THE 3I0BMXG OREGONIAN WEDNESDAY, - OCTOBER 11, 1922 J-jTABUSHED by HNEV i pittock Published by The Oregonian Pub. Co.. 135 Sixth Street, Portland. Oregon. C. A. MORDEN, E. B. PIPER. Manager. Kditor. The Oretronian Is a member of the As sociated Press. The Associated Press la exclusively entitled to the use for publi cation of all news dispatches credited to it or not otherwise credited in this paper and aiso the local news published herein. All rights of publication of special dia-r-.itches herein are also reserved. Subscription Rates Invariably in Advance. (By Mail.) Iaily, Sunday included, one year . . . . 00 Iaily, Sunday included, six months .. 4.-5 lially, Sunday included, three months 2.2o Xiaily, Sunday included, one month ' Pally, without Sunday, one year B OO Daily, without Sundav. six months .. ..) Iaiiy, without Sunday, one month ... .60 uodav one vear - - 2.QU (By Carrier.) Daily, Sunday included, one year $9.00 Daily, Sunday included, three months -.o Daily, Sunday included, one month . . - 5 Daily, without Sunday, one year 7. SO Daily, without Sunday, three months J.95 Daily, without Sunday, one month ... 63 How to Remit Send postofflce money order, express or personal check on your local bank. Stamps, coin or currency are at owner's risk. Give postoffice address in fall, including county and state. Postage Rate 1 to 16 pages, 1 cent: 3s to 32 pages. 2 cents; 34 to 48 pages, 3 cents; 50 to 64 pages. 4 cents: 66 to SO pages. S cents; 82 to 96 pages. 6 cents. Eastern Business Offices Verree & Conkiin, 300 Madison avenue. New York: X'erree & Conklih, Steger Building, Chi cago; Verree & Conkiin, Free Press build ing, Detroit, Mich.; Verree & Conkiin. llonadnock building, San Francisco. Cal. I MIGRATIONS OF 1839. ' "Uncle Joe" Cannon, as he jour. Tieys westward this week over the route which he and his parents traversed eighty-three years ago in emigrating from the hills of North Carolina to the fertile lowlands of Illinois, presents a study in con trasts that gives reality to the ro mance of American life. The first Journey was made by ox team through a region not always pro vided with passable roads. "Uncle Joe" now rides in ease and comfort in an automobile. If his parents were exceptionally fortunate, and met with no accidents on the way, they might have expected to travel fifteen miles in a day; it will not greatly overtax the endurance of a man of eighty-seven now to make twenty times that distance between early breakfast and late dinner time. Moreover, he w il 1 pas's through a country nearly every foot of which has been reclaimed from the virgin wilderness in the lifetime of one who still lives to tell the tale. In 1839, the year of the Cannon trek, the first immigration to Ore gon was being organized in Peoria, only a short distance from the re gion for which the Cannons were bound. The immigration from the east to the Mississippi valley was jnearly coincident with the emigra tion from the valley to places yet farther .west. The outstanding social phenomenon of the fourth decade of the century was its uni versal unrest. The early, thirties in this country, as James Christy Bell Jr. reminds us in his "Opening a Highway to the Pacific," were a period of rash, buoyant, hopeful prosperity. "Paper, printed either as banknotes, or as plats of cities which could never be, was plenti ful, and was thought to be as good as it was represented to be." Speculation was frantic in tone; stability of business conditions, regularity and fundamental sound ness, were not only disregarded but probably undesired. There was no well-ordered system of develop ment of a country the resources of "tVhich were beyond estimate. There followed the panic of 1837, the "consequence of overaction in all . departments of business," as Van Buren suggested; the embarrass ments of that year were followed by the second suspension of specie payments in 18 39; this and the cumulative effects of a "boom" built on abstractions which took no account of future necessitiy for liquidation were responsible for the paradox that people were begin ning to move out of the upper Mis sissippi valley at the same time that others from farther east were moving in. If the Cannons had lived in Illi nois instead of in North Carolina in 1839 it is probable that they would , have been among the immigrants to the Pacific coast. The vast movement of which "Uncle Joe's" present journey reminds us was due to the most widespread social chaos that the republic has ever experienced. It was founded on the universal desire of people to Improve their situation, while they "'had but nebulous ideas as to how improvement was to be effected. The 'notion that anywhere else must be better than the place in which the citizen then dwelt was held by an enormous majority of Americans in about 1839. Those who went to Illinois in that year, as the Cannons did, and during the decade of the forties, prospered accordingly as they prof ited by the lessons of the previous decade; and this was also true as to those who at the same time were seeking the end of the rain bow farther out toward the setting Bun. It probably would not have been true, however, as some his torians have assumed, that the eame people would have equally prospered if they had remained at home. JThe ultimately stabilizing Influence of those momentous mi grations, the outlet they furnished for boundless energy and seething discontent, and moreover, the se lective quality of their practical operation, were more far-reaching than the annalists of the period have usually taken into account. WHAT IS BRING DONE FOR VETER ANS. Although the veto of the bonus bill and the vote of the senate sus taining it have decided that no bonus is to be given by the govern ment to able-bodied veterans of the world war, the government had down to September 1 expended $1.. S42.21T.01O on provision for sol diers' families during the war, on insurance, and on hospital care and rehabilitation for the disabled and nieU veterans both during and since the war. Kvery provision is being made to care for sick and disabled veterans In hospitals and for their