The Sunday Oregonian. (Portland, Ore.) 1881-current, May 20, 1900, Page 10, Image 10

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THE SUNDAY OBEGONIAN, PORTLAND, MAY 20, 1900.
GREAT INDIAN OUTBREAK
GEN. STEVENS' STORY OF THE TJF
'RISING OP 1855.
Hestlles Sabdaed by the Volantecr
GoTeraor Steves.' Effort to
Protect the Settlers.
General Hazzard Stevens' biography or
"his father, General Isaac Ingalls Stevens,
the first Governor of Washington Terri
tory, devotes much space to a history of
the great Indian outbreak of 1855. The
uprising was widespread and many com
munities in Oregon and Washington, east
and -west of the Cascade were threat
ened. After several sharp conflicts the
hostiles were reduced to subjection.
Governor Stevens concluded the treaty
of peace with the Blackfeet and other
tribes October 20, 1856, and four das
later he and hl9 party started homeward
from Fort Benton. On the 29th a mes
senger who had ridden post haste from
The Dalles reached camp with the news
that the great tribes of the upper Colum
bia country, the Cayuses, Yaklmas. Walla
Wallas, Umatllas, Palouces and all the
Oregon bands down to The Dallep, the
very ones who had signed the treatks at
the Walla Walla council and professed
friendship, had all broken out In opsn
war. They had swept the upper country
clean of whites, killing all the settlers and
miners found there, and murdered Age.it
Bolon under circumstances of pecu.Iar
atrocity. Major Haller, ent into the
Yakima country with 100 regulars and a
howitzer, had been defeated and forced
to retreat by Kam-1-ah-kan's warriors,
with the loos of a third of his force and
his cannon. The Indlanp west of the Cas
cades had also risen simultaneous, and
laid waste the settlements on Puget
Sound and in Oregon, showing that a
widespread conspiracy prevailed. The
Spokanes and Coeur d'Alenes were hos
tile, or soon would become hostile un
der the spur and taunts of the joung Cay
use and Yakima warriors sent among
them to stir them up, and even some of
the Nez Perces were disaffected. One
thousand well-armed and brave hostile
warriors under Kami-1-ah-kan, Pu-pu-mox-mox.
Young Ch'.ef and Five Crows
were gathered in the Walla Walla Valley,
waiting to wipe out the Stevens party
on their return; squads of young braves
were visiting the Nez Perces. Spokanes
and Coeur d'Alenes, vaunting their vic
tories, displaying fresh gory scalps, and
using every effort to cajole or force them
Into hostility to the whites.
Defeat of Major Haller.
A brief review of the outbreak and
course of the war will make clearer the
situation at this Juncture. Scarcelj was
the ink dry upon his signature to the
Walla Walla treaty, when Kam-I-ah-kan,
the leading and most potent spirit, and his
Yaklmas, were hard at work inciting an
outbreak against the whites. They, wl h
the Cayuse and Walla Walla ch.efs as
sembled the disaffected Ind ars, and
many of the others, at a council north
of Snake River in the Summer, and
made every effort to gain over the Spo
kanes, Coeur d'Alenes and even some of
the Nez Perces, who had intermarried
with the Cayuses, and not without suc
cess among the young braves. Their
emissaries stirred up the tribes on the
eastern shore of the Sound, too. the Nls
quallles, Pujallups and Duwhamlsh, who
had Intermarried to some extent with the
Yaklm&f, and penetrated even to Gray's
Harbor and Shoalwater Bay on the coast,
and to Southern Oregon. Every false
hood that Indian ingenuity could Invent,
or credulity swallow, was employed to ilre
tho Indian heart. The conspiracy was In
full train, but not yet ripe, when the out
break -was prematurel begun by the mur
der of the miners in the Yakima "Valley
in September, by Kam-1-ah-kan's war
riors, who could no longer "be held back;
and when Agent Bolon visited the tribe to
Investigate the matter, he was treacher
ously shot in the back, seized and h-s
throat cut. and with his horse burned to
ashes, September 23. Quaichcn, the son
of Ou-hl, and nephew of Kam-1-ah-kan,
was the chief actor of this tragedy. Major
Haller marched with 100 men from Tnc
Dalles Into the Yakima Valley to de
mand the surrender of or to punish the
murderers; and Lieutenant W. A. Slaugh
ter, with a small force of 40 men. moved
from Stellacoom across the Nahchess
Pass to the Yakima to co-operate with
Haller. But the Yaklmas attacked the
latter October 6, and compelled him to re
treat with the loss of 22 killed and
wounded, his howitzer and baggage. Pu-pu-mox-mox
then seized and plundered
old Fort Walla Walla, which had no gar
rison, and distributed the goods found
there, including a considerable supply of
Indian goods, among his followers, who
danced the war dance in front of his lodge
around a fresh white scalps. These In
dians, with the Cayuses and Umatlllas,
then drove the settlers out of the Walla
Walla Valley, destroyed their houses and
Improvements, and killed or ran off the
stock. Lieutenant Slaughter, after cross
ing the summit of the Cascades, being un
able to learn anything of Haller, hastily
but wisely fell back to the Western tide.
Here Captain M. Maloney Joined him with
70 regulars and a company of volunteers,
under Captain Gllmore Hays, and again
advanced across the mountains, but n
turn retreated, fearing to leave the settle
ments on Puget Sound wholly unpro
tected; but his messengers were waylaid
and" slain by the Sound Indians, and the
settlers on White or Duwhamlsh River,
near Seattle, were massacred with un
speakable atrocity, the bodies of the
women and children being thrown Into
the v. ells. These settlers had taken refuge
In Seattle, but were Induced to go back to
their farms by the friendly professions
and assurances of the very savages who
fell upon and butchered them the night
after their return. And settlers on the
Nlsqually and at other points met a sim
ilar fate.
fVbole Country Threatened.
