8 THE MORNTDCG OREGONIAN. FRIDAY, JULY 29, 1921 - ESTABLISHED BY HENRY L. 1'ITTOCK. Published by The Oregonim Pub'.ishinir Cc loo Sixth Street. Portland. OreKon. - C A. MOKDK.V. E. B. PIPER. " M.i iiager. " Editor. The Oregonian is a member of the Aaso- elated Press. The Awociiited Press is ei e.usively entitled to the use for publication a1' news dispatches credited to it or not otherwise credited in this pager and also the local news published herein. All rights or publication of special dispatches) herein - - are also reserved. , Subscription Rates Invariably in Advance. , (By Mail.) Dally. Sunday Included, one year $8 00 P.a',',y- f.unday included, six months 4.2 Iaily. Sunday included, three montba.. 2.23 Iaily. Sunday included, one month .j Xally. without Sunday, one year. . . . 6.00 Dally, without Sunday, six months 3.LV. Daily, without Sunday, one month 6u Weekly, one year 1.00 Sunday, one year 2.00 ,, , (By Carrier.) Dally. Sunday included, one year $9 00 Daily. 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The advance in knowledge -which made it possible for meteorologists two or three years ago to predict the rather warm spell which the world as a whole is now experiencing is an advance due rather to perfection of statistical records than to larger basic knowledge of the principles underlying the phenomena of cli mate. In Oregon, where, as we have had occasion to mention be fore, the climate is nearly ideal, we may not have taken notice of the nature of the weather with which the rest of the world has been visited, but the fact is that 1921 has been a remarkable year, meteorolog ically speaking, over a very wide area. The famine in China, for illustration, is chiefly due to aridity; central Europe and France have suffered heavily: Russia has had a crop failure not altogether due to bolshevism. There, are extenuating prospects of rain in some districts, but the average rainfall for the sea son is considerably below normal. It is not true, however, as a ood many have assumed, that the world's climate is changing appreciably, al though the weather varies from season to season. There is no authentic instance of appreciable change of climate within 2000 years. Abundant rainfall and drouth alter nate, although causes are as yet but imperfectly understood. The twenty-two-year cycle long accepted by scientists as a general rule is sub ject to variation because its com posite parts have not been analyzed and because its fundamental rea sons have not been ascertained. There is, nevertheless, a promising clue in the discovery of the peri odicity of sun spots. The sun-spot cycle of about eleven and one fourth years fits in a general way with known data concerning drouth and rainfall, but leaves something to be desired. The important conclu sion of the last twenty years, how ever, is that the puny works of man, such as deforestation, canal-construction, the plowing of land and the construction of telegraph lines, or even battles and bombardments, have practically no effect on weather and none at all on climate. And although precise data are wanting for' the earlier centuries of the pres ent era, the writings of the ancients, together with ascertainable facts about the flora and fauna of vari ous regions " indicate that within measurable periods climate has been about the same. The task upon which meterolo gists are now concentrating their attention of discovering if possible the precise nature of outside phe nomena which are associated with climate is one of great economic importance to the entire world. In its nature it is empirical, in that it involves a long series of trials and comparisons; science in this respect must be content to reverse the ideal method and reason from the spe cific to the general, yet if the un derlying principle shall ultimately be revealed generalizations of in calculable value will be made pos sible. If it can be finally stated with confidence that certain cli , matic cycles, even with variations within themselves, are certain, it .will be possible for civilized Jmen to devise a system by which the lean periods will be thriftily provided for .In the fat years." The principle which we now employ in between season storage will be possible of Indefinite extension. We already have accomplished a good deal in a more restricted field in meteorology. It is fairly well un derstood, for example, that in the immediate presence of a tropical hurricane there is small likelihood of heavy Tain in the northern part of the United States, although this Is more than likely to occur some what later, and in winter it is en tirely practical to forecast major disturbances, such as general bliz zards. This has been accomplished by the weather bureau with such certainty that livestock men no longer scoff at a service which has actually saved them from heavy economic loss. This has been made possible by the multiplication of weather service stations and by the perfection of the telegraph; it should not be confused wkh a study of first principles, but it is a step in the right direction. Weather bu reau forecasts in a large sense are usually reliable, though the state ment is not as true as to purely local disturbances, which are af fected by minor occurrences, such as