The Sunday Oregonian. (Portland, Ore.) 1881-current, January 14, 1900, Page 23, Image 23

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(Concluded from last Sunday.)
Before paying our respects to the next nebula, or gaseous vapor, extending be
planet in this system, a -word or two about yond the orbit of the most distant planets;
the Vman to the moon" may not be j that in the process of gradual condensa
amiss, since more is known about this I tlon, by attraction, a rotary motion was
"body than any other, because of Its near- j engendered and Imparted to the whole
aess to ns. ' mass: that this motion caused the consol-
The moon's diameter is 2000 miles, and idating matter to assume the form of .va
Its circumference is 0000 miles. It is dis- j rious concentric rings, like those of Sat
tant from us about 246.0&9 miles. " It re- I urn; and, finally, that these rings collaps
volves around the earth from west to lng at their respective distances, and still
ast in 29 days 12 hours 44 minutes and 3 retaining their motion, were gathered up
seconds; this is called the lunar month. Into planets, as they are now found to
The moon, as eeen through, a telescope, j exist."
hn its mountains, valleys and plains-but i By the invention of the telescope, the
It has no atmosphere; therefore, no riv- j
ers, lakes or seas. There ore compara- j
lively few mountain ranges. One range, !
called the Apennines, Is more extensive
than all the others. They have a length
of about 458 miles, and some of the peaks
rise to heights of from 15,003 to 20,000 feet.
There are also Isolated peaks to be
found on the surface of the moon. And
one of the most remarkable of these Is
called "Pico."
It is claimed that the heights of the
lunar mountains are more accurately
.known than those of the mountains on
the earth.
as regards the surface of the moon we
cre able to speak of one side only. The
other side is hidden from us, because as
the moon revolves once around, the earth,
(fit also turns on its own axis just once
The rise and fall of the tides are caused,
.principally, by the attractive power of the
onoon. The sun also has a certain influ
ence, but the moon has a greater attrac
tion. The moon lias been the cause of
much superstition, -and. in some instances,
Joss of life.
It was some of tho wis (?) that claimed
,not only intelligent and animated crea
'tures were subject to its Influence, but
(Chat the minerals and vegetables were
under its control. At lull moon, cucum
2ers grow larger, as well as beet-root,
tCurnlps, lilies and saffrons. Herbs gath
ered while tho moon is increasing will be
of peculiar excellence.
It Is attributable to an eclipse of the
Isnoon, that Niclas, the Athenian general,
tdelayed his departure from Syracuse for
tone month; his enemy took advantage of
'rthis delay and blockaded the port; when
jNiclas made the attempt to retreat by
land he was overtaken, and, after losing
sSQ.000 men. surrendered; the ruin of Ath
ens is dated from, this calamity.
The Chinese astronomers were held re
fcpcneible for the correctness of their cal
culations. During the leign of one of the
Chinese- emperors, his two -chief astrono
sners were condemned to death because of
'their neglect (?) in announcing the pre
cise time of a solar eclipse.
Mars is the last or fourth one of the
first group of planets. It is much smaller
than Venus or the earth, but is visible
to the naked eye. Mars was named for
the heathen god of war, and so called on
account of its flerj'i reddish color. The
length of Mars day is only 40 minutes
longer than the earth's. Its year is a
little less than two of ours. Two very
small moons have been found circling
around this planet; one of them makes
the revolution in 39 hours, and the other
snakes it in the short period of 7 hours.
Astronomers think that Mars has its
continents and tracts of water, like those
of our own globe.
Having briefly passed over the first four
iprinclpal planets, we now come to the
asteroids or telescopic planets. Those as
teroids which are nearest the sun, and
Co make one revolution of it, will take
about threo of our years; and those Jying
farthest, to travel once around him take
about six of our years.
New members of this group are some
times found. The number now known is
eomethingover 400. The largest of the as
teroids is about 600 miles in diameter,
'whilst others measure only a few leagues.
Leaving behind us the busy zone of
planetoids, we meet Jupiter as the first
one of the second group nearest the sun.
It is distant from the sun about 450,000,
O90 miles. Jupiter is visible to the eye
without telescopic aid; it shines with a.
brilliant white light, and which exceeds
that of every other planet except Venus;
Jhis size Is enormous; his mass largely ex
ceeding that of all the other planets com
bined. Its diameter is about 85,000 miles;
but it is uncertain as to the measure
anentsof Jupiter, owing to a dense at
mosphere or heavy clouds surrounding
what is supposed to be a. solid body.
Jupiter's day is of 10 hours duration
only; but its year makes up for the un
usually short day; nearly 12 of our years
0 by before Jupiter has finished one rev
olution of the sun.
This "giant planet," in his long journey
around the sun, does not travel alone; he
is accompanied by four moons, which are
-constantly circling around him.
