribootlon of such air pollutin' things To the candidate that' hands them to the sufTrln voter brings. Is a question we can't answer, for a man. who'd smoke one up Could partake o gall an' wormwood, an re quest another cup. But the fact remains you find 'em, ain't no matter where you are. An you might as well git used to ihls here candidate's cigar. Once upon a Time there was a Legis lative Ticket, composed of three Repub licans that had received the Marble Heart, as a Gift from their Party, and one Democrat, who had got Into the Habit of running for Office, and who forgot to swear off New Year's day. They started out to run for office together, but soon the Democrat saw the alleged Republicans were working a scheme to throw him Down, and he registered a Kick. "What arc. you Kicking for?" asked the Others. "You never had a Chance any way. What is the good of the Democratic Party In Oregon if it can't be Used to Elect Renegade Republicans?" And they Kept on Knocking him. Moral Renegades are a hard crowd. The gentleman who has a hundred votes under his thumb is around this year, and he is making life a burden for the inde pendent candidates. In the wake of some of the unattached aspirants for office there is a train of him like the tail of a comet. He Is so Impressive, so earnest, and so convincing that he usually succeeds in mulcting the Independent, who, having no party behind him, doesn't want to nmke any more enemies than is absolute ly necessary. The North End is now full of gents of this stripe. They pass their days In the heavy slumbers that custom arily follow nights of cheerful convivi ality, and their nights they spend before bars, drinking up the money of the can didates, as if the Standard Oil Company was the smallest thing they owned. If they have votes under their thumb, they always keep them there, because the votes are never cast on election day. In fact, the gentlemen do not appear on election day at all. There is no reason why they should. They are not voters. The repose of manner and dignity of bearing which distinguish Judge Thomas O'Day when he is not cutting the cord that binds the eagle down on the rostrum have not deserted him, even in this hour of sore need. Indeed, he is working the repose business overtime to the disgust of the fusion nominees, whom he caused to be nominated. Judge Thomas Is not fond of work in a campaign. He will go out on the stump now and then, and refer to this glorious country of ours, the op pressors wrong, the law's delay, the pangs of disprized love, and the insolence of office, in measured words and slow, but the is constitutional.? opposed to that necessary branch of political endeavor known as hustling. He got the fusion ticket nominated, he reasons, he bluffed their acceptance through the Democratic convention, now let them get out and rustle for themselves. He washes his hands of them. The Prohibitionists, defying all the tra ditions that have been theirs since they began to make war on the inalienable right of the American citizen to become intoxicated, have nominated a full ticket. There is nothing half way about It, either. It Is gloriously, completely full. If this ticket does not triumph at the polls and there are reasons to believe that at least some of the nominees may come perilously near defeat it may be taken as a stern rebuke. The Prohibltionsists ought not to put up a full ticket another time. Do they think Mayor Storey isn't able to con duct that kind of a campaign? The kinetoscoplc rapidity with which new candidates have been arising on the political horizon for the past few month Is at an end. Nominations for city offices wore closed yesterday, and any village -Hampdens who, with dauntless breasts, the little tyrants of their fields are de sirous of withstanding, will have to wait two more years to do it, for they can't break into a place on the Australian bal lot. There were only 49 candidates for the 16 city offices, an average of a little more than three to an office. This will limit the inevitable disappointment to two candi dates to every ticket, and each two can divide It up between them, so it will really not bo so very hard to bear. MASTERPIECES OF UTERATURE-XIY Basis of Christianity Not Faith, but Love Henry Drummond. t t Every one has asked himself the great question of antiquity as of the modern world: What is the summum bonum tho supreme good? You have Mfe before you. Once only you can live It. "What is the noblest object of desire, the supreme gift to covet? 0 We have been accustomed to be told tlvit the greatest thing In the religious world is faith. That great word has been the keynote for centuries of the popular re ligion; and we have easily learned to look, upon it as the greatest thing in the world. "Well, we are wrong. If we have been . told that, wo may miss the mark. I have taken you, In the chapter which I hava just lead, to Christianity at its source, ' and there we have seen, "The greatest ot these Is love." "Whether there be prophecies, they shall fall." It was the mother's ambition for her boy in those days that he should be come a prophet. For hundreds ot years God had never spoken by means of any prophet, and at that time the prophet was greater than the king. Men waited wistfully for another messenger to come, and hung upon his lips when he apppeatcd as upon the very voice of God. Paul says, "Whether there be prophecies, they ehall fail." This book Is full of prophecies. One by one they have "failed"; that Is, having been fulfilled, their work is fin ished; they have nothing more to do now In the world except to feed a devout man's faith. Then Paul talks about tongues. That was another thing that was greatly cov eted. "Whether there be tongues, they shall