relatively insignificant air and river currents and the deflecting actjon of hill and mountain ranges. The value ct long distance fore casting, toward which scientists are working, is brought to mind once more by the extent to which the . predictions made two years ago have been fulfilled this year, and although it will be a mistake to suppose that ' the problem has been solved, those who know what patience is required in scientific investigation will com mend the meteorologists and wish them well. In some time perhaps not far distant we shall be abfe to plant crops with a degree of confi dence as to the harvest, which may mean that in prospectively dry years we shall sow grains best suited to arid conditions, and that In wet years we shall take advan tage of moisture, to the full. True scientists will be first to disclaim that this nasi yet been attained, but only the most sceptical will belittle the advances which have already been made. TRAFFICKING TTCHH STATE FUNDS. Whether ' the charges against Governor Small and Lieutenant-Governor Sterling of Illinois shall be sustained or not, the factional fight of which they are the outgrowth can hardly fail to bring about improve ment in the handling of state funds. The defense that it was legal to de posit the greater part of the funds in a bank owned by the treasurer and his friends, of which the state was the only depositor, and to use them in discounting notes for their profit may be technically sound, but such conduct is a plain violation of the spirit of the law and of the trust reposed in public officials. Their action did not agree with the re quirement that funds be deposited in banks which the treasurer con sidered safe and which paid the highest interest, for the state re ceived less than 2 per cent on the millions thus handled. This scandal is another added to many growing out of manipulation of state funds by politicians for their private profit in various states. They grew out of the idea that "public office is a private snap," which made the office of state treasurer most sought, though the salary is moder ate. Banks ' were allied with the ruling political machine and paid interest on state deposits, which went into the treasurer's pocket, usually to be shared with political friends. Political bankers are sel dom sound bankers, and when they failed the state was the loser. When laws were passed regulating state deposits and requiring that in terest be paid tothe state, not to, the treasurer, it was thought that a great advance had been made, but the methods followed in Illinois show that where there's a will there's a way to evade such a law. The real cure- is a generally higher concep tion of duty among public officials, which can be secured best by more careful discrimination on the part of the people in electing them and by other officials in keeping a check on them. Then men who would be come political associates of such men as Mayor Thompson of Chicago will have no chance of election, and men will be elected to other offices who will be more vigilant than were those who should have discovered long ago that Illinois funds were deposited in a phantom bank. THE CRCISE OF THE QUEST. Maps are simple enough as w spread them before us. There are continents, islands, seas, lakes, rivers and mountain ranges, all ar rayed for our convenience. Yet any number of men endured danger and hardship to trace those coast lines, or to discover and identify some fleck of land in mid-ocean. And some of them died. Of these sacrifices to geographical exactitude one is reminded by Sir Ernest Shackelton's proposed return to the mysterious antarctic. Late in August he will sail from England in his ship the Quest, to voyage for more than 30,000 miles in the Atlantic and Pacific oceans, and around the threshold of the South pole. While the various members of his staff are specialists in biology, botany and ge ology, and will contribute their findings to these sciences, the basic purpose of the voyage is to solve some of the problems of geography. The Quest will seek lost islands in both oceans, on its way. to and from the antarctic, and will attempt to prove or disprove the theory that Africa and America are linked by an under-water continental connection. But mostly it will attempt to pene trate the solitudes of the polar south. . Knowledge of the antarctic con tinent south of New Zealand and of South America was gained through the explorations of Captain Scott, Sir Douglas Mawson, and Sir Ernest Shackelton himself, but the ocean below the tip of Africa has not known a keel for almost a century. All known land in those waters is represented by the rocky cliff of Cape Anne in Enderby land, . and whether this is a part of the antarc tic continent or an island is one of the problems that Sir Ernest will attempt to solve. For some 3000 miles the region is a void so far as geographical knowledge is con cerned, and the cruise of the Quest may discover new seas or the unex plored coast of tne polar . continent. Mountain ranges may rise to tower ing heights, and strange species of birds and animals be found if the staunch little ship slips through the ice pack into open water, as she hopes to do. If she escapes the perils that will undoubtedly confront