continued vocational training, and this work will continue as long as the need exists. . The entire sum paid in pensions and in cost of the pension system from 1866 to 1921 inclusive was J6.1-S1.7S9.76S. The number of pensioners attained the maximum of 999,446 in 1902 and was still 566,053 in 1921, including mainly veterans of the civil war. There is no doubt that, as age and infirmity overtake the world war veterans. increased provision will be made by congress for those who need it. Almost a third of the sum ex pended on the civil war veterans in 55 years has already been expended on the world war veterans in little more than four years. From that fact we, may infer, regardless of the bonus bill, what large sums will yet be expended on their account for many years to come. There was certainly inexcusable neglect of the nation's duty to its defenders during the period of de mobilization, but there is no neg lect of the disabled at the present time, or if there is it is quickly remedied. Defeat of the bonus bill does not mean that the nation re fuses to do its duty; it means that one manner of performing' that duty has been rejected. In what manner that duty shall be per formed will be decided in the near future or as soon as it becomes urgent. - liOFTY -PURPOSE DEBASED. The people of Oregon cheerfully made a substantial sacrifice when they -authorized state aid in the form of money or loans to the ser vice men of the world war. There was, too, an element of solemnity in thus compensating loss suffered at the behest of patriotism. Because ojthese things attempts by realty owners to profiteer off state or veteran are peculiarly worthy of stern attention from the law. The bonus law is liberal in the matter of loans. It asks put a small mar gin in excess of the loan as security. By being far more liberal in the ratio of loan to security than pri vate capital ever was and in charg ing much less than the market in terest rate for money, the state takes a moral risk, confident that men who have pledged their lives to it in a crisis are of the stuff that does not evade a financial ob ligation. The honorable man hav ing to do with administration of such a law will look upon his part in distributing the fund as a sacred trust. Yet the world war veterans' state aid commission has discovered what it believes to be serious fraud in land appraisals in one of the central Oregon counties fraud by which an appraiser under appointment of this commission profited at ex pense of both veteran and state. The charges are that a trust has been violated, that the high ideals that should attend administration of this law have been degraded into quest for sordid graft. It is not proper that the incident should end with publicity of the charges, dis missal of the accused and re-examination of property appraised in his district. The case calls for thorough grand jury investigation, and prose cution if the charges seem to be sustained. CAME AS AN ASSET. Dr. T. S. Palmer, an expert In game conservation and an attache of the United States biological sur vey, makes the point in a recent bulletin of the bureau that the ten dency to look upon "game" as a means of recreation has largely ob scured the economic value of ani mals which occupy areas not utilized for any other purpose, which he finds upon investigation to be ex ceedingly large. Specifically, he estimates the number of deer killed in the country in a single year to have been between 75,000 and 80, 000. Taking the average weight of a dressed deer as 150 pounds, and the average value of the meat as 10 cents a pound, he calculates that this meat would be worth $1,250,- 000, while at 20 cents a pound. which is a much fairer estimate of the value of the domestic meat which it would replace, it would be $2,500,000. But the elk, which only a short while ago was shown to be threat ened with extinction by starvation and not as a result of hunting in violation of local laws, is an even more valuable source of food than the deer. It is heavier and conse quently worth more; mainly if it has reasonable opportunity it is better able to take care of itself; and "no big game animal," says Dr. Palmer, "is easier to raise on a preserve or in semi-domestication, when suitably located and provided with food." Hunting is now re stricted by law in the few states in which it is possible, but as has al ready been shown the hunter is not the elk's principal foe. Moose are still hunted In Minnesota and Maine, butare rapidly vanishing and the only moose worth counting are found in northeastern Canada. -The caribou in all likelihood would have been reduced to the status of the moose ere this if it had not been for the labors of a few de voted individuals who saw in this animal a potential means of saving the lives of the human' aborigines of the northern part of North America. But the movement, which had its inception in a hu mane endeavor to improve the eco nomic situation of the Eskimo, has within a few years developed an important source of food for the whites. The growing' importance of the caribou industry is but an indication of the possibilities at tending a wise policy of conserva tion of other game animals in the states. A news dispatch telling of the sale of muskrats for food in an eastern city at 50 cents each will not shock the sense of propriety of those pld-timers who used to eat the ground squirrel and found it excellent, or that of those pioneers of the upper Mississippi valley who knew that the so-called "prairie dog" was good food. These men were not deceived by an erroneous nomenclature and knew that they were eating neither rats nor dogs. But the cottontail rabbit, suffering under so such handicap of dises teem, is eaten in the eastern states in annual quantities that Dr. Pal mer fisrures as the equivalent of $5,000,000 in a relatively cheap meat. "More important than its value." he adds, "is the fact that a nutritious and relatively cheap meat is distributed and made avail able to persons who can ill afford to pay high prices for beef, mutton and pork." Peer, elk, moose, rabbits, quail, waterfowl in addition to moun