Governor Stevens' decision was Instant
and unwavering It was to force his
way back to Washington Territory by the
direct route, through all opposition and
obstacles. He fully appreciated the perils
and difficulties of the attempt, but his
determination was unalterably fixed stern
ly to confront them all, and by a bold de
cided course and rapid movements to
force a passago through the hostile coun
try and hostile savages. Aften an in
credibly hard mid-Winter, forced march,
he reached Olympla January 19. 1S56, to
find the whole country utterly prostrated,
overwhelmed. The settlers In dismay had
abandoned their farms and fled for refuge
to the few amall villages. They were all
poor, having no reserves of money, food
or supplies, and starvation stared them
In the face if prevented from planting and
raising a crop. The only military post on
Puget Sound. Fort Stellacoom, could mus
ter less than 100 soldiers, and was so far
v from protecting the settlers that It had
v -called for and received tho reinforcement
of a company of volunteers for Its own
protection. The post at Vancouver was
also but a handful In strength, and had
also been reinforced by two companies of
volunteers. But even this pitiful force
was not to be used against the savage
enemy; for Wool had just gone back to.
San Francisco after a flying visit to the
Columbia River, during which he had
disbanded the volunteer companies, re
fused to take any active measures to pro
tect the people, and loudly proclaimed
both in official reports and through the
press, that the war had been forced upon
the Indians by the greed and brutality of
the whites, and that the former would
be peaceful if only let alone and not
treated with Injustice. There was a de
ficiency of arms and still more of am
munition. In the country.
At the beginning of the year 1SCG, the
Indians of the upper country held the
whole region, except the point occupied in
tho Walla Walla Valley by the Oregon
volunteers.; the Yaklmas were more hos
tile .active and triumphant than ever;
the Cayuses, Walla Wallas, and Umatlllas
were made more embittered and defiant by
the punishment they had. received, and
all were free to instigate more hostility
among the other tribes, which they were
Industriously doing. The regulars were
on the defensive by General Wool's or
ders, while the volunteers in the Valley
were unable to take the aggressive for
lack of supplies.
West of the Cascades, the Indians in
fested and held the whole country, ex
cept a few points. The whites were vir
tually In a state of siege, not knowing
where to find succor, or even food, com
pletely discouraged and dismayed. The
great majority of Indians on the Sound
had not yet taken to the warpath, al
though much disaffected. Even among the
most hostile, the Nlsquallles. Puyallups
and Duwhamlsh, it is doubtful If a ma
jority of any tribe took active part in the
outbreak; but the war faction comprised
tho chiefs and the vigorous young war
rlorj, and they were constantly stimu
lated and encouraged, and at times large
ly reinforced by their Yakima kinsmen.
The nostile warriors on the Sound prob
ably varied In numbers from 250 to 500,
but the swamps and forests, with their
knowledge of the country, gave them
fveP'vadvantare- The S1 danger was
that the other Indians, already disaffect
ed, and many of whose restless young
braves were aiding the hostiles to an ex
tent which cannot be certainly determined
.T?Uld, openIy JoIl In the outbreak, and
tins danger was aggravated by every
day s delay on the part of the whites In
at tacking and striking the enemy. A de
fensive policy was sure to throw the whole
Indian population into the arms of the
sZl!'- A1 addlunat and imminent
danger was found in the Northern In
dinrj gangs of whom were prowling
andUutnhd6e,SUnd' m '
Volanteeri Called Oat. i
Immediately upon his arrival at Olympla.
Governor Stevens called upon the people
by proclamation to raise 1X volunteers
tor six months for offensive operations
against the enemy, and took other steps
wiShf 5,the "uPPresslon of the uprising.
Within three weeks 11 comranles were
rac-ed and equipped, besides two bodies of
Indian auxiliaries. The force thus speed
tnii !. 7" orSanIzed Into three bat
taLons designated as the Northern, South
ern and Central, and the two latter were
SSk?? f0rmed lnto a s,nS,e com
mand by the election of F. B. Shaw as
LientenanM"olonel.
,.e fnUts .f emor Stevens' thor
ough preparations were now manifested
S. SCUnS bL3-fl and un"rlng. unspar-'
ng warfare. The Indians were allowed
no respite from attack and could find -o
th5cketsCVCn ln thC denseat amps and
f. Tch 3?' MaJor Ha's- with 110 men
of his Central Battalion, fought the prin-
SSounJ deCl,Ve batt,e of th on
StS? und' knonn as lhe battle of Connell's
X . tns -?rou&ht on by the Indians
who. emboldened by their previous suc
cesses, tought for rive hours with a con
? ""ornncss that enabled tho
volunteers to inflict severe losses upon
ItVt The' were Anally routed by a
charge on their left flank by Captains
Swindal and Rabbizon. and a stauiSS
and AV laBat by CaPlalns HeSSSs
nH ". 'lth a l0BS o 25 or 30 killed
and many wounded. They oven abandoned
their wardrum In their fl ght Major Hays
who handled hie command with skill and
judgment rn well as courage, reported
that tfacy numbered at least a warriors.
It afterwards appeared that their num-
,fJV7!rt:Jnuch iarer and that they were
aided In tho fight by 100 Yakima warriors.
At the Cascades.