her, she will emerge from the antarctic near the Weddell sea, the possessor of information that has never be fore been revealed to man. Thence she will turn north through the Pa cific for New Zealand, diverting her crew with less - strenuous explora tions. She will seek for the south ern seal herd, that men believe to have retreated to unknown islands, she will dredge and sound for the lost island of Tunaki, said to have been swallowed in the maw of the sea, and she will seek for Dougherty island, the very existence o which is doubtful. By Cape Horn and the Atlantic the Quest will turn home ward on the last leg of her long voyage, laden with a rich store of information. As ships average, the Quest is diminutive, being of approximately 200 tons, with a length of A11 feet, a beam of 23 feet and a depth of 12. Her steaming radius is 9000 miles and she also is rigged as a brigan tine. Her temerity in braving tne polar floes is not so great when one considers that the sides of the ship are two feet in thickness, of oak, pine and fir, and that her smallness is ideally adapted for the contest with the antarctic ice, where a ship must be adroit as well as stout. But of the spirit in which the Quest sails on her voyage of dis covery it should be said that her own timbers are not more resolute. For the Quest is a vessel without a crew. That is to say, she carries no professional sailors, but will be of ficered and manned entirely by the members of the scientific expedi tion. This fact appears to diso ciate modern science from the pop ular notion that scientists, somehow or other, always contrive to have the hard work done by hire. The adage that an ounce of pre vention is better than a pound of cure has been frequently justified recently, as, for example,-by the ex hibit made by the National Tuber culosis association in annual con vention, by the declaration of the American Medical association that the public aspect of private health should receive greater attention, and by the appeal of certain physicians of France for aid in disseminating education in hygiene. The display made by the Tuberculosis associa tion consisted principally of methods of teaching the principles of health to the children of the country. Parades and pageants, motion pic tures and marionette shows are em ployed to remind the young that proper selection of food, use of fresh air, wearing of suitable clothing and avoidance of contact with contagi ous maladies offer possibilities of health in after life which have hith erto been overlooked. Even if physical comfort of good health were not considered, the tendency would be altogether desirable. Pre ventive measures are far cheaper in the end than doctor's bills. A ROUGH RECEPTION TO THE SPIRITS These are hard times for the spir itualistic medium who resorts to material things under cover of dark ness to practice deception. Modern invention has placed in the hands of sceptical investigators or true be lievers too many devices for turning on the light. At a recent seance at Lake Pleas ant, Mass.,"'Chief Rheamont under took to recall from the other world some spirits, bringing their trumpets with them. Converse Nickerson, -a spiritualist who regards such an ex hibition as a discredit to the cult, turned on a flashlight as the spirits entered. Rheamont struck him on the head with an unspiritual trumpet and cut his scalp, holding a guitar in the other hand, though he was supposed to have been tied .tight in a bag. If the ceremonies are to be dis turbed in such an unseemly manner, it will be necessary to search the spectators and divest them of flash lights and tie them in bags. Other wise no well-behaved spirit will re visit the world to be mixed in a. free fight with a crowd of grossly ma terial human beings. SIX THOISAXD A YEAR. As a people we have odd notions of affluence. If we think of inde pendent incomes it is always in terms of thousands by tens and twenties. Even these fancies seem beggared by the plethoric actualities of great wealth. So it must have appeared to an eastern man, scarcely out of his youth, who could not devise for himself a ' rational plan of enjoyment on an independ ent income of' $6000 a year. To him the sum was a pittance, without pos sibilities. By his own naive admis sion he tj-pifies that strange trend toward exaggerated notions of what constitutes a competence, a trend that is un-American but not par ticularly perilous. Not perilous at all, save to the individual, for the sufficient reason that most Ameri cans are workers and earn by actual toil far less each year than fortune dropped in this complainant's lap. Six thousand dollars a year is a goodly sum. It will suffice for European travel, for the exploration of strange lands overseas, for an in timate acquaintance with the won ders of America. To be sure, the sum will not provide for those ex travagances that are quite aside from travel and sensible enjoyment. But it will, for instance, maintain most excellently a fine home, enable its possessor to keep his own car, free him from all other pursuits to seek-his own pleasure or follow his own hobby. One cannot feel the least pang of sympathy for the duf fer who doesn't know what to do with it. The case is hopeless. Perhaps the most suitable suggestion