tain goats and mountain sheep have a. distinct food value that gives them high standing in the economic scheme. The rabbit needs no conserving, being a pest to crops, but it involves a. problem of distribution in markets that have been shown to be able to absorb Jarge quantities. The other forms of game call for an enlightened policy by which they may be per mitted to multiply and subsist on ranges not required for other eco nomic purposes and by which they may be hunted when consistent with the preservation of the bal ance between nature and man. Solution of the problem, in the opinion of experts, ultimately will require modification of the hard and fast regulations which have prevailed In the past, and the sub stitution of a more pliable system by which open and closed seasons may be adjusted to particular and local needs. CONSIDER ALL USES OF WATER. The controversy as Ho whether the Columbia basin irrigation proj ect should be effected' by means of a dam in the Columbia river at the head of Grand coulee or by gravity supply of water diverted from the Pend d'Oreille river at Albany Falls simply demonstrates that all the uses of water should be developed together as parts of single scheme, no one being sub ordinated to the others. Power development is not subordinate to irrigation, nor Irrigation to power or navigation. All three are so In terlocked that they should be treated as parts of a whole. Ihe two plans for procuring water to irrigate the big bend should be considered from ihe viewpoint of the triple use of the river. Irrigation of that great area will involve high cost per acre at best, and the cost should not be en hanced by construction of works for one without regard to, or to the subordination of, the other two. It is certainly possible to provide water for irrigation and in doing so to .serve the purposes of power de velopment and navigation also. This would be the greater economy, for these latter uses of water would also serve irrigation. PROS AND CONS OF HARBORS. Collision between the steamships Lyman Stewart and Walter A Luckenback near the Golden Gate in a dense fog serves to remind us that there are only about half as many hours of fog off the Colum bia river as there are off the Golden Gate or the strait of Juan de Fuca, though our fog season is at hand. Every port is prone to magnify its advantages and mini mize or deny its handicaps, but all have some of each. San Francisco has just about enough depth in its entrance and bay, but is plagued with fogs. Puget sound has a wide, deep en trance and passage and deep har bors some of them inconveniently deep but has many fogs, and ships approaching the entrance in a storm run risk of being driven on the rocky coast of Vancouver island. The Columbia river was formerly obstructed by a bar, but now has a deep entrance wide enough for any navigator who takes ordinary care. The channel to Portland was formerly narrow and troubled with several shoals, but has been widened and deepened adequately for all but the very largest ships, and is being straight ened at the worst bends. Its fresh water is also preferred to salt water that is infested with teredos. The 'moral of it all is that a har bor absolutely perfect in all re- spects probably does not exist. ' Na ture always leaves some obstacles which man cannot overcome, some improvements which man must make, for nature's work is only done in the rough. After improv ing nature's work the best we can do is to set the good points against the bad and strike a balance. Then it is rash for one port to crow over the misfortunes of another, for it can never tell how soon some mis hap may befall. A PROPHET OF AGRICCLTCRAI. DISASTER. Eugene Davenport, for a third of a century dean of the Illinois col lege of agriculture and a widely recognized authority on farm eco nomics, takes -a gloomy view of the future of production of the prime necessities of life, based on the too, general practice of taking more out of the soil than is put back into it but he falls into the error common to prophets of pessimism, of neg- lecting to take account of the larger forces which, since long be fore the time of Malthus, laave op erated in unexpected ways to ren der prophecy futile and void. That Dean Davenport has a glimpse of this tendency of matters to adjust themselves before the worst has come to pass is apparent from some of the illustrations which he himself employs. . The picture ap pears dark to him, however, be cause the abuses are so manifest that they seem to overshadow those less apparent factors which ultimately must be counted on to rescue us from the slough of ere spond. For e x a m pi e, the so-called "nitrogen m y s t e r y." Writing in Farm and Fireside on the depress ing topic, "Will the Human Race Finally Starve?" Dean Davenport reminds us that "a good proportion of what we know of the science of agriculture has been developed within the third of a century of which we are speaking." It is not very long, as history runs, since the world had but a vague notion of the function of nitrogen in sustain ing plant "life and noted botanists were advising that "warts" be bred off clover roots, whereas we now know that the nodules on legumi nous plants are part of their mech anism which constitutes one of the master keys to soil fertility. About this time, as the writer goes on to say, a noted British economist pointed out to a veteran agriculturist that within his life time England had virtually ex. hausted the guano beds of the South Sea islands, which had been thousands of years in forming. As is also well known, the South American nitrate beds have since been developed and give promise of supplying world needs for a long time to come. This resource, how ever, lacks permanency, since even an immense supply must in time come to its end, and obviously a. mere postponement of the cata clysm for a century or more cannot be viewed otherwise than with alarm. But the discovery of mo ment within the third of a century in question has been the process of fixation of atmospheric nitrogen, In which the formerly despised root nodules of legumes play