On March 26, Just as the campaign was
well under way, the Yaklmas and KlJcki
tato swooped down upon the Cascades
portage on the Columbia, which was left
lnsufhclcmly guarded by Colonel Wright,
with a fore; of only n ne regular soldiers
In a blockhouse, and massacred 19 set
tlers and killed one soldier and wounded
two others. Colonel Wright, who was at
the Dalle preparing on expedition lor
the Yakima country. Immediately proceed,
ed to the Cascades with a strong force
of regular troops, and the Indians disap
peared. Satlsned that the friendly In
dians In that vicinity were Implicated In
tho attack, he caused 10 of them. In
cluding the chief, to be summarily tried
by military commission and hanged. Thl
affair at the Cascades is also of interest
as belrg General P. H. Sheridan's debut
in tho art of war. The massacre at the
Cascades excited new alarm among lhe
oettlers about Vancouver and along the
Columbia. To reassure them and keep
them from abandoning their farms, the
Governor called out another company of
volunteers under Captain- William Kelly,
known as the Clark County Rangera,
caused several nev blockhouses to be
built, and had the rangers constantly
patrol the eettlements.
For two months after the fight of Con
nell's Prairie. Governor Stevens kept hie
whole force thus incessantly searching the
forests and hunting down the hostiles
with unrelenting v'gor. The Indiana,
thrown completely on the defensive, did
not commit another depredation after the
Cascades disaster on all that long line or
exposed and ecattered settlements. They
were driven and chased from resort to
resort; their meet hidden camps and
caches of provisions were discovered and
destroyed: many were killed or captured:
and by the middle of May over 500 came
In and gave themselves up. while the
guilty chiefs and warriors fled across the
Cascades and sought refuge among the
Yakima kindred. Thus the war west of
the Cascades wai ended by the complete
surrender or flight of the -hostiles.
Cant of the Cancades.
While the war west of the Cascades
was vigorously and successfully prose
cuted, operations east of the mountains
were marked by lack of vigor and pur
pose. It was not until May that Colonel
Wright marched from The Dalles Into
the'Yakima country with five companies
of regulars. Governor Stevens was con
linccd that the war could be brought to
a close only by subduing the hostile tribes
of the upper country: that until this was
done the Sound country was liable to
their raids and the stirring up of fresh
outbreaks among the Sound Indians: and
that every day's delay In striking them
was helping Kam-1-ah-kan and h emis
saries in winning over the Spokanes.
Coeur d'Alene and disaffected Nez Perces
to their side.
Learning that hostiles were In the Grand
Ronde Valley In force, Lieutenant-Colonel
Shaw determined to strike them. Mov
ing by night by an unused trail across
the Blue Mountains, he encountered the
enemy July 17. ln an open valley. Al
though taken by surprise, they received
him In a defiant attitude: large numbers
of braves, mounted and armed, and with a
white scalp borne on a pole among them,
confronted him, while the squaws were
fleeing across the valley to seek refuge,
and, on Captain John's approaching them
to parley, cried out to shoot him. Upon
this, throwing off his hnt, and with a
shout, the tall, rawboned leader of the
volunteers Instantly charged at the head
of his men, his long, red hair and beard
streaming ln the wind, broke and scat
tered the Indians, chased them 15 miles
clear across the valley, killed 40, and cap
tured a hundred pounds of ammunition,
all their provisions, and over 200 horses
and mules.
Governor Stevens Attacked.
A fruitless peace council was held with
held with .the Indians in Walla Walla
the Indians in Walla Walla Valley
ln September, 1S5G, concluding on
started for The Dalles. Early m the
afternoon he was fiercely attacked by
Indians. The flght continued until late In
the night. Two charges were made to
disperse the hostiles, the last led by
Lieutenant-Colonel Shaw in person with
24 men. While he drove before him 150
hostiles, an equal number pushed onto
his rear, and he was compelled to cut his
way through them towards camp, when,
drawing up his men, and aided by the
teamsters and pickets, who gallantly
sprang forward, he drove the Indians
I back tn UU charge upon the corraL In
the action Governor Stevens fore coo
elated of GofTs company of 86 men, the
teamsters, herders and Indian employes,
numbering about SO men, end 60 Nes
Perces. They fought 50 Indians, and
had four men wounded, one mortally.
They killed and wounded 18 Indians. On
the 26d Governor Stevens resumed his
Journer to The- Dallesv and arrived there
without incident, October 2.
The soundness of Governor Stevens'
views and the accuracy of hia foresight
were abundantly vindicated within two
years; During 18S7 the settlers were ex
cluded, tho regulars lay Inactive la their
posts, and the quasl-peace continued. But
in 1S6& the Yaklmas waxed too insolent
and predatory for even Wright's patience.
He sent Major Garnett through their
country with a. large force, who summarily
seized and hanged a number of the chiefs
and warriors, shot 700 of thejr ponies, and
these severe acts humbled the haughty
savages and reduced them to good be
havior at last.
Steptoe Pat to Flight.
Colonel Wright also ordered Steptoe,
with 300 dragoons, to advance from Walla
Walla across Snake River toward Spo
kane. The Spokanes had warned the
troops not to Invade their country, alleg-
lng that they were neutral, and would per-
mit neither the xaklma braves nor the
white soldiers to enter their limits. DIs-1
regarding their warning. Steptoe marched
0 miles north of the Snake, when he was
assailed by the whole force of the Spo
kanes and Coeur d'Alenes; badly defeated
and driven in precipitate retreat the whole
distance back to Snake River, hotly pur-
RUXXIXG SHINGLE: BOLTS DOWJf TO
sued by the victorious Indians, and his
force was only saved from massacre by
the friendly Nez Perces, who ferried the
fugitive troops over the river In their ca
noes and boldly Interposed between them
and the pursuing savages.
As soon as he could organize a power
ful foice Colonel Wright In September,
two months later, marched to the Spokane
In person, encountered and defeated the
Indians near the ocene of Steptoe's de
feat, and reduced them to submission,
hanging a number of them and killing
many of their horses. On his return to
Walla Walla he seized and executed In like
maimer several of the more turbulent
Cayuse and Walla Walla warriors.
The Yakima chief, Ow-hl, most active
next to Kam-i-ah-kan In bringing on tho
war and inciting the other tribes to hos
tility, and running and treacherous In hla
diplomacy, boldly entered Wright's camp
on the Spokane soon after the flght. and
was forthwith arrested and held a pr'soner
by that commander. The next day Ow
hl's son, Cualchen the murderer of
Agent Bolon rode Into camp, putting on
a bold face and fully expecting to be
treated with the consideration formerly
shown the Yakima chiefs. Far different
was his fate. Wright sternly ordered
him to Immediate execution, and the
wretched brave was forthwith hanged by
the guard, despite his frantic pleadings
and protestations. His father, the chief
Ow-hl. was killed a few days later while
attempting to escape.
Cost of the War.
When the accounts of the war were
finally adjusted, the scrip Issued amount
ed to 5MS1.475 -15. of which fSoLS82 39 was
for equipments and supplies, and $519,
693 OG for pay of the troops. The aggre
gate number of volunteers was 1K)G.
About 1000 men were in ssrvlce at one
time.
SONG.
Tone: "The Son of a Gambcller."
I.
Oh! I wish I had tho power to tell
The glories of Uncle Sam.
Of all the things he's done so well
To right the wrongs of man.
He has taught that men are brothers;
He has shown to man his wdrth.
And we are proud to feel that others
Bless the land that gave us olrth.
Chorus
Wc are growing, growing, growing, growing
bigger every day.
And men are getting bettet as your Uncle has
bin say.
There arc no serfs and vassals where the Eagle
rests & day.
And bonds of tyranny are shattered when
pierced by Freedom's ray.
IL
Oh! They say thirteen' unlucky.
And I guess that that is so
For the original ontl-axpanslonlsts,
"Who did not wish to grow.
They had a good thing, and knew It.
And they wanted to bog it all;
If we share our freedom we'll rue It;
But they had to come off, that's all.
HL
Oh! Jefferson was a Democrat.
And Andy Jackson, too;
And when they fondled the "White House cat
See how the country grew.
Oh! where would we be today, bora.
Had the antls had their way?
Freedom had died ln the thirteen states
Along the Atlantic bay.
XV.
Oh! Grant went north and bought Alaska
Without the Eskimos' consent.
The antls raged and prophesied
The Constitution's gone hell-bent.
And what dtd Admiral Dswey do?
He sunk the Spanish fleet.
And then said, "Now, Mack It's up to you,"
And Mock got there with both feet.
V.
Oh! we had to take the Philippines,
There was nothing tlse to do.
There lay the path of duty, boys,
And our country's glory, too.
Wo will never back out under fire.
Expansion's come to stay.
For the Filipinos, when good enough.
Wony. be willing to break away.
VL
Oh! Jut look at the map today, boys.
And size up our country s growth;
See Freedom's wings extended, boys,
Protecting and saving, both.
God knows the Eagle's big and strong
To cover all mankind.
He don't hesitate to right a wrong.
And your TJncIe Isn't blind.
ManlU, April, 10Q, -Yerttw Ylnclt.
PORTLAND GIRL IN BERLIN
CUSTOMS OF GERMAX COXCEilT
HALLS AXD PATRONS.
Army Officers Looking: for Girls With
Large Dorreriea o Divorces and
So Klopementa There.
BERLIN, Germany, April 3. The con
cert .season In Berlin is almost at an end.
We have had all the great artists-Joachim.
Ysaye. Carrend, D' Albert, Sauer,
Busoni. Melba and heaps of others, all In
succession, and the various concert halls,
the Phllharmony, Beethoven, Saal, Slng
Akademie, Bechsteln Saal, besides the
many minor others, were well filled every
night ln the week. Sunday Included; in
I fact, it is safer to secure seats for any
j thing to be given on a Sunday a week or
more ln advance, as almost every place of
amusement, operas, theaters, concert hal.s,
etc- generally "auserxaured (sold
w IO inia lavunie msni at tunusemeui
for the German music-loving public Grand
opera is given here every night in the
week at the Royal Opera-House, and we
students are regular attendants, and can
always be seen fourth rang, getting as
much enjoyment, probably more, than
those sitting parquet, first, second or
THE MILL A FAMILIAR SCENE IN
third rang. Rang means gallery. It Is
more informal high up. and no great
toilettes are demanded of us. And now to
secure these seats In the fourth rang.
"Aye, there's the rub."
Each Sunday there is an announcement
In the morning papers of operas for the
coming week, and we students must be at
the Opera-Houso not later than 7 A. M.
on this particular Sunday, and there stand
In line till 9 o'clock, when the big doors
of the opera-house are thrown opsn. First
come, first served; the first Ito faring bet
ter, naturally, ln choice of .seats than those
on the tail end. There's no; much fun
standing here for hours on piercing cold
mornings In winter, for one gets an Idea of
what It feels like -to get frozen. To an
observing outsider these lines are Inter
esting. One hears all languages spoken,
sees a small world ln itself in this long
string of pairs. The prices of scats in the
opera-toouse aro: Parquet, 6 marks; first
rang, $ marks; second, five marks; third,
3 marks; fourth, 2 marks, and steh-platz
(standing place), L- mark. One mark Is
equal to a quarter of a dollar. For
Wagnerian plays, the prices are always
raised, and then the prices for parquet
are 9 marks, and fourth rang. 2& marks.