cease." Consider the words In which these chapters were written Greek. It has gone. Take the Latin the other great tongue of those days. It ceased long ago. Look at the Indian language. It is ceas ing. The language of "Wales, of Ireland, of the Scottish Highlands, Is dying before our eyes. The most popular book In tho English tongue at the present time, except the Bible, Is one of Dickens' works, his "Pickwick papers." It is largely written in tho language of London street-life; and experts assure us that In 50 years It will be unintelligible to the average English read er. Then Paul go'es farther, and with even greater boldness adds: "Whether there be knowledge. It shall vanish away." The wi3dom ot the ancients where is It? It Is wholly gone. A schoolboy today knows more than Sir Isaac Newton knew. His knowledge has vanished awayv You put yesterday's newspaper in tho fire. Its knowledge has vanished away. You buy the old editions "of the great encyclopedias for a few pence. Their knowledge has vanished away. ,Look how the coach has been superseded by the use of steam. Look how electricity has superseded that, and swept a hundred almost new Inventions Into oblivion. One of the greatest liv ing authorities. Sir "William Thompson, said the other day, "The steam engine la passing away." "Whether there b2 knowledge, it ehall vanish away." Can you tell me anything that is going to last? Many things Paul did not conde scend to name. He did not mention money, fortune, fame, but he picked out the great things of his time, the things the best men thought had something in them, and brushed them peremptorily aside. Paul had no charge against these things in themselves. All he said about them was that they would not last. They were great things, but not supreme things. There were things beyond them. There is a great deal in the world, that Is delightful and beautiful; there is a great deal In it that is great and engrossing; but it will not last. All that Is in the world, the lust of the eye, the lust of the flesh, and the pride of life, are but for a little while. Love not the world therefore. Nothing that It contains Is worth the life and con secration of an Immortal soul. The im mortal soul must give itself to something that is Immortal. And the only immortal things are these: "Now abldeth faith, hope, love, but the greatest of these Is love." Some think the time may come when two of these three things will also pass away faith Into sight, hope into fruition. Paul does not say so. "We know but lit tle now about the conditions of the life that Is to come. But what is certain is tihat Love must last. God, the Eternal God, Is Love. Covet therefore that ever lasting gift, that one thing which it is certain Is going to stand, that one coin age which will be current in the Universe . when all the other coinages of all the na tions of the world shall be useless and unhonored. You will find as you look back upon your life that the moments that stand out, the moments when you have really lived, are the moments when you have done things in a spirit of love. As mem ory scans the past, above and beyond all the transitory pleasures or life, there leap forward those supreme hours when you have been enabled to do unnoticed kind nesses to those around about you, things too trifling to speak about, but which you feel have entered into your eternal life. I have seen almost all the beau,tIul things God has made; I have enjoyed " almost every pleasure that he has planned for man; and yet as I look back I see stand ing out, above all the life that has gone, four or five short experiences when the love of God reflected itself In some poor imitation, some small act of love of mine, and these seem to be the things which, alone of all one's life abide. Everything else in all our lives is transitory. Every other good act Is visionary. But the acts of love whichv no man knows about, or can ever know about they never fall. In the Book ot Matthew, where the Judgment Day Is depicted for us in the Imagery of One seated upon a throne and dividing the sheep from the goats, the -test of a man then is not, "How have I believed?" but "How have I loved?" The test of religion, the final test of religion, is not religiousness, but Love. I say the final test of religion at that great Day Is not religiousness, but Love; not what I have done, not what I have believed, not what I have achieved, but how I have discharged the common charities of life. Sins of commission In that awful indict ment are not even Teferred to. By what we have not done, by sins of omission, we are judged. It Is the Son of Man before whom tho nations of the world shall be gathered. It Is In the presence of Humanity that we shall be charged. And the spectacle it self, the mere sight of It, will silently judge each one. Those will be there whom we have met and helped; or there the unpltied multitude whom we neglected or despised. No dther witness need be sum moned. No other charge than loveless ness shall be preferred. Be not deceived. Tho words which all of, us shall one day hear sound not of theology but of life, not of churches and saints but of the hungry and the poor, not of creeds and doctrines but of shelter and clothing, not of Bibles and prayer-books, but of cups of cold water In the name of Christ. Thank God the Christianity ot today Is coming nearer the world's need. Live to help that on. Thank God men know bet ter, by a hair's breadth, what religion Is, what God is. who Christ Is, where Christ Is. "Who is Christ? He who fed the hungry, clothed the naked, visited the sick. And where is Christ? "Where? whoso shall receive a little child in My name recelveth Me. And who are Christ's? Every one that loveth la bora of God.