so im portant a part, and which has been supplemented by mechanical meth ods of nitrogen recovery which in all probability will revolutionize the agriculture of the world. A better reason for present pes simism is given by Dean Davenport when he asks whether we are not using the results of scientific in vention and of Increasing capital, not to strengthen the country as a whole, .but largely to substitute idleness for labor and to cater to our appetites for ease and luxury. It is unquestionable that men do not now toil as incessantly and as assiduously as their grandfathers did, and while it Is undeniable that some of the benefits of Invention ought to be enjoyed in the form of wider opportunities for individual expansion, the issue suggested by the writer is whether the balance has been preserved whether the demand for leisure and luxury may not have been carried to an ex treme. . But he points out also that farming as now organized differs from other forms of business In the respeet that, whereas if another kind of business fails as the result of a bad guess as to what the pub lic will pay for, no great damage has been done beyond a certain loss to individuals which does not im poverish the country as a whole, the farmer,, be he ever so ineffi cient, will not fail in the eense that business fails so long as he con trives to keep out of debt. The writer goes on: He will live cheaply, rear a large fam ily of children and work them to the Iimlt and take everything possible out of the land. If there were oniy here and there an individual of this sort, there would be little Involved beyond the social damage to the community. But there are thousands of people of this class on the farms of the eountrv. Thev are gradually being crowded onto the pooret tanas, to De sure, out they are a damage to any soil because they take without giving back. Dean Davenport observes, as an example of socially wasteful meth ods which have been employed since the country was young, that we are finishing houses and mak ing furniture now with worse lum ber than that which went into packing boxes a generation ago." We used to make fences and pig pens of clear, stiff pine, and now it no longer exists, except as one of the rarer woods. But a fact of im portance, which he ignores, is that forest conservation has long been scientifically practiced in other countries than in the United States and is making rapid headway in thiB country, and that the funda mental reason for the so-called waste of a generation ago was that men were then compelled to re gard conservation and waste in terms of labor and tune. Denuda tion of woodlots was not waste a third of a century ago in the same sense that it is now, because rela tionships were different, and be cause timber, for which there was no transportation and little market only cumbered the land. So also the invention of many substitutes for wood for purposes for which timber was formerly exclusively used bears a relation to the indus try similar to that which the dis- covery of nitrogen fixation bears to threatened total depletion of the soil. The prophet of disaster serves a not unuseful purpose in directing attention to conditions which ought to be remembered speedily. There is scarcely a statement in Dean Davenport's review that is not a true picture of present conditions. We are very rapidly building up a great country," he says, for illus tration, "but very largely at the ex pense of the virgin fertility of our lands." The land is not properly drained, it is not properly fed, nor are its betterments , what they should be, considering that this generation of farmers is mining out of its natural store more than any other generation has ever mined out before or ever will be able to mine out again." But it is also true that necessity has a way of forcing its own remedies, that genuine crises are always recognized in ad vance of their coming, and that the changed popular attitude toward scientific agriculture which has come about in the past generation is not the product of chance. The crowded situation of all the institutions in which husbandry is taught,' the multiplication of ex periment statio"ns and demonstra tion farms, the closer contacts of farmers with each other and with numerous sources of information. the constantly increasing number of individuals who are able to make a living from the land while they are also improving its condi tion are measurable offsets to the deplorable fact that bad farming continues to impoverish land. We are unduly pessimistic if we fore cast world starvation on the sole ground that a single generation has not sufficed to overcome the cumu lative waste and extravagance of centuries before. A valuable aid to understanding of the near east situation is a map of. that region published . by the Irving National bank of "New York. Designed primarily for use of those who are engaged in foreign trade, it is also an aid to understanding of the political situation. The map embraces southeastern Europe, in cluding the Balkan countries and the states formed out of Austria- Hungary, southern Russia, and Asia as far east as the Indian bor der.- It also shows steamer routes, railroads, navigable rivers, caravan routes, wireless stations, consular offices, and the natural resources and trade possibilities of each country, also population and rain fall. It is an aid. to intelligent reading of the news and to business as well. I The kaiser's new bride will call herself "Queen Wilhelmina of Prussia." which is one title that no American heiress seems to want. There are 112,8 73 voters regis tered in Multnomah and a safe guesa is -that all but the three last figures will be counted. Now and then you see a man in prime health eating an apple. Per haps the apple does It the Oregon apple. ' The trouble with the tax con servation commission is that it de clines to be ornamental. When you read that a "masher" as been arrested, it doesn't always mean a moonshiner. The ex-kaiser is feeling like every other old widower as the day pproaches. 1 Fifteen candidates for city com missioner will make a battle royal. Peace or war is up to Angora, as good a goat as any. "Rain," says the weatherman. Where? SCRE WAT TO INJECT STRIKE f Traasfer of Rellgrtoae lastraettoa to Psblie School ta Caase Troable. PORTLAND. Oct. 19. It seems to me that many writers in favor of abolishing the private schools are setting themselves into" hot water. What seemed at first an easy proposition is getting harder every day. Hence the many explanat'ons the contradictory plans, the wild suggestions. J. E. H. allows parochial schools. Lutheran schools, St. Helen s hall. Hill Military academy and others the right under the new statute to keen oDen nights, to teach the cnu dren there in their sleep or to hold classes in the moonlight. Keligion, according to his notion, is so much a "s'de issue" that it ought to ahun the light of day, be crammed into the child s mind when It is so urea by attendance at school during the day that it cant keep awake a aurht. If religious teaching is of so little account why bother about his plan of introducing it into the publ'c schools. "There is too little religion m the public schools." he ay. Then why object to those who want it taught outside the publio schools? I thought we were trying to keep religion out of the public school. That's what many say is the pur pose of the bill. But J- E. H. wants to turn the public schools nto churches of the different denomina tions. Our public schools would look like a real world's fair of re ligions with a Methodist, a Baptist, a Seventh-day Adventist, a Jewish and a hundred other denominational halls tacked onto them. Children of the public schools would get i fine idea of rel'gion with all the dif ferent sects warring against each other right before their eyes, who is going to teach religion in the .public schools? What religion will be taught? Answer these questions and we will fall for religion in the schools that are now free of re- i'gious strife. It all simmers down to this. Don't stir up a hornet's nest. Let well enough go. The parents who send their children to the public schools are satisfied. So are those who pay for separate schools. The United States hasn't blown up with both schools serving the cause of edu cation and Americanization in the past. It might blow up if a ne plan is adopted that won't work out but only give rise to religious strife. Mr. J. E. H. makes an awful blun der when he says that "the public schools will breed contempt for the church of Rome." Does he imagine any real supporter of the public schools will stomach that? He only indicates the underlying motive for his wild schemes for sidestepping the true purpose of the bill. The public schools will continue to in spire loftier sentiments, combat prejudice and prevent religious strife if they are allowed to remain as they are, free, public, non-sec tarian schools and all religious con troversy kept Out of them by allow ing those who want more religion to teach it at their own expense, in their own schools, to their own chil dren, according to their own con science, with the guarantee under the law now in operation that the other branches of education do not thereby suffer deterioration. D. S. D. HIGH TAXES MADE BY PIBLIC People 3fot Pierce, Olrott or Gump, Can Reduce Them. TANGENT, Or., Oct. 8. Oregon voters can elect Pierce if they so desire. A republican majority is no impassable obstacle; indeed, it gives proof that Pierce possesses no small degree of confidence in his ability as a oolitical spellbinder. With reliance upon his political as tuteness, he sallies forth, stumps a republican state on a platform de mauding economy, and apprises vot ters of his great secret taxes are too high and must be reduced. In gratitude for this staggering i formation, are we not' bound by honor to cast our vote for the demo cratic gubernatorial aspirant? For the present oppressive taxes the people have no one in particular to blame but themselves. War wages fostered extravagance. Large ap propriations meant but a few cents more on the thousand. The average voter, being a light taxpayer, will vote for anything that pleases his fancy or affords employment. The Portland vote on the fair is a case :n point. The supporters of the fait bond measure are undoubtedly trem bllng in their political boots iest the democratic deliverer rise up in his tax reduction wrath and place his everlasting kibosh on the whole proposition. . Waste is general in county admin istration and many, perhaps through necessity or revenge, filch a sub stantial share of their income from the counties of this state. When the commercial club crowd and the automo bile enthusiasts forced through the various bonding pro grammes, the -procedure was the very essence of simplicity, and every politician in the state shouted him self hoarse for good roads and those who ventured feeble protest were ridiculed as cranks and mossbacks and relegated to private life. A mosquito might bite through a brick wall and a world series baseball game might be settled by friendly arbitration with the players left in their clubhouses, but neither Pierce nor anyone else could have pacified the mighty clamor that resulted in vast addition to the indebtedness of the state. Road bond interest de mands payment and no amount vof political piffle can render the' pay ment painless. Belated lamentations on the road debt may help Pierce in a political way but will never make possible a lower license on automobiles. The road dollar never did its full duty and it never will. Taxes have been oppressive be tween elections and before poli ticians begin to cast about for at tractive catchalls for unthinking votes. Past decisions will keep these high when Pierce and Olcott are gone and forgotten. Candidate Pierce might effect some minor eco nomies, but genuine economy will probably be scorned in the future as it Has been in the past. Whoever may be elected, substantial taxpay ers will wish him a measure of suc cess, but the people need not ex pect much in the way of tax reduc tion, for they will not get it. We can vote for Pierce. Olcott or.An drew Gump; the situation will be unchanged. H. BLATCHFORD. Geese Lost la Snowstorm. KELSO. Wash., Oct. 9. (To the Editor) The Oregonian's editorial, "The Flight of a Teal." reminds me of Bryant's familiar lines to a wa ter fowl: "He who from zone to zone Guides thy unerring flight." During my boyhood in Michigan my father and I were digging tur nips .late one fall when a sudden heavy, snowstorm occurred. Above us we beard the honk of wild geese flying northwards as plainly lost as a man would have been under the same circumstances. W. H. W. Postal Civil Servian. PORTLAND, Oct. 9. (To the Ed itor.) Kindly state what studies one has to take in civil service, or where can be had books for studies for one wishing a position as rural carrier or postmaster. SUBSCRIBER. Write to civil service clerk) Postoffice building, Portland. ' Those Who Come and Go. Tales of Folks at the Hotels. "The iWillamette valley Is to be come a second Yakima or San Jose." predicts Louts Lachmund. former mayor of Salem. "The valley farm ers are producing fruit and small berries in a larger quantity than can be taken cafe of. We have several canneries in Salem,v which employ hundreds of men. women and children, but the crops are too large. We have cherries, berries and prunes, and in the peak loads the canneries cannot take care of all the stuff that is offered. The strawberry season, for example, is too short. We have too many fruits that cannot be handled by the can neries. To meet this demand we have built a cold storage plant. The plant is inadequate and so ws are planning; to increase its ca pacity 200 per cent. When the ca pacity of the cold storage plant is enlarged, we expect to take care of the berries and fruit so that the canneries can pack the stuff and take care of it after the peak has been reached. This is the only way that the crop can be cared for. In time, as the cold storage is de veloped, the many canneries will be able to work the year around." Potatoes are the main thins; In the life of George Burtt of San Francisco. Therefore when Mr. Burtt heard of the potato fair at Redmond. Or., he headed north. Mr. Burtt contends that the best po tato country in America Is in the Redmond section. To look over the exhibit Mr. Burtt has come to Port land on his way to eastern Oregon. The spud market has been rather bad this year, admits Mr. Burtt, and the price has been low. In Idaho prices are 50 cents per hundred pounds, which is too low for the growers to make a profit. Mr. Burtt is the owner of several thou sand acres of potato land near Redmond, the same land which has caused considerable argument be cause of the suspicion that it was to be farmed by Japanese potato experts. Mr. Burtt leaves tonight for central Oregon. Albert Johnson, representative of the third congressional district of Washington, passed through Port land yesterday. Representative Johnson, who comes from Hoqutara, was on his way to Camas, Wash., electioneering. He says that the republican congress has put up a stiff fight for the west. The con gressional delegations from Cali fornia. Oregon. Washington and the rest of the states west of the Rocky mountains, are fewer in number than the delegation from New York, but the western men stand together and by uniting in a common cause are successful in se curing appropriations which would otherwise be impossible. Mr. John son is conducting a vigorous ct,m pa'gn which will keep him busy ntil election time. W. 6. Caverhill. county commis sioner of Grant county. Is registered at the Imperial. Commissioner Caverhill is anxious to have the highway commission Improve the road from Pendleton to John Day. He registers from Caverhill, a post office which consists of 'his home a few miles from Long CreefrMn one of the most isolated sections of Oregon. Commissioner Caverhill, a graduate of the Oregon Agricultural college and a former school teacher. wants the road constructed so that he can get to Pendleton over the north fork grade without breaking his neck. In a canyon, in the heart of the range country, not far from where the state highway Is being surfaced with a substance which makes sli ver polish, is Long Creek. From this point come Mr. and Mrs. W. H. Crowley to the Imperial. The high- wajsouth of Long Creek is In trie forest reserve and a good grade Is now being established by the gov ernment. Reliance, a timber camp on the Tillamook railroad, is where E. W. Talbott registers from. Thred years ago Reliance was a virgin forest. but the logging operations have been so active since then that Re liance is now a field of jagged stumps, which present a problem to the producer. Captain William Wolff Smith, of the quartermaster department, ar rived in Portland yesterday on his way to Washington, D. C. Captain Smith was formerly a newspaper man, but reformed when he got into the army. James Bible of Long Creek was given a room at the Imperial in which he felt st home, for on the dresser was a red-edged volume which was the Bible presented to the hotel by the Gideon society. C. W. Barr. one of the prominent citizens of Astoria, is in the city, ac companied by A. J. C. Scheneider. THE HARVEST. I plucked a brlght-bued branch in autumn time ('Twas richly tinted, bending low with seed) And for its beauty carried it afar With autumn treasures, though 'twas but a weed. Then when it was a withered, faded thing I threw it csrelessly into a field And left it there with all Its rip ened seeds Where golden grain alone was wont to yield. The da ye and weeks passed, length ening Into years; Once more I journeyed through the selfsame land And to the field where virgin har vests grew. But lo, the flaming weed plucked by my hand Was growing in profusion 'mong the wheat. From one small branch a threat ening menace grown Like all results that rise from 111- timed deeds. Yielding a harvest that we would disown. JANETTE MARTIN. Mora Black Waloata EUGENE. Or.. Oct. . (To the Edi tor.) I indbrse the letter of J. C. Cooper, which urges planting more walnuts in weetern Oregon. The climate and soil of this part of the state seem admirably adapted for this tree. In 1968 I helped plant a black walnut at the southeast corner of Eleventh end Pearl streets In Eugene. This tree is now 11 feet 6 inches in circumference four feet above the ground, its smallest girth below the limbs. It was from nursery stock and not from the seed. It bears heavily every year and appears to be entirely free from all tree pests, freeze damage and other difficulties. It would be a fine thing if such trees could be planted along -all the main highways of western Ore gon. It would not be an expensive undertaking to piant the nuts st intervals of 100 feet on both sides of these highways. A black wal nut properly planted will take care of itself better than many other trees, as""its freedom from insect pests and its vigorous growth have demonstrated. GEORGE MELVIN MILLER. Burroughs Nature Club. Coryrlaai. Hoagataa-Mlfflla Co. Caa Yea Ainrar These Qaraitoasf 1. Do gulls dive for their food? 2..DO kangaroos show intelli gence? 