that can be offered is that the troubled posses sor of so much casual wealth pro ceed forthwith to endow a modest home for old folks. Having attended to all necessary details, and effec tually divorced himself from his annuity, he should then enter said home and retire to that dotage that has prematurely claimed him. THE BASIC FAR EASTERN" QUESTION. When the great powers meet to seek an agreement on far eastern questions, they will have much more to decide than the particular ques tions now at issue. Whatever agree ment they may reach as to Yap, Shantung, Siberia, immigration and exclusion will be , application of policies under "which the white na tions and the Japanese shall live side by side in the same world peaceably and in co-operation in all matters which bring them together. Successful outcome of the confer ence hinges on mutual recognition of irreconcilable differences between the two races and of their right to live, grow and prosper. That im plies that each race shall concede the right of the other to expand into new, unoccupied or sparsely oc cupied fields and to live in its own way according to its own standards. Unless a complete, fundamental agreement is reached and faithfully observed, danger will grow that an affirmative answer must be given to the question: " "Must we fight Japan?" which is the title of a book by Professor Walter B. Pitkin of Columbia university. It is an ex haustive discussion of the Japanese problem, which deals fully and frankly with the influences that have been causing the United States and Japan to drift toward conflict. Each has formed a misconception of the other which leads it to as sume superiority and thus to wound the other's pride. The danger from the side of Japan consists in the great similarity of ideas, government and economic conditions to Germany in 1914. That from the American side consists in our habits of thought as to Japanese aggressive designs, reaching for commercial supremacy and colonization of this country. Forces that make for peace are disillusionment of both nations as to the value of war in getting re sults, the solidarity of the intellec tuals of all nations in anticipating and blocking international crises by open debate and publicity, the shaky financial condition of the whole world, Japan in particular, which gives strength to the disarmament movement, and the economic de pendence of Japan on the United States for raw material and ma chinery. What might prove to be the most powerful influence for peace is the practical impossibility of successful invasion of either country by the other. This is demonstrated with much force, and the case is summed up thus: Japan today is impregnable against ene mies from without. Just as Germany was, and for similar reasons, geographical and economic In this respect both countries are like the United Slates and Russia. i This conclusion, however, does not take into account the latest and the future developments of the ma- chinery of war. We need only speculate on the possibilities of air- craft, poison gas and long-range artillery in prder to recognize that in the next war the belligerents may dispense with the necessity of transporting great numbers of men and vast quantities of material across oceans, and may with the latest implements overpower the supposedly impregnable defenses. These possibilities are so terrible that the most militarist nation "may well quail before them and may submit to the rule of reason rather than run such risks. The crux of the whole problem is shown by Professor Pitkin to be Japan's need for more room for its overflowing population which has run counter to the determination of the American people to preserve their standard of life and their racial purity by preventing overflow into this country. At the present rate of growth without a great outlet it is predicted that Japan will face a crisis about the year 1960 at the latest. On our side the experience of California is proving the sound ness of the natural law that a low standard of life always supplants a high standard with which it comes into competition, and this process is aided in this country by the general drift of population from country to city and in California by the languor that overtakes white men in a hot climate. Effective exclusion except by agreement is rendered imprac ticable by the long southern frontier and by Japanese control of Cali fornia fisheries which afford facili ties for smuggling immigrants. Then In order to top the flood, "in the next thirty or forty years we' must do our part in making it easy for at least 20,000.000 Japanese to find homes abroad.". Japan already has Corea and Manchuria, which have six times the area of Great Britain, with great undeveloped wealth. It is suggested that "we should look favorably upon extensive migrations of Japanese into Siberia, Mexico and South America." As the latter two countries already have a hybrid population, it is held that no objec tion would or should be raised to another racial ingredient. In order to fortify our own popu lation against being supplanted by Japanese or other races of a lower standard of life and of alien culture. Professor Pitkin proposes that we force up the standard of living of the lower economic