Leaving Jupiter, we next reach the
most interesting of all the planets in our
system, viz., Saturn. This planet is not
so large as Jupjter, but there is no very
great difference in size; they, also, are
spoken of as ""twins." This planet is
plainly visible without the telescope's aid,
and its color is a dingy reddish light, as
If seen through a smoky atmosphere. Sat
urn's day is about the same as Jupiter's;
Jupiter's long annual journey seems short
Sbeslde Saturn's journey of 30 earthly
Saturn's system, or family, we might
term, it, is more wonderful than Jupiter's.
Eight moons travel ceaselessly around
him; and in addition to the eight moons
there are three curious but magnificent
Tings, which also revolve around him con
stantly. The first one, which lies almost
over his equator, has a. dusky appearance;
the next, or middle ring, is yery brilliant;
and the third, outside the second, is
The theory now generally neld by as
tronomers is that the rings are composed
of a cloud of satellites, or of little "moon
lets, which run swiftly, side by side
around the planet. Just how small they
are no one knows yet.
The size of Saturn has perplexed as
tronomers as much, and for the same
causes, as is presented by Jupiter, viz.,
"varying clouds and changeable atmos
phere. Until tho year 1781 Saturn was be
lieved to be the outermost planet of the
solar system; but one night Uranus was
discovered by Herschel, while he was busy
exploring the heavens with a powerful
telescope. This planet 'is 900,000,000 miles
from Saturn, and had often been seen;
but it was not known as a member of the
solar system.
Uranus is notable as the first planet
ever "discovered"; all that were known
when Herschel found it had been known
from prehistoric antiquity. It was now
supposed that the outermost planet was
discovered; but no! there was yet another.
Astronomers know with great exactness
the path of each planet in the heavens.
Uranus, at first supposed to be the outer
most one, would not follow the path, or
orbit, as laid down by astronomers; they
were confident that their calculations
were correct, consequently there must be
another planet beyond, whose attractive
power prevents Uranus from following
its assigned orbit. And it proved ta be
so. The name of this "prodigal boy" is
called Neptune. Its discovery is ''proba
bly one of the greatest achievements of
mathematical science ever recorded."
Little is known about these two outer
planets, owing to their great distance
from us. Uranus is equal to 74 earths In
size, and Neptune is equal to about 105.
When about S4 of our years have rolled
by, Uranus has made but one revolution
of the sun; Neptune' takes about 165 of
our years to make its annual revolution.
Uranus Is known to have four moons, and
Neptune is believed to have two.
Origin of the Solar Syntcm.
It was the opinion of La Place, a cele
brated French astronomer, "that the en
tire matter of the solar systemjrc-hich 03
now mostly found in a consolidated state.
In ihe sun and planets, was once a vast
Copemlcan theory, of which previous men
tlon has been made, was sustained. It is
not known that the ancients had any
knowledge of the telescope. It was In
vented in 1609 by Galileo, an Italian phi
losopher, who was the first man to con-
struct one on principles of science; he Is,
therefore, awarded the honor of this in
vention. The telescope, as constructed by Galileo,
magnified objects but 30 times, it being
only one Inch in diameter. With this sim
ple Instrument, however, he saw that the
moon was full of inequalities, like moun
tains and valleys, the spots on the sun,
the satellites of Jupiter, the phases of Ve
nus, and hundreds of new stars were ob
served in all parts of the heavens.
At the present time telescopes are used
whose magnifying powers are many times
greater than was Galileo's, and thousands
of new stars have been counted. The
progress of the telescope toward, its pres
ent state was slow; for as late as' 1S16 it is
spoken of as being "nearly the greatest
perfection that this kind of telescope is
capable of."
The first telescope constructed was re
fracting, or one that refracts the light to
a focus with a glass lens.
The reflecting telescope, Invented after
wards, reflects the light to a focus with
a concave mirror.
At present, the largest complete tele
scope in the world is the Yerkes, of the
university of Chicago, which has an object
glass 40 inches in diameter.
France contemplates having a telescope
even larger than the Yerkes, the Deloncle,
so called because its construction was
first suggested by M. Francois Deloncle,
of the French chamber of deputies. It
will be one of the interesting features of
the Paris exposition In 1900, and will be
the most remarkable instrument ever con
structed. The object-glass will measure
4 feet 1 Inches, and will .weigh 992
pounds. The lenses alone- vHl cost be
tween $100,000 and $200,000, and the com
pleted instrument will represent an ex
penditure of 2SO,000. It is not merely in
size and cost, however, that this great
telescope wiU be remarkable. Its focal
distance will be over ISO feet; and to
make a tube Qf that .length, over four
feet in diameter, capable1 of sustaining
the great weight -of the -lenses, yet so
delicately poised as to be easily adjusted
to the changing positions, of the planets,
wo aid be extremely difficult The tele
scope will, therefore, be. firmly fixed in a
horizontal position on, a masonry founda
tion, and the image of .the stars reflected
into it by a movable mirror which fol
lows the motion of the heavenly bodies
by .clockwork. About tho eyepiece of tho
telescope has been built an amphitheater,
where, upon a vast screen, visitors may
S3? the image of sun, moon or 5tars mag
nified from six to ten thousand times.
A correspondent not long since in refer
ring to the origin of the sIar system
uniquely stated that there must have been
a long courtship, resulting In marriage,
planets born and then a big family row,
because of an unequal division of real es
tate at the death of some member of the
Wo must not forget, however, that our
solar system. Is but one of many others.
What a grand aggregation of families
we are! And how charmingly we agree;
not a jar to disturb the family peace."
Portland, Or.
John Morley's Journalistic Instinct.
The Cornhill.
Mr. John Morley, who was a journalist
before he became a cabinet minister, de
lighted tho journalists at a press club
dinner In London a few years ago by mak-
Ing the following autobiographical con-(the
fesclon: "It was while I was wrltln
leading, article for a certain periodical that
"I received, a letter from an illustrious
statesman, whp was then forming a gov
ernment, offering me a post in his cab
inet. Gentlemen," continued Mr. Morley,
"so strong in me was the journalistic iri
stinct that, after accepting the illustrious
statesman's offer, I went back and finished
that leading article' And I can assure
you," he added, when the applause which
greeted this statement had died away,
"that neither the grammar nor the 'style
of the latter half of the article fell short
of my usual standard."
o .
Their. Influence Often Felt at a Dis
tance of Ten Miles.
New Tork Times.
When the Paris went ashore on the
Manacles it was offered as a first excuse
that the iron in the dreaded rocks had
deranged her compasses. Later another
and the real reason for the disaster was
But the panlsh Island of Bornholm, In
the Baltic sea, is so magnetic as to be a
danger to navigation. The island is 20
miles long. 14 wide and is 24 miles east by
south from the nearest point of Sweden.
It consists almost entirely of magnetite,
and Is much feared by navigators on ac
count of Us influence on the magnetic
needle, which makes the correct steering
of a shiri a matter of much difficulty.
This influence is felt at a distance of
10 miles, and' so palpably that, on the
Island being sighted, mariners on the
Baltic at once discontinue steering their
course by the needle and turn Instead to
the well-known lighthouses and other
signs by which to direct their craft. ,
There are several magnetic islands and
points along the Atlantic coast of South
America. Near the mouth of the Rio de
la Plata Is a famous magnetic point
the western side of the headland known
as the Punta Negra and navigators of
vessels bound for Buenos Ayres or Monte
video have to be careful not to go too
near It Trinidad is another place of the
same description, and one reason for its
abandonment to Brazil was Its utter unfit
ness for a telegraphic station, owing to
its strong magnetic powers.
She Is Actively Competing for the
Carrying Trade of. the West.
Coming Age.
Up to June 30, 1S98, Canada had spent
upon her canals $S7,571,49Sr This, w ith, the
railroad expenditures, amounts to over
$301,000,000 paid out by less than 5,000,000
of people in oiie generation for the de
velopment of their transportation system.
For the ,most part this enormous ex
penditure meets with public approval.
Especially Is this true of the money de
voted to enlarging and deepening the ca-
Refracting Telescope.
nals, for the Canadian people art) deter
mined to wrest from their American rivals
a large share of the carrying trade of the
West. That this is a prize worth strug
gling for may be seen from the fact that
last year grain and flour equivalent to
270,000,000 bushels were loaded at Buffalo,
and thence carried to New York. The cost
Of carrying this great total from the west
ern end of Lake Superior to the ocean
was, at the lowest calculation, between
$11,000,000 and $12,000,000, and it gave em
ployment to mearly 40,000 men.
Already the canals have been deepened
to 14 feet, and there Is a mast energetic
movement afoot to divert the Western
carrying trade to 6corgIan bay and thence
by means of a short land haul to Mon
treal via Lake Ontarlp and' the St. Law
rence. Valuable Decoratidns.
Cleveland Leader.
The orders of decoratipn borne by the
emperor of Germany are worth over 1,000,
000 marks (a little over $2:0,000). His prin
cipal and most valuable decorations are
Insignia of the Black, Eagle, the Or
der of St. John, of the Garter, and the
Tolson d'Or. In all, he has over 200
crosses, stars, badges and other insigjtia.
iff! amPwmi
St, Thomas Is tlxe Finest Available
Harbor, and It Can, Easily lie
Made. Impregnable.
WASHINGTON, Jan. 9. The Banish
West Indies, which Uncle Sam will have
to purchase to prevent their acquisition
by some European power, will add to our
already vast insular domain three bmall
specks In the sea, with an aggregate area
only as creat as that of the city of Phil
adelphia. Of their 33,000 human souls, like-'
ly to Become American subjects beiore tne
birth of the new century, five-sixths are
negroes engaged mostly m sugar culture.
The sacred Monroe doctrine has been
but one factor in Uncle Sam's concern in
these Isles. Lying 30 to 50 miles off the
eastern end of Puerto Rico, they hold the
strategic key to what In time of war
would be the most dangerous approaches
to our valuable West Indian possessions.
St. Thomas Is the only one of the three
islands of which Uncle Sam is sorely In
need on this latter account. It lies in the
tiack of all vessels from Europe, Africa,
South America, the East Iridles and tne
Pacific hound for the West Indies, and of
many plying for our continent by southern
routes. St. John and Santa Cruz, the two
sister Isles of St. Thomas, Will have two
be acquired with the latter, for the sake
of the Monroe doctrine. Government en
gineers, who have lately examined St.
Thomas agree that it possesses the choice
of all West Indian harbors. Today, un
der Danish rule, It Is undefended. Tomor
row, under Yankee rule, it -will be the
Gibraltar of the West Indies; and this
upon the authority of no speculator. The
harbor of Charlotte Amalle is a large, deep,
oval, land-locked bay, with an entrance
between two promontories commanded by
ancient forts, which mean little today,
but which can soon be Tejuyenated. Be
hind these defenses and upon all closed
sides of the bay, steep hills rise to 1300
feet, and ground immediately surrounding
the harbor is 500 feet high. Guns scat
tered in their tropical shrubbery would
command every vessel in or near the har
bor. According to an official jwho lately
Investigated the .spot, the only "defenses
guarding this haven are a few ancient
saluting guns in barracks upon shore.
Furthermore, according tomy informant,
this harbor can be readily closed agalitet
the possible entrance of any foreign cratj.
A ledge of rock near tho mouth serves "a,fi
a breakwater when hurricanes chance, to
blow outside. Thence a deep and broad
channel, a mile long, leads to the inner
harbor, capable of holding several squad
rons. A floating drydock upon the wes?t
side of this bay is found to be. in good
repair. It was built In England and trans
ported thence in sections.
-St. Thomas is but a few miles east of
Culebra and Vieques, our two Puerto Rlcan
satellites, of considerable size, but of no
great strategic value. It Is shaped like
a revolver pointing west, with the mag
nificent harbor In queston in the trigger
guard, and therefore, upon the southern
side. It Is the topmest ridge of a small
chain of mountains now submerged. Its
15,000 Inhabitants,, mostly blacks, occupy
23 square miles.
"A Niggery-Hlspano-Dano-Yankee-Doo-dlo
sort of place, with a flavor of sherry
cobblers," Is the tribute paid to St Thomas
by a noted authprity, who Inspected it
some time ago. In other words, the .1000
white men who run things In and about
Charlotte Amalie, the capital, are mostly
Spaniards, Danes and Yankees. -Charlotte
Amalle, which would be our naval center
in the Islands, is built In the shape of a
crescent,- and lines the inner edge o'f the
oval harbor. The pink and white houses
behind are terraced one above the other
upon green hills, covered with palms and
tropical foliage. From ships anchored In
the bay or from either of Its crescent
points the lights of this terraced city re
flected In the water present a magnifi
cent spectacle.
Our army engineers wllf not, In St.
Thomas, bo faced with the hygienic prob
lems met iti Puerto Rico and Cuba.
Charlotte Amalle, once a pesthole, has been
Improved by modern sanitary methods. A
drainage canal has been opened from the
harbor to the sea, a task proposed but
never yet accomplished for the health of
Havana, Charlotte Amalle, furthermore.
Is thoroughly flushed, by water flowing
down Its terraced hillsides whenever it
rains. This Island and Santa Cruz aie
now favorite health resorts for Invalids
suffering from pulmonary diseases. The
heat of the tropical sun is constantly mod
ified by refreshing trade winds.
Santa Cruz, 40 miles south of St. Thomas,
while of little or no strategic value, Is
the largest and -most productive of the
three Isles likely to become our property.
Its population of 20,000 are plantation ne
groes. Its western half is rectangular, but
It tapers to a point on the east. Two cltle3
each aa large as Denver, could be built
upon Its area of about 100 square miles.
Denmark's governor-general io her West
Indian, possessions, who spends hal& the
year In St. Thomas and the- other half In
Santa Cruz, administers the affairs of
the latter at Christlanstead, the capital
and principal town. His presence and that
of a small garrison are the only evidence
of Danish supremacy to be seen today
upon tho largest Isle. The only other town
of Santa Cruz Is Frederickstead, upon tho
west coast, which can be reached only by
very small ships.
Less than 1000 new subjects would be
added to our lists by acquisition of St.
John, only six-miles due east of St Thom
as. The total area of this, the smallest ot
the- three, is just equal to that of the felly
of Boston 43 square miles. It Is of ir
regular shape, having upon the eastern
end a curved finger of land, including a
coralbay, a good harbor little used except
by fishermen. Practically all of the in
habitants dwell In a small town named
after the island. Santa. Cruz and St. John
are both more productive than St. Thom
as. They yield sugar, rum, luxurious
tropical fruits and vegetables.
In all threo Islands of this group recon
struction under Yankee supremacy would
be a task proportionately much less dif
ficult than In Puerto Rico. English today
Is the universal and official language in
the churches and schools.
The only warm-blooded quadrupeds In
habiting the Danish West Indies are th&
agouti and rat. The former Is prized foi
food by some natives: Its meat Is white,
tender and very sweet It Is about tn
size of a rabbit, eats like a squirrel, bris
tles like a porcupine ..when angry ana
burrows In the ground. Some giant llzarcs
or Iguanas are also edtble. There Is an
abundance of small lizards and a specie,
of harmless snake. Birds are scaTce, ow
ing to an absence of forests. There are
also a number of frek pests, notably a
worm which bores Into furniture ana
causes It to fall to pieces suddenly and
unexpectedly, a wood ant, which destroys
the framework of houses, a red ant which
bites, not to mention the mosquito, jigger,
flea, scorpion, centipede, giant spider ana
an odorous species of roach.
After tnTHne the mi'so of both the Dan-
Ush government ami ita-.syiisata iaJJuEsl
colonies, Uncle Sam has become assured
of two salient facts, Fact No. 1 la that
Denmark no longer has any use for thest
three islands. Fact N3. 2 is that the peo
pie want to belong to the United States.
But why is Denmark so anxious to get na
of these islands?
They, especially St. Thomas, once af
forded their mother country a handsomo
revenue. Not many years ago, Charlotte
Amalie was a hive of industry and tne
Tnart-of nf hn xCARt indies. The decline
of this commerce was the indirect result
of the perfection of steam vessels ana u.
the abolition of slavery. Before our clvli
war, sailing ships carried on the. com
merce of the surrounding seas. Vessels
then could not make long routes, and St.
Thomas, on account of its convenient lo
cation and excellent harbor, became the
trading center of the West Indies. Tha
perfection of steamships made, direct
shipments possible. The English. French
and Dutch in the Wesjt Indies thereupon
began to send "their agents directly to
this, continent and to Europe. They were
thus enabled to buy in their home market,
and to have their goods sent directly to
their colonies without passing through St.
Thomas. It was a sore blow to the littla
island when the Royal Mall Steam Packet
Company, of Southampton, later trans
ferred its workshops to the British Wesi
Indies. The old commercial Importance
of Charlotte Amalle entirely disappearea,
chiefly from this cause, 20 years ago. Tn0
decline of St. John and Santa Cruz Do
gan, however, as early as 1S48. In that
year slavery wa$ abolished therein by
Denmark, and the production of sugar rap
Idly fell off. Sufficient labor could not bt
obtained. .Weighed down by hard times,
the people of all three islands have of lata
years- grown more and more dlssatlsfiea.
Upon the whole, however, Denmark seems
to have been good to them. She has noi
burdened them with taxation, althoug-f,
according to one of my Informants, she
has been accused of slight partialities to
the native Dane as against the subjects
of other blood born In the colonies. It :s
well known that Denmark's expense in
maintaining the Islands today Is mucn
greater than her revenues derived from
As far back as 1S57. when out state Ce
partment endeavored to acquire the is
lands, a vote was taken among the peopro
of St Thomas and St. John to determine
whether they wanted to be sold to us.
Two thousand voted In favor qf and lea
than GO against the proposition. Uncle
Sam will offer their mother country
$3,000,000 or $4,000,000 for the three islands.
This will not be -a steep price, considering
the fact that Secretary ' Seward offered
$7,503,0CO for St. Thomas and St. John alone.
Mr. Seward was very eager to make thf
acquisition, and his secret negotiation
with- the Danish minister to Washington
was begun at a swell dinner given in this
city just before Llncoln's assassination.
The treaty of purchase was fully drawn
and presented to the senate, but thatbocy
sat .upon It,, much to the disgust of Den
mark. Ill-luck frowned upon the nego
JlatlpmS almost from 'the 'beginning. While
a joint commission appointed to lslt the
Islands was holding tsl first meeting m
the govornment house at Chrlstlansteaa,
a terrific earthquake anct tidal wave dam
aged the town and scared .the commia-
' I '
; ;-W5 x
siSSif--' I'17- r .- v-. s"
sloners clear out of their wits. The as
sassination of the president and murderova
assault upon Seward held up the negotia
tions for an additional while. Since theses
fizzles took place, Denmark has refused to
open negotiations unless first assured that
we will pay a pTce agreed upon. Henca
our present efforts to purchase have to
be made through an unofficial represen
tative, Captain von Christmas, of, tne
Danish navy. Denmark Is sure to sell
the Islands, If not to us, to some European
power. A repetition of the senate's behav
ior of 33 years ago would result In
serious complications. It Is rumored that
Santa Cruz cannot be sold to us without
the consent of France.
Article "Written Before Disasters a..
rftorinberg, Magcrsfontein, Tugela.
London Chronicle,
The disaster which occurred near Lady
smith recently, when some 2000 Butish
and Irish troops were surrounded and cap
tured by the Boers, Is only an incident in
a war which must eventually end In our
favor. Still, It Is a serious reverse In lt-
l self, since is brings up the total number
or prisoners now in tne nanas ol me
enemy' to a number which probably ex
ceeds 2000 about one-ninth of the force
with which we began our campaign In
Natal. Without pausing in this place to
consider the tactics which led to so un
happy a result." at the very moment when
Sir George White was carrying Gut a fairly
successful operation a few miles away,
It may be of interest to recall some of
the principal reverses of British arms
during the past three generations.
Our first great disaster after the conclu
sion of the Napoleonic wars was the loss
of 20,000 men. Including British Infantry
and cavalry, and a large contingent ot
sepbys in attempting to force the Khybor
pass, in 1841. We had sent a double ex-
peditlon,. under Burnes, by way of Quetta
and the Bolan, and under Wade by way of
the Khyber, in order to back an unpopu
lar claimant to the throne of Afghanistan
against the Dost Mahomed, who was sup
posed to lean '.to the Russians. The khan
of Khelat had said to Burnes on his way
up, "You haye brought an army into the
.caufllxj.T&OK -flo 2-oiL jUr-cmoss ta take
Psffn) I 1 ftgMriA .?s'2iv-ff7c25V51 HESS
mPi 1 1 m fill N?iliP -stfl
Soil (ll KWMSS
iliiii Pii
It back again?" That Is the whole gist of i
the matter; no one withstood our resolute
advance, but the hill tribes, the mountains
the Afghan winter, absolutely barred re
treat Ot the 20,0Qy" who ' retired "from
Cabul, one solitary doctor escaped to tell
the fate of the remainder. We have no
space to moralize, but it may be observed
that in this 'case wo began by backing a
worthless man for an Inadequate reason;
wo went up the country slaughtering all
our prisoners without quarter, and we at
tempted a retreat through a blocked moun
tain pass in an exceptionally severe win
ter. Our reverses in the Crimea werematters
of commissariat and organization rather
than of arms; but the cost of this useless
war, both in blood and in money, was a
disaster In itself. r'We do not enter it on
our black list, but no historian, and few
British officers, will make a point of claim
ing important victories in the Crimean
war. This attack upon Russia was fol
lowed at a short Interval by the Indian
mutiny, whereof the earlier chapters re
coid what may-ba described as the most
frightful disasters of the century. The
revolt of the sepoys took the Indian au
thorities by surprise; the country between
Lower Bengal and the Punjab became.
In 1S57, an almost unbroken area of mas
sacre, and to this day an Englishman can
scarcely hear the names of Delhi, Luck
now and Cawnpore without a shudder. The
awfulness of the massacres 13 only paral
leled by tho awfulness of our revenge.
The second Afghan war began with our
Invasion of the country- of Shere All In
1S78. As In 1S39, we 'marched up country
without much trouble or loss, took pos
session or control of the passes and es
tablished our resident at Cabul. The mas
sacre of Sir Louis Cavagnarl was followed
by a war ot varying fortunes, which
brought Sir Donald Stewart, Lord Roberts
and other gener.als into prominent notice.
The battle ot Malwand, fought on July
17, 1SS0, was a terrible disaster. Barrowes
lost over 1S00 men out of the total garrison
of S000 at Kandahar, and It was left to
Lord Roberts to relieve the Isolated town
by his famous march.
We had our minor reverses during the
50 or 60 expeditions against the hill tribes
within the past half century, but no other
great disasters havo befallen us In India
beyond those which have been mentioned.
The Zulu war Inflicted on us the great
disaster of Isahdlana, when 11,000 of the
blacks surrounded Colonel Glyn on his
march from Helpmakaar, with two bat
talions of the Fourth, a battery and. a
few levies. This calamity was almost an
extermination; and the news, as It reached
this country, was only relieved by the ac
count of the splendid stand of Lieutenants
Chard and Bromhead. w 1th 0 men, who de
fended the commissariat store at Rorke's
drift against 10Q0 natives, and so pre
vented the victorious impl of the Zulus
, from entering Natal.
Our ulsa&ters m tne xransvaai wur ui
1SS1, arising out of the annexation of 1S77,
have been sufficiently recalled to mind In
the past few months. The comparatively,
insignificant defeat at Broaker's Spruit
might well have been succeeded by a calm
consideration of the Boere, who demanded
the restoration of their Independence. But
Pwhat we may call the "prestige party"
were for the moment In the ascendency
m South Africa; Sir George Colley wa
dispatched with lets than 1030 men. ot
whom 'he lost more than a quarter at
Lalng's nek on January 2S. The Gordon
Highlanders were hurried up In time to
share in a further defeat on the Ingogo
river; and Colley's fatal occupation of
Majuba hill led to the worst disaster of all
on February 26. The Highlanders, two
companies of the Fifty-eighth, two com
panies of the Sixtieth, and 64 bluejackets
reached the "saucer-like summit" at 5 In
the morning. Soon after noon the edges
of the saucer were lined by Boers, who.
In practical security, shot down half or
our men, with Colley at their head.
Tho occupation of Egypt brought with
It sundry disasters In the Soudan. Hicks
Pasha lost an army of 7000 men. Osmar.
DIgna massacred the garrison of SInkat,
and Inflicted a heavy defeat on Baker
Pasha at Trinkltat In these cases the
massacred troops were Egyptians, under
British officers. In 1SS4 came the Nile ex
pedition for the relief of Gordon In Khar.
toum. On January 17 of the following year
TVe wop the battle of Abu Klea. Herbert
Stewart fell in another costly but still suc
cessful battle at Abu Kru. and Sir Charles
Wilson, with his small flotilla, pushed up
stream to the neighborhood of Khartoum,
only to find that Gordon's gallant stand
had ended with the massacre of his gar
rison and his own death.
This list of reverses within the past GO
years cannot be regarded as a long one. particularly serious, when we bear
In 'mind tho extent of our empire and the
multiplicity of our military operations. As
compared with our victories in the same
periods, our defeats shrink Into Insignifi
cance. The natural depression which over
takes us on the morrow of a reverse may
be to ssome extent relieved by thl3 consid
eration; for, after all, It 13 the same char
acteristic spirit of the British army which
I has at different moments risked disaster
and secured the final victory. And if it is
impossible to abstain from criticising the
authorities, when criticism Is necessary,
there Is no Englishman worthy of the
name who does not feel a sense, of per
sonal grief at the news of a disaster to
our troops.
0 j
Chambers's Journal.
Wni it T.nrfl "Ren.ncmsflcy'rt who. na Mr.
j Disraeli, wa3 once twitted with being the
I exponent of a "policy ot sewage : ac
i cording to Sir William Preecc. no loftier
subject can occupy tho attention of man;
and, according to him also, an ancestor of
1 the great premier Moses, to-wit wns
"the greatest sanitary engineer the world
had ever known," and the Book of Le
viticus was "a. treatise on hygiene." The
Jew was tho healthiest and Ionsest-llved
type of humanity, and the doctrines of
( Moses could be summed up as the ob
jects of .sanitation today namely (1) pure
air, (2) pure water, (3) pure food, (4)
pure soil, (5) pure dwellings, and (6) pure
bodies. Pure air, he said, was to be found
in lunatic asylums, jails, and workhouses;
but not In our churches, theaters, railway
carriages, or dlninsr-rcoms even the dln-
Jajocm -ox.' equt- -"dearest friend."
oni bug
i .firfrafe
Not a darlc ofllce lxx tho balltllnai
absolutely llrcuroof; electrlo Hchta
and artesian water; perfect sanita
tion and thorough, ventilation. Ele
valors ran tiny untl night
AEKAMS, "W It. Cashier Mutual tire 40fl
AXDERSOX. GOSTAV. AKomey-at-IJiwv...di:i
ASSOCIATED PRESS; E. L. Powell. Jlgt ...30J
tfoines. la.; C A. UcCargar. State Affent..502-3
BEHXKE. IX. ".. Ptla. hernia Shorthand
School ..... ...211
BENJAMIN. R. VT.. Dentist... ...,....3U
BINSW ANGER. DR. p. S.. Phys. & Sur..M-412
BROERE. DR. G. E.. Physician 412-413-4U
BUSTEED. RICHARD. Plus Tobacco.. ..602-C03
CAUKIX. G. E.. District Agent Travelers
Insurance Co...... ........................ ...713
CLARK. HAROLD. Dentist 314
CLEM. E. A. SL CO.. ll'nlne Propertlea...315-31tI
CORNELIUS. C. W.. Pays, and Surgeon... ..2Qtt
COVER. F. C, Cashier Equitable Life 30J
COLLIER. P. F.. Publisher; 3. P. ilcQulro.
Manager 413-410
DAY. J. G & r. N 313
DAVIS, NAPOLEOX. President Columbia
Telephone Co ........607
DICKSOX. DR. J. F.. Phye'.eian 713-714
DRAKE. DR. H. E. Physician 512-513-31-t
L. Samuel. Manager; F. C. Cover. Cashier .300
FALLOW?. MRS. M. A.. Manager Women'
Dept. Mutual Reserve Fund Life, of New
York -.. 603
FEXTON, J. D , Physlctan and Surgeon..309-S10
KENTON. DR. HICKS C. Eye and Ear. 31t
FENTON. MATTHEW F.. Dentist ...3W
Stark. Manager .......................301
FOREST. MRS. E. R . Purchasing Agent.. ..717
FRENCH SCHOOL (by conversation); Dr. A.