1. Are milkweed butterflies some times smaller than usual? 1 caught one that looked like a milkweed, tut so much smaller. Answers In tomorrow's nature notes. Aaawera to Prevkeoa Oaootloaa. 1, Is woolly aphis a very rla nitr ous disesse on apple trees? Yea. troublesome In two ways, be cause It drains the tree's vitality by feeding on the roots and baik: a)d also opens an entrance for ap ple canker, a fungus that common ly starts In the wound made by woolly aphis. This canker plagues not only the apple, but beech, oak, hazel, maple, dogwood and some other trees. e. e 2. I saw a bird pecking at the trunk of a tree not boring In but I could not see that there was any thing to peck no caterpillars. What could It find? You give no description of the bird, but evidently It was a creeper of some sort hunting very fine food tiny lire or even eggs In the bsrk cracks. Though these might be In visible to the human eye. the bird's eye sees them, being able to mag nify and to adjust Its focus wonder fully. 1. How do oysters reproduce? 'By eggs, spswned In quantities by the female and fertilised after es caping in the wster. A swimming organ called the "velum" develops at once and for a few days the em bryo swims about while rudi mentary shell and organs start forming. Unless cauaht In cold storms and washed out to sea, the embyro then sinks, attaches Itself to some object st the bottom anil Is called "spat." When a trifle further developed young oysters are called "seed." SCHOOL DEBARKMENT POeBr,W Bill Permits No Dlaerlmtaatloa If I'adewlrable A Ilea laflax Comes. PORTLAND, Oct. 10. (To the Editor.) No doubt the best system of purely secular education In the world Is that found Irl the educa tional prlniiples of this United States of America. Becense of this men are Justly proud and Jealous of its interests and are deceived into thinking tnat It Is so Impreg nable as to be safe from contam ination or harm, even though ele ments inimical to its best Interests may enter into It. Because It is so thoroughly 10'i per cent Amerlcsn. they seem to feel that any sort of element dropped Into It will Immeditely be fused Into 100 per cent American Ism. But hustory teaches that na tions or societies are not elevated but are degraded by an Influx of an Inferior people, and will all his tory reverse Itself simply to ac commodate the fallacious arguments of the sponsors of this Oregon bill? Our American schools may Be compared to pure gold. Evidently. In the minds of the proponents of this misnamed "compulsory edu cation bill." other schools sre of a baser metal, else why make a law that will close them? But even if this were so (w hich It Is not I. what even then would be the prod uct if this baser!?) metal were fused with the pure gold of our present schools? Would It not Be a whole product as much baser is the fusion of the two would mske? Fuse again with this whole Infe rior product a baser metal, repeat ing the process, and the baser metal would predominate in the final pro duction till your pure gold would be swallowed up by the baser metal. This is, however, the very proc ess that will result to our public school system If sliens of every description and grade of moral character are forced by the provl sions of this bill Into the public schools of our land without any. provision of protection to our own American children. This bill, .f made into law. will not protect our school system and ssfeguard our country; but, on the contrary. It Is a menace to our children, will de stroy our schoools. and will Isy our American Institutions open lo the desecrstion of aliens who come to our shores. Parents who guarl their children's morals at home an I who wish to protect them from the old world influences of anarchy and bolshevlsm, which sre antl-Ameri-can, will not welcome a lew that will force this Influence Into thi public schools by compelling tho whole conglomerate mass of Immi grants' children without any dis crimination whatever to attend. Our public schools were not estab lished as reform schools, and should not degenerate to such. Our present school law which In sures to every child a proper edu cation In the English language under proper supervision and In spection, If enforced, will accomplish all the good that ran possibly be aimed at In the proposed bill, ani It contains none of its obiectlonal features. O. A. ROBEKTa. WAY TO CITIZEXHIP DIFFICt'LT Cost aad Dlffldeaca as Pahlle Test Are Deterreats. gays Writer. WOODBURN, Or., Oct. I. (To the Editor.) In a recent article The Oregonian suggests that men whs do not nsturalize may be stubborn. Some may be, but after hearing the court proceedings I believe there are a large number of men and women who have not the nerve to sit as prisoners st the bar to be questioned before an sudlence. It takes a very well-Informed per son to answer the questions If al lowed to answer them calmly, but if he shows by his snswer that he does not fully know history and e vil government, he Is then ques tioned a.ong the lines he seems weak on, and ronfused. So I say It not only takes a well informed person to become nstursl ized. but one with fight, w-ho wilt not let the questioner or Judge rat tle him. .There are a very larse number who cannot stand this rigid