classes, put a stop to immigration or greatly re duce it and practice scientific birth control. He would turn the tide back to the country by adopting the. plan followed by Elwood Mead in Cali fornia to make country t life both pwrfitable and attractive1 a plan which would be furthered by ex tensive reclamation and by making good roads and community centers on the tracts. An immigration Jaw of the kind mentioned is in force, though it may need more rigid en forcement. Birth control will not commend itself to the moral sense of the people, nor does it commend itself as a matter of policy. The professor admits that, in general, nations of low birthrate show so low a deathrate as to have a larger net increase of population than nations of high birthrate and - high death rate. He also concedes that Japan will be slow to adopt birth control but will lower its deathrate by im proving health and sanitation. More attractive is the suggestion that a drastic plan of disarmament be adopted and that of the money thus saved the United States spend a large proportion in improving farm life, bothy economically and socially, and that Japan make like expendi ture in assisting emigration to other than white man's countries. The task before the far eastern conference is far broader than one of considering the fate of Yap, Si beria and China. It involves the solution of economic, social and racial problems of worldwide im port, to which the domestic policies of the several nations would have to be adapted. This bespeaks a de gree of international co-operation such as has never been known and such as implies a more sympathetic understanding and unselfishness among nations than the present clash of interests gives us ground to expect. Apartment house landlords in Toronto are charging prospective tenants $2 just for the privilege of looking at vacant apartments. Per haps one of these days some phil anthropist will donate a vacant apartment to a museum and let the people see it for nothing. A man who stole five cigars has been sentenced to two years in the penitentiary. The court no doubt took into consideration that the high price of cigars these days puts them in the semi-precious class. Many of Portland's people have lived somewhere else sometime and when an old neighbor drops in in a flivver there always is a committee of reception to explain life in the finest city in the land. The ordinary married .man who thinks he has troubles should con sider the captain in the navy who is paying $250 a month alimony to two ex-wives as the ne plus ultra in "old hoss" dealers. A witness defendant is having dif ficulty in proving an alibi on a certain night. That is not remark able. How many men can establish their whereabouts on any particular night? The successful bidder for the Fos ter road sewer gets the contract for many thousands less than the en gineers' estimate. That is a healthy sign of a return to- early conditions. The Cove district is a small sec tion of Union county, yet it receives about $50,000 a year for its cherry crop, all outside money. Any other region can profit by the example. The conclusion we reach after reading of the train holdup near Paris by masked robbers is that France is taking those American moving pictures seriously. The navy isn't to join in the chase for rum runners of the sea. .The gobs don't rate many joy rides. Why can't some genius invent an airbrake to limit long-winded tele phone conversations? Congress has officially approved the 1925 fair. Now let's go. Portland for the peace meet. The Listening Post. "Vamp," Vampire and Bat Con nected. QHE'S a regular little vamp." O was the proud boast of a fond papa and we questioned his judg ment. Both he and the little girl's mother were angry at first, but when the explanation was given they agreed that it was no fit name for as cute a little daughter, and here is the reason. "Vamp," a wnr coined for screen actresses who exercise an uncanny power for influencing men, has grad ually come to be accepted as a word of praise. Vamp is a derivative of vampire, a bloodsucking bat. It coroes from the Serbian word wampir, and the Serbs, in common with many Russians and Poles, attribute ill to the vampire. They believe that a vampire is the soul of some person who came to a violent end by suicide, or who was cursed by parents or church. The legend has it that the vampire leaves the body at night and sucks the blood of living persons. To pre vent this they often drive a stake through the corpse, burn the body, cut off the head? or pour boiling oil over the grave. They believe that a person can become a vampire if a cat jumps over their body after death. Anyhow, it's no fit name for a dainty, innocent child. While we are on the subject of bats it might be well to-call attention to the little mammarls that fly about Portland in the evening. None of them are vampires; they are harmless. Vampire bats are found on this con tinent, but only in Central and South America. Portland's bats are tiny fellows, about 3 inches in length from tip of tail to head, with a wing spread of seven inches. They eat in sects only and are great for exter minating mosquitoes. In seeking for information The Scout called up W. A. Eliot of the Audubon society. . What