Muzzarelli, Manager .......................700
GALVANI. W. H.. Engineer and Draughts
man ......................600
GEARY. DIU EDWARD P.. Physician and
Surgeon .....................212-213
G1E3Y. A. J.. Phvslefem and Surgeon 700-710
GODDARD. E- C & CO.. Kooiwear. ground
floor .129- Sixth street
GOLDMAN. WILLIAM. Manager Manhattan
Life Insurance Co.. at New York 200-210
T ; "j .- .1 NIC S.. Altorney-at-Larr 1117
HAMMOND. A. B . 310
HEIDINGER. GEO. A. & CO.. Piano and
Orpina 131 Sixth St.
HOLLISTER. DR. O. C. Thyv A Surg...S04-3
IDLEMAN. C. M.. ..418-17-13
KADY. MARK T.. Manager Pacific North-
neat Mutual Reserve Fund Life Aseo... 804-603
LAMONT. JOHN. Vice-President and Gen
eral Manager Columbia Telephone Co.. COS
LITTLEFIELD. H. R.. Phys. and Surgeon. .200
MACRUM. W. S.. Sec. Oregon Camera Club..2H
MACKAY. DR. A E.. Phys. and Surg....7U-7U
MAXWELL DR. W. E . Phys. & Surg. . .701-2-3
McCARGAR. C. A.. Slate Agent Bankers
Life Association 302-503
McCOY. NEW ION. Aornjr-at-Law 713
McPADEN. MISS IDA E.. Stenographer.... 201
McGINN. HENRY E.. Attoray-a;-Law..311-313
McKELL, T. J., Manufacturer .representa
tive 303
MILLER, DR. HERBERT C. Dentist and
Oral Surgeon ...........803-009
MOSSMVN. DR. E. P.. Dentht 312-313-3W
New York. W. Goldman. Manager 209-210
Mcelroy, dr. j. g.. pys. & surg 701-702-703
McFARLAND. E. B.. Secretary Columbia
Telephone Co...... .......600
McGUIRE. S. P.. Manager P. F. Collier.
Publisher 413-418
McKIM. MAURICE. Attorney-at-Law. 300
York; Wnu S. Pond. State Mgr..... 404-403-400
M. T. Karty. Mgr. Pacific Northwest.... 604-603
NICHOLAS, HORACE B. Attorney-at-Law..713
XILES. M. L.. Caeh'er Manhattan Life In
surance Co.. of New York.. 209
Dr. L. B. Smith. Osteopath 403-400
OREGON CAMERA CLUB 214-215-216-217
Behnke. Prin .........,2tt
POND. WM. S.. State Manager Mutual Life
Ixw. Co. of New York 404-405-400
. ....Ground floor. 133 Sixth street
PROTZMAN EUGENE C. Superintendent
Agencies Mutual Reserve Fund Life, of
New York 604
PUTNAM'S SONS. G. P.. PulHher-,. ...... 013
QUIMBY. L. P. V'.. Game and Forestry
Warden 716-717
REED & MALCOLM, Opticians.. 133 Sixth street
REED. F. C. FUh Commissioner....... .....407
SAMUEL. L., Manager Equitable Life.... ...300
SANDFORD. A. C. & CO . Publishers Agl. 513
Jesse Hobron. Manager 515-310-317
SHERWOOD. J. W.. Demity Supreme Com
mander. K. O. T. M 51T
SMITH. DR. LB, Osteopath ..408-100
STARK. E. C. Executive Special. Fidelity
Mutual Life Association of Phlla.. Pa 301
STARR & COLE. Pyrography - 403
STUART. DELL. Attarney-at-Law. ..615-010-817
5TOLTE. DR. CHAS. E.. Dentist 704-703
STRONG. F. H. & G M.. Generar Agents
Union Central Life Ins. Co 402-403
STROWBRIDGE. THOS. II. Executive Sfje-
cial Agent Mutual Life, of New York 400
TUCKER. DR GEO. F.. Dentist 610.611
& G. M. Strong Agents. 402-401
DIST.. Captain W. C. Langfltt. Corps of
Engineers. U. S. A 303
C. Langfltt. Corps of Engineers. U. S. A.... 810
WALKER, WILL H.. President Oregon.
Camera. Club ....214-213-218-217
retaty Native Daughters 718-717
WHITE. MISS L. E.. Ass't Sec. Oregon Cam
era Club ...214
WILSON. DR. "EDWARD N.. Phys. & Sur 304-3
WILSON. DR. GEO. K.. Phys. Jfc Surg. . .706-707
WILSON. DR. HOLT C. Ph.vs. &. Surg...H)7-303
WOOD. DR. W. L.. Physician 412-4LI 4H
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to the rent cleric In the bulldlns.
Everything else fulls, Tho VACUUM TREAT
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all nervous or diseases of th ganonulve organs,
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If "
djp ft S "atralll
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