Wagnerian orcras alwa'ys begin at 7
o'clock to the minute. In Germany there
Is no fashionable time for entering any
kind of a show, and at an opera the over
ture Is of as much value as the opera
Itself. When the bills say opera at 7
o'clock, that means that at precisely 7
o'clock the director holds up his baton
for the first note of the overturo to be
played. Other operas, theaters, concerts,
etc., begin at 7:30 o'clock sharp.
The street classes here are proud of
their alertness In recognizing the foreign
er at once, and when an American comes
ln view one often hears a laughing "roast
beef," "mixed pickles," "time is money,"
"quite right," and by this time the Amer
ican will be out of sight. The American
girl Is known by the ever-popular ehlrt
waist, collar and tie, and the flag of our
country worn as a brooch or hatpin one
sees It somewheres; the main character
istic of the American young man ln Ber
lin la that he Is generally clean shaven.
This is very amusing to the Germans, as
they never fall to produce a full crop on
their faceo like their KaUer, and a Ger
man is really unhappy if Nature fails to
adorn his face with a 'Schnurbart,"
twirled high up on each side of the nose.
Probably the Emperor thinks it more prac
tical to wear it this way, so as not to
Interfere with the drinking of his beer.
Water A Scarce Beveragre.
It Is almost impossible to get a drink of
water at some places of amusements, or
"gartens," or "cafes" here. The Germans
claim, "Water spoils a new pair of boots,
much more the stomach." Beer Is gen
erally used as a means of quenching the
thirst. Last Sunday a party of us, six
Americans In all, went to the Zoological
Gardens. Here we sat at a table to listen
to the music, and to sit at a table one
Is compelled to order a drink of some
kind, usually beer. One of the party, be
ing very thirsty, asked tho "Kellner," or
waiter, to bring her a glass of pure water;
the waiter answered very politely, ln his
nicest German, "If all ordered water,
how could we earn a living," and the
nearest to water that she could get was a
bottle of Seltzer water, for which she paid
20 pfennige. and an extra 10 pfennlge for
the kellner"s trinkgeld. In society here
one seldom or never sees water on the
table, and when one inquires for it the
hostess will say something like, "Ach,
wasser 1st so ungesund!" And yet the
German asks us why It Is that with all this
drinking one never meets with an Intoxi
cated person, and that ln America, where
one drinks so little, what Is the need of so
many temperance societies? Of course
custom has everything to do with It, and
here Is one Instance: In Germany, when
a party orders drinks, the kellner goes
to each one of the party for the pay, and
tho members linger over the beer and
talk, sometimes for hours, whilst ln
America, when a party orders, some mem
ber stands treat, and thus the others feel
under obligation to return the compliment,
another order follows and thus the conse
quences. Such a thing is unknown here;
no matter what the occasion theater par
ty, bicycle party or even a ride ln the
street-car, German etiquette demands that
each pay for himself.
The Germans are awfully proud of their
titles, and one must never leave
out one of them: the titles, ln fact, are
more important than the names. I know
a Herr and Frau Geheimrath Justizrath
Vprtragendcr-rat Miller here, and Indeed
it takes several minutes to prepare one's
self with the title; but practice makes
perfect. Here the wife Is honored with
her husband's title, and she- is always ad
dressed as "Frau Doctor," or "Frau Pro
fessor," Instead of Just plain "Frau
Smith." If the husband is a merchant
then he Is known as "Herr Kaufman," or
if he Is the owner of a farm he is called
"Herr Gutsbesltzer." which means 'Mr.
Farmowner," so that almost all occupa
tions form part of the name here.
A Real German. Weddins.
Last week, I attended a real German
wedding at the "Kaiser Wllhelm Ged
achtnlss Klrche" this Is one name and
spoken In one breath. The parties were
Herr Ober Lieutenant (over officer) von
Collenberg to Frauleln Gertrude von
Rudt. As I was also at the engagement
reception, It will be Interesting to tell
you some of the peculiarities of a Ger
man marriage. The question of a dowry
is of far greater importance than that
of love or affection; of course, men have
been known to love wealthy girls, but
poor ones, never. Officers are generally
considered the best "parti" that German
parents can aspire to for their daughters,
but they come high. German officers are
paid by the Government 150 marks, $37 50
monthly; this keeps them In dress, apart
ments and food, and they always look
princely, but it is a known fact that they
are always "schuldlg." In debt. Thus it
Is that they must marry wealthy girls.
The Kaiser sanctions no marriage of an
officer who gets below 100,000 marks, $25.
000 ln cash from the wife's dowry; they
WESTERN WASHINGTON RIVERS.
may fall In love with poorer girls, but
marriage Is forbidden by a power higher
than theirs. Lieutenant von Collenberg
as he Is not particularly acquainted ln
Portland, Oregon, I'm sure, he w.ll offer
no objection to this notoriety received
300,000 marks, $75,000, Jn cash from Herr
Banker von Ruth, the father of the bride,
besides the wedd ng trip of six weeks,
planned and paid for by the parents, as
also the homo of the bride entirely fur
nished, from the parlors to a fresh loaf
of bread In the kitchen for the first
"mahlszeit" meal. It Is customary here
for the brldegrom to furnish one room in
the new home, usually the guest chamber,
but that Is all that is demanded of him.
Not all girls get such a dowry here, but
a plain German girl never gets less than
60,000 marks, $15,000. enough linens to last
her a lifetime as well as enough food ln
the housa for the first meal. Poor girls
very seldom marry here; they may be as
gifted as Mme. De Smel, as beautiful as
Helen of Troy, as accomplished as Mary
Queen of Scots, but If she lacks a suffi
ciency of the root of all evil, then she
must waste her sweetness on the desert
air.
As soon as the -question of a "parti" is
settled here the bridegroom immediately
selects two plain circles, gold rngs;
gives one to the bride and the other he
keeps; these they wear on the third finger
of the left hand. However, on the wed
ding day the rings are removed and
placed on tho third finger of the right
hand this signifies the difference t3
tween the marr.age and the engagement.
The married man must wear a ring as
well as his wife; thus on can always
tell ln this country if the people are sin
gle, engaged or married. In Amer ca a
man need not wear a ring unless he
wishes, and he generally presents hl3
fiancee with a diamond ring a3 a bond
of their engagement, and then with a
plain gold circle on the wedding day, but
here this Is not expected of the German.
Three whole weeks before a marr.age
here the couple must present their names
at the "Standes-amt" and there they
must "hang out" not the couple, but the
names. These state who they are, what
they are, their respective mothers' maid2n
names, and also that in three weeks from
that day a marriage will take place at
such and such a Ume and that if there
is any objection to such marriage taking
place, such objections should be sent to
such and such a person, etc., etc., so
that here all engagements must be at
least of three weeks -uratlon. and In
Germany laws are made to be kept. Here
is no "marrying in haste and repenting
at leisure." Probably that Is the reason
that there are so few divorces. Elope
ments are unknown here, as thre is no
marriage without the consent of parents
or guardians and there is a law In all
Germany forbidding marriage to a girl
under 16 and a young man under 21 years
of age. The nearest place for a German
couple to elope Is to England, and as the
fare alone costs $40, there is no hope for
lovers ot small means with objecting par
ents. Berlin is at present in great holiday at
tlr as the Emperor of Austria arrives
tomorrow to be the guest of the Kaiser
here; great preparations are going or,
ard ln the windows of the various shopi
"Unter den Linden," are busts and por
traits of the Emperor of Austria and King
of Hungary, as well as the Austrian col
ors, flying all over the city. The parade
begins at 11 o'clock, but already at &
o'clock A. M.. all the streets In the neigh
borhood of the Linden, will be closed up,
and there will be over a long three hours"
wait before the whole begins. Seats and
windows Unter den Linden are being sold
at a premium. Cafe Bauer offer seats at
103 marks ($25) a piece, and this is with
out the ordering of drinks which one Is
compelled to do, or else the seats are given
to others. A friend of ours, whose place
of business Is situated Unter den Linden,
has kindly erected seats for several of
his friends to see the sight of a lifetime,
and we were fortunate enough to be
among the Invited ones. The entire Lin
den, from the Brandenburger Thor to
the palace, will be lined with regiments
of soldiers, and through this line the Em
perors of two great countries will pass.
American Events.
There are two other events that Amer
icans are looking forward to here. One of
them, the coming of Sousa. and his peer
less band. Already In almost all the shop3
Sousa':' pictures are on postcards, with
the words. "J. F. Sousa, composer of The.
Washington Post March, " the music of
which wlU ma'ke Sousa popular here, ao
"The Washington Post" Is a great favor
ite of the Germans. The other event Is
Barnum's circus, for which preparations
are now being mode at Sarigny Plats, a.
place in Charlottenburg. situated ln the
west of Berlin.
The last reception of the Amerlcin Girl's
Club took place last Saturday evening,
at Miss Morgan's, Klelst strasse IL There
lj no one In the American colony more
beloved than Miss Morgan, the manager
of this club; she Is so kind, ;s sym
pathetic and ever ready with gentle ad
vice for American girls alone in Berlin.
Miss Morgan has quite a large pension of
her own. and many Americans visiting
Berlin for a short time, one or two
months, I would recommend that they
stay at the American Girls' Club, and
there the prices are very moderate. The
reception on Saturday night was well at
tended by Americans' from all parts ot
America, but only one representative fronr
Portland, Or. Coffee, tea, cakes and dev
iled ham sandwiches were served. There
are many married American women here
cultivating their respective talents, whilst
their husbands remain ln America attend
ing to business. The .Germans cannot un
derstand this, as the German wife never
leaves her husband, and when a vaca
tion is taken the German acconfponles hli
frau on a Summer outing.
The King of Bavaria has made & state
ment which sounds anything but com
plimentary to the American wife. He for
bids any married American woman to b
invited to court unless accompanied by
her husband: he claims he need not make
this demand of any other nation.
There are many Americans here at pres
ent, and more and more expected daily,
all bent on visiting tbe exposition in Paris.
The Portland representatives will leave
here June 10, to make the Rhine trip
to Oberammergau to sep "The Passion
Play," Brussels, Antwerp, Cologne. Paris.
London and then a few weeks' rest ln
Lausanne, Switzerland, before returning
to dear old Berlin for another year.
v LILLIAN MYERS.
EASTERN MULTNOMAH.
Many Voters Will Be Disfranchised
by Peculiar Circumstances.
GRESHAM. Or., May IL A notary pub
lic, sent out by the County Clerk, has
been traveling over the eastern port of
Multnomah County registering delin
quents. He visited every town, hamlet
and logging camp as far east as Bridal
Veil, and returned through here today on
his way to the city, having accomplished
his task as far as nosslble. In the Brent
lumbering camps on the mountains above 1
Bridal Veil he found several hundred vot
ers whom he could not register, and who
will be practically disfranchised. Any
person who registers at any place but
the courthouse must have the signatures
of two freeholders to his affidavit. It
was found Impossible to get these in the
logging camps, as the Bridal Veil Lum
bering Company owns all the country for
many miles around, and, being a corpo
ration, could not sign as a freeholder,
nor could any of Its officers or employes,
because they are all transients, as It were.
In a few cases the applicants accom
panied the notary a distance of several
miles so as to get witnesses to their sig
natures. The only precinct of Impor
tance where registration is short among
permanent residents is Hurlburt, the
home of the Republican candidate for
County Surveyor. Their failure to regis
ter seems to be pure carelessness, as
many have had an opportunity which
they have not availed themselves of.
Rebuilding- the Bridge.
The O. R. & N. Co. began tho work of
rebuilding the railroM bridge across the
Sandy River at Troltdale Saturday. A
plledriver began operations on ths eastern
shore, the first work being of a nature
to insure the safety of the present struc
ture whilo the rebuilding 13 In progress.
The new bridge will be built exactly where
the old one now stands, without the de
tention of a single train and much work
of a precautionary nature is necessary.
False work built on piling will have to be
placed under the structure and for this
purpose two large carloads of piles ar
rived on Saturday. Nine flatcars loaded
with liimber for the uppcr work came from
tho Portland sawmills ax the same time.
and will be placed on platforms, built along
each side of tha approaches to the bridge.
About the same quantity had been unload
ed there several days previously. The
lumber is dressed and all at tbe finest
quality. Carpenters will begin the work
of framing the new bridge some time this
week, and the construction will be pusoed
forward as rapidly as possible.
Another Nevr Mill.
Cummings & Cole have been hauling
machinery from Portland during the past
week for a new sawmill which they are
building near the bank of the Sandy Riv
er, east of Powell Valley. They have se
cured a tract of 400 acres of what is said
to be the finest body of timber in this
section. It all lies higher than the mill,
and there is no underbrush or old logs to
Interfere with operations. The product of
the mill will be railroad ties, mostly,
which will be floated down the Sandy to
Troutdale. They expect to have the mill
running In about six weeks.
Plcnsnnt Home Creamery.
A new and growing Industry at Pleas
ant Home Is the creamery established
there by Charles C. Kern. It Is now using
a ton of milk each day, which is furnished
by the neighborhood farmers, and the
product is about 100 pounds of butter,
which is sold to the grocery stores of
Portland at the highest market price. The
demand exceeds the supply, and the ca
pacity of the creamery can easily be made
to exceed the supply of milk of the en
tire neighborhood, but many fanners
there are still making dairy butter, which
is handled by the local stores.
Nevr Lutheran Clinrch.
The Swedish Lutheran Society of Pow
ell's Valley has put up a new church on a
small tract of land donated for the pur
pose by G. P. Hale. The edifice Is not yet
completed, but will cost about 11000 -when
finished. It will be dedicated during the
Summer. Rev. G. A. Lavine Is the pas
tor, who holds services onco a month.
School Closed.
The Powell's Valley School. District No.
2C, closed Its school year today with ap
propriate exercises at the schoolhouse. It
was Intended to give a picnic and hold
the closing exercises in a grove, but the
weather prevented. The Instructors have
been Professor Hunter and Miss Birdie
Merrill.
Brief Notei.
John Thomas' new cheese factory, at
Falrview, began operations on Tuesday
last, with the product of about 200 cows.
It will take about 30 days for the first
cheese to "ripen." after which they will
be put on the market.
Stone. Roadland & Co.s new sawmill,
south of Powell's Valley, will begin the
cutting of railroad ties next week. Until
the present time It has been engaged in
cutting lumber exclusively.
Andrew Swanberg and wife, who have
been residents of Powell's Valley for
many years, left on Thursday morning
for Sweden, where they will remain. They
were given a farewell reception on
Wednesday evening by a large number
of their friends ln this section.
A. G. Ross, living near Damascus, fell
from a load of wood on Wednesday last
and fractured his left leg b-low the knee
He was taken to Portland for medical
attendance.
The Presbyterian church at Falrview
will give an entertainment at the church
on Tuesday next. A good programme has
been prepared for the occasion.
S. W. Scoville and E. E. Slerett have
been elected delegates from Gresham
Lodge. No. 123, I. O. O. F to attend the
Grand Lodge, which meets at Astoria on
the 22d. Mrs. Mattie Scoville has also
been elected to represent Rebekah Lodge,
No. 61, at the same session.
The rains have greatly assisted log drfv
lng on the Sandy River, so much so'that
above half a million feet have been re
ceived at Cone's mill. Savring has been
resumed and will continue until the sup
ply of logs is exhausted for the season.
TOO GREAT EXACTIONS.
T0NITED STATES ILLIBERAL TREAT
MENT OF PHILIPPINE TRADE.
Fe-titloBL to Coagrcss by tbe Manila.
Chamber of Commerce Islands
Rich bat Repressed.
wAswrwr.Tfv fav 10. The American
Chamber of Commerce, of Manila, has
been petitioning Congress for the ameliora
tion of the exactions pracucea upon m
Inhabitants of the Philippine Islands b?
the United States Government. icey
point out that under the existing system,
thousands of dollars worth of American
produces nave been abandoned in the Cus
tom-Hcms- owing to excessive charges up
on them, and hundreds who have visited.
the island with the Intention of engaging
In business have left dismayed, as soon,
as prevailing conditions were understood.