does-- Eliot know about mammals, so Stanley Jewett of the biological survey gave the Information, for a bat is not a bird, but a little animal modified for flight by means of membranes used a-? wings. Take a look the next time you are around the public library, there are lots of bats there at night, chasing the insects that gather about the street lights. The bats are fast as chain lightning on the wing and get all their food while flying. Their cry is very harsh and during the day time they hang themselves upside down by means of tiny hooks on the elbows of their wings. Theynest under .shingles, in crev ices on the roofs of buildings, or in small dry caves, never where there is moisture. No, they do not lay eggs, they are not birds, but are tiny, mouselike animals, covered v-ith a dull red-brown fur, and they usually have three children at a litter. In the proper sense of the word they do not have feet, their append ages being more in the form of hands with a well-developed thumb. Some states protect bats by law on account of their value as extermin ators of insects. " There are about seven varieties in Portland. They are blind in daytime, but true noc turnal rovers. The agate industry in Portland is worth $200,000a year, according to estimates mad by O. H. Smith, who has the largest shop in the game. Smith is an Oregon boy. educated in Salem Jn'iph school, and has been cutting agates for seven years. Be first went into the business in Salem with E. G. Wallace and later opened a shop in Portland. There are eight firms here cutting agates commer cially, importing their stones from Montana, where they are found ir. huge boulders scattered over the prairie. , Many agates are found among the pebbles on the Oregon beaches, and the cutting of them is in the nature of a fad. but here it is a highly com mercialized business. The output of one shop, the largest, is about 500 finished stones a day at present, though they can speed up their busi ness to produce 1500 a day if neces sary. Germany is a competitor with Ore gon in the cut agate field, producing many stones that are. colored by chemicals, but all of the local product are In their natural colors. The Ger man stones are carved in many in stances and come waj below market prices as judged by American stand ards, but they do not have the tone and brilliancy or the depth of color that is found here, and this istwhat goes for beauty. Oh, yes! Agates come in many shades and are used for mounts for rings, for watch charms, pendants, and many other purposes. The agate is supposed' to ward off illness and bring good luck in certain combina tions and is the birth stone for -the month of June. Agates get their name from the river Achates in Greece, where they are found in abundance, but Portland is the world center for agate cutting just as Amsterdam has the best diamond lapidaries. J. E. 'Paulson bf Portland claims that he has a revolutionary power idea. He has a machine that uses water under pressure for drivings an engine, instead of steam or other more usual means of applying power to the drive. He has built a "dem onstration machine out of an old fire pump and a well-worn auto engine It is one of the strangest devices ever shown to local engineers and is prov ing a puzzle. Paulson starts his gas engine, it runs the pump, the water travels un der pressure into the cylinders and an old woods donkey engine -snakes logs around at a marvelous rate. The engine is said to be contrary to all ideas of mechanics in that the makers claim it gains power by having the solid water as an agent for appli cation and not steam, for they state that it is impossible for the water to lose Its force by condensation - and compression, as is the cage with steam. THE SCOUT. Bad Mixture Somewhere, ' Exchange. Woman You say your father was injured in an explosion? How did it happen? Child Well, mother says it was too much yeast, but father says it was too little sugar. Those Who Come and Go. Tales of Folk at the Hotels. "A grocer, the other day, went around to all the other grocers in Bend and ascertained the amount ot money' which tourists had left for groceries. Thetsum was $260 for the one day. 'one of this money would have come to Bend but for the motor tourists. And that sum was only for groceries. It gives an idea of what the automobile travel means." observed County Judge Sawyer of Deschutes, registered at the Hotel Portland. "The hotels are filled and every night the register shows tour ists from all parts of the country. Most of the tourist travel moves over The Dalles-California highway, al though a little goes through central Oregon to Burns. The typical tourist, however, comes into the state from California and travels northward. We have an automobile park which' is well patronized, but the tourists also fill the hotels." Judge Sawyer is of ! tne opinion that the big Benham Falls Irrigation project will eventually ma terialize, from information which he has recently received. Based on this information supplied by the Judge, the state highway commission yester day decided to locate a new section of The Dalles-California highway so that it will be outside of the reser voir. Part of the present road will be in the dam when the project is built. "We are doing