examination. and they can be dubbed stubborn, or what one likes. But suppose a man Is stubborn, what women of moderate means can have from iza to to natural. Ize with snd keep pesre in the fam ily? However, there Is no emanci pation without responalbillty and each woman must decide for her self, but we women know by ex perience that mothers who would like to help make laws to govern their homes and families will find It difficult to raise from 125 to l.e to pay necessary witness fees, etc. And when one considers the subject of witnesses, Is It not strsnge that any citizen who lives near you and meets you often In your home must be your witness whether he be a pro-erman. a hooch maker; one who wrongs his neighbor's dauih ter or steals his wife? The wnuld- be citizen Is at his mercy and Judg ment as to whether be would be a good citizen or not. If consistency be a Jewel, where Is the Jewel? Please help me locale It- il. I'. More Truth Than Poetry. Jly James J. Mealasrae. IMMlftE They have raked up Dumas from hi ashes To give him little more fame. On "The Three Muskettera" As It's filmed, there appears (In very small letters) his name. Great living scenario writers Have added their artistic touch To the swashbuckling play As presented ton's?. But It hatni helped Mm Very much! They have also made lienor Cec. vantes Co-author ef one of their piers. And his not wry bright But clellchtfii) old kmsht Has basked In the cinema's raya Cervantes was dead hen It hap pentd (Were he here he'd have died the spot ) They turned Into gold The brave tale the. he teld. But It didn't help Mm A whols lot! Thus far they've get meddled with bhakespeare. Not even the balcony scene Has appeared, up to date. . We believe we can state With full measure of truth, on the screen. They haven't filmed "Ham lei" Richard" Or "I.ear" or "Mecheth or the Moor; 8o Phskespeare Is blessed With a well-deserved rest. For Ms fame, for Ihe nonce. Is secure, see Only Fair. We wlah that capital and labor would arrange anma system toy which the public- could make pa Ml a. payments on the strikes. On Thtag After Aaathrr. As If living roats were not high mous-h. here rotnrs a new colored ptiRlltst to this country to give hltutlons for which Americans must pay ti a head to witness. e . All the Symptoms. We begin to suspect that Ihe mil ady the sick man of Europe Is at fllcted with Is rabies. (CnpTrlKht. lt52 ttr Hell Sv-Ilrsl. e October. Br Crset K. Hall. October waars her scarf of gray. Her red snd yellow gown. The woodlsnd paths are cluttered UP With leaves of russet brown. Anl from the pins trees overhead The petaled-cones come down. The stubble fields sre yl ow stilt. And from a rosdslde tree Red-shafted flickers pipe (heir notes In audden ecatssy; A pheasant cock lifts brilliant wings And darts by, temptingly. The rain will soon be on the roof, ' With slow snd rhythmic heat. The maple pods before the wind (Jo tumbling down the street; But Oregon breathes not of deslh Jn sulumn. fresh snd sweet: In Other Days. Tweaty-ftvo Yeara Ago. from The Or.sonlsn. Oct. II. 1T. Constantinople The sultan has appointed the minister of foreign affairs, Traflk I'asha. si the pleni potentiary of Turkey to negotiate the peace treaty with Greece Owing to Ihe Immense Oregon crop of fruit and the fact that prices for many kinds are not what might be desired, s numher of persona In various parts of the state will en gage In the business of distilling peach and prune brandy, applejsr. etc. Llrensrs for stt-ls may ha ob tained st the Internal revenue of f ice. The first story rr Ihe T. M. C. A. building on Yamhil street la up II Is built of white pressed brles. which Indicates that the building la going to be rather a handsome on. Washington. The pistol with which taulteau killed President Oar field has been discovered snd turned over lo the Washlngtou police department. Flffy Years ago. rrnm The f tr-eonts... rw-t , tT3 Portland la eminently a literary place If the number of books re ceived at the library la a correct index. The last ileamar brnusht 41 volumes, which ran now be found on the library shelves resdy snd wslt Ing perusal. On the 1'h Insl. Mr. Hallett grove his last spike and completed Ma i 1 -mi;e aectlor. of Ihe railroad. Olyrn. pla Is now within 1 j mi-Ba of the iron horse and the fearful hard ships Incident to a trip serosa the country to the Columbia river are now numbered among things of the past. I,ondon Journals foresee tha re election of Oram. The Tlmea eats "Greeley's cause Is a forlorn hope now snd will certainly fall." London Mr. Stanley, the discov erer of Livingstone, ha bsen r4r4 borne. ADMOXITIO OF BIBI.C lf.Ollt.3 V Rellgloaa fterta Mla la Mar Brtsr, gays C'orreoaoadeot. I'ORTI.AXO. Oct. 10 (To the F.d Itor The different r-lsi"us 'ii should be seeking a common road upon which sll muld trsvel In hsr mony. rather thsn to he doing those thlrgs which only serve lo etlr up hatred ef Christian for Christian, and, worst of all. setting esamplo wh'ch in eactl opposite of wiiat Is looked for from these penpu. Ir. their tex t-book t he Uilile there sre soma very slirple, very plain admonitions, which If fol lowed by all would bring utiivete-.l peace. To teach relist. .n in the schools would he to make the scheoia aecta'rlan. and widen the suif be tween the aerta. Chll" ' s"d schools of theolgv sre the place for Irachlng religion. Inough Ins writer cons.ders tt-s lea' hlng m'-st worthwhile, most I kely to set re su'.ts. to be tha rts.ly tearhir bv example In business snd aax-iai III A treed that la worth tssroittg at all shuuid l worm teat Mr s t el arrple every day of the w-k lie who weuld liaa hie broiher follow a certain road, needs lead Ibe wnv. not poirt It Habits r-f living wht. h mas has been centuries In forming rag ' be laid sslde s( ons would lay off s worn roat and d"n s :( fore, it Is not wis policy to ens' I laws which call for sudden and rad ical t'hansea. Many of the blue laws ahrw reisious seal earned In a point where c-tmmn eense and wis dom sre compit'y l"t siht cf Such laws sre very llaMe t back fire Korea will not wake a good Christian or a woilhwhne iti-m. gnct mas- 1 tl.