This Chamber of Commerce was formed
for the purpose ot protecting American,
commercial interests in the islands, and
they point out to the various members of
Congress that in their belief no richer
spot, naturally. In soil, climate and na
tural products exists upon the globe than,
the Philippines, and that they will not only
not be a burden upon the United States,
but under wise laws will be more pro
ductive In agricultural wealth than any
similar area in our own country. In pe
titioning Congress, they set forth the fol
lowing: "That, although the United States Gov
Arnment has acouirtid sovereignty over the
Philippine Islands, the duties now levied
upon all good3 imported from the united
States, by virtue of the laws now ln force
In these islands, are harsh and oppressive,
and taxation upqn commercial interests
and licenses for the privilege of doing
business are excessive and unjust. We
therefore respectfully beg to represent:
"That the laws governing the people re
siding ln these islands are, with a few
minuti exceptions, an adODtlon of 'Certain
Royal Decrees Upon motion of the Min
ister of Colonies In accord with the Min
isterial Council in the name of My August
Son. the King Don Alfonzo XHI. and as
Queen Regent ot the kingdom, etc. and
'His Majesty the King (whom God pre
serve), nnd In the name of the Queen.
Regent of the kingdom, has bean pleased,
to order,' and thus has been established,
as the laxv of the land the most exacting
decrees of a most despotic monarchy.
"TTnder r!hege decrees most of the im
port duties on produce and manufactures
from Spain were originally subject only
to a to, of 8 per cent ad valorem, and 10
per cent of the specific duty applying to
fnrelen cAads lor harbor improvements.
wtlle those from foreign ports were and
are now subjected to a tax or irom so per
cent to 250 per cent. Meat, flour, butter,
fruit and most of the necessities of life
sustain an enormous tax, while Items of
luxury sustain little.
"Formerly goods were admitted to the
Philippines from Spain practically free,
bearing only a small harbor tax. This
was gradually raised to provide funds for
the construction of a new harbor, until
there was exacted from articles of Span
ish origin an amount equivalent to 10 per
cent of the specific duties applying to
the productions of other countries. At the
same period, enormous Increases were
made In specific duties, with the result
that Imports from Spain Increased very
largely. To provide revenue for the sup
pression of the Insurrection, which had
in consequence of the diversion of trado
to Spain fallen off to a very heavy extent,
an 8 per cent ad valorem tax was applied
to all Spanish and foreign goods, and an
arbitrary table of valuations was pre
pared upon which thi3 latter tax might
be imposed.
"We regret that our Government has
seen fit to retain not only the excessive
specific duties, but .also the 10 per cent
upon those duties for harbor construction
(which, by the way. Is not being con
structed), the 8 per cent on an arbitrary
and excessive valuation, a consumption
tax on flour and many other articles, and
surtaxes of varying degree, until the cost
of Imported goods is ln many instances
entirely beyond" the means of any but the
most prosperous people.
"We unhesitatingly declare that Amsri'
can trade in the Philippines Is almost
Impossible under the present regime, and.
that it will be utterly destroyed unless,
immediate relief is had. Many of the laws
found too harsh for practical application,
and winked at by the Spanish authorities
ore being enforced under American rule
with all the rigor of military exaction,
thus stifling the incentive to business by
consuming tho results of Industry and
economy. Spain ruled the colonies of the
Philippines for the evident advantage of
tho mother country, and- with little seem
ing regard for the inhabitants here. We
earnestly request that your honorable
body enact such laws as shall cause the
burden of taxation to fall equally upon
all within the sovereign power of the
United States.
"The Internal Revenue Department is
but a pawnshop where men put up their
salaries and business profits for the privi
lege of laboring and using their capital
(an importing house of the first class pay
ing upwards of $100 per month license),
and we trust your honorable body will
cause the enactment of such laws as will
relieve the people of the Philippine Is
lands from a condition of taxation and
oppression which stripped these islands,
of prosperity, goaded, the natives to In
surrection, and wfauld put to shame tha
gentleman that took an obligation from
the Merchant of Venice, and which digni
ties the Stamp Act of 1765, rendering it a
compliment to the taxpayer and Just and
righteous in principle.
"We desire to call the particular atten
tion of your honorable body to the Book
or Arbitrary Valuations, copies of which
have been filed with the Speaker of the
House and President of the Senate. In
scarcely any particular does It correspond
to the true or approximate valuation of
the article In question, but It arbitrarily
decides, for Instance, that a kilo (21-5.
pounds) of alimentary conserves is worth,
$L and under this classification an 8 per
cent ad valorem tax is collected as well
upon a kilo of canned tomatoes, worth,
about 12 cents, as upon a kilo of mush
rooms or pate de foie gras worth 52.
"It seems unnecessary to go into great
detail, but the entire Book of Valua
tions presents the same conditions upon
all classes of articles, bearing most heavi
ly upon the necessities of life. The evi
dent aim of the Spanish legislator was to
exempt from taxation the luxuries, and
to make 'most difficult the purchase of
the cheap commodities of the world.
"While the cost of living has trebled
within the jurisdiction of the United
States, when rice, the staple food prod
uct of the islands, is almost unobtain
able by the people, we are sustaining a.
tax upon flour of 60 per cent, so that a.
barrel of flour purchasable ln the United.
States at less than $3 gold, must be sold.
at ?12 Mexican in Manila."
Senseleai Species of Skin.
Most people have doubted their eyes
when, at some conjuring performance,
they have seen a man run needles and
pins through both cheeks, evincing no
pain as he does so. In Teallty, every per
son has hundreds of senseless specks of
skin all over his body, through which ho
could run pins, or even cut them out,
without feeling any pain.
These dead spots are caused by tha
minute nerves which convey sensation to
the brain being either absent In these par
ticular places or dead and senseless. But
should any one allow himself to be blind
folded, and then get one of his friends to
prod him very gently with a clean needle.
say all on one arm, out of every 100
pricks he will feel only about 60 a; 70 at
the most.