about $2,500,000 of road work this month," reports Her bert i'unn, state highway engineer, tegistered at the Imperial. "We have I'.ever been moving faster than at present and the fact that there are so many contracts under way and the work is moving so steadily accounts for the ' large expenditure. The weather is perfect for outdoor work and the contractors, almost without exception, are 'hitting the ball' as hard as they can, for they want to complete present contracts in order to be in position to bid on new work for next year. There is scarcely a county in the state that hasn't some road work in progress." "About 90 per cent of the 'people in Roseburg are now convinced that the body found under the burning automobilo was that of Dennis Rus sell and not that of Dr. Brumfield." said George Neuner, district ' attor ney for Douglas county, who is in town. "At first," continued Mr. Xeuner, "public? opinion was about evenly divided In the matter of identity, but .the evidence was so un mistakable that onjy a small per centage of the people still think that the body might be that of the missing doctor. Anyway, we believe the doctor is responsible for the crime and we are trying to appre hend him. The $2000 reward will probably bring results." district for Scoggins valley, in Wash- ington county. L. M. Graham of For- est Grove was in the city yesterday. This is the first district proposed under, the new law enacted by the 1921 session of the legislature. Cre ating of the district is being bit terly opposed and the arguments have been going back and forth for the past three months. This morn ing Commissioners Booth and Bar ratt of the highway board will make a personal inspection of the country proposed to be included in the road improvement' district. "Wages in- the harvest fields range from S3 to $10 a day in our cotinty," savs Judge Fowler of Gilliam county, I - -. . . I 1 1 - . .1 r"v Arnn "Tildl registered hi iiic xm-ci straw bucks get $3 a day. On the smaller separators $7 a day is paid, but the first-class machinists on the big machines are drawing $10 a day." The Judge had a peck of trou ble just before coming to ' Portland. His combine became choked with wheat and it was a hard and dirty job to clearit and then he just had time to take a bath, shave, change his clothes and catch the train for Portland. "While the rains interfered with harvesting, the work is now starting and the prospects are good." said J. H. Peare, jeweler of La Grands, who was in Portland yesterday on his way to San Francisco. Once upon a time Mr. Peare was the fastest foot racer in eastern Oregon and just for exercise he would put on a pair of running shoes and trot to Hot Lake and back. Those were the days when there was keen competition among the volunteer hose companies in the smaller towns' of the suite and when the annual tournament was one of the big events. Sherman Wade, one of the promi nent wheat raisers of Gilliam county, aside from being a county commis sioner, is -at the Hotel Oregon. His mission here was to get the state highway commission to make the location of the John Day highway through the town of Condon, the way the people wanted. After a little heart-to-heart talk:, Mr. Wade and Judge Fowler "cut the mustard.' O. L. Patterson, judge of Grant county, is at the Imperial from Can yon City, a lively mining town in its day. The judge is an enthusiast on road development and since the coun ty recently voted a large sum of road bonds he is craving action and wants to exchange the bonds for finished highways. "There are so many conflicting ru mors as to what work is to be done on the central Oregon highway and the John Day highway in Malheur county, that I was asked to drop into Portland to find out what's what," observed Lloyd Riches of the Vale, Or, Enterprise. Mr. Riches has been attending the state editorial conven tion in Bend. x H. M. Farmer, one of the commis sioners of Tillamook county, is regis tered at the Imperial. He Is here to attend the highway meeting. The county court in Tillamook has a large amount of road work under way and the roads are being constructed on the right locations and built accord ing to state standards. Hugh McLean, who is still the post master at Marshfield. was a Portland visitor yesterday. Mr. McLean was appointed during the first year of the Wilson administration and was re appointed for a, second four years. He still has about a year in the office. Robert Townsend, for a generation a member of the "third house." aJ Salem as a member of the corps of the Portland Railway, Light & Power company, left yesterday for a tour of Alaskan waters. Minimum Wage for Clerks. . PORTLAND, July 25. (To the Edi tor.) What is the' minimum wage. and maximum hours per week for female clerks in Oregon? READER. The minimum wage for experienced female clerks Is $60 a month and the maximum number of hours per week is 48. ' " Now He Can Explain. Sydney Bulletin. City Youth What's that the calf is licking?,. Cow Farmer That's rock salt, my boy. City Youth Go hon! I've often wondered how corned beef was made. VMOS OF COLLEGES DEFENDED Dr. Pence Holds No Advantage Would Be Lost by Co-operation. PORTLAND, July 26. (To the Ed itor.) I notethe comments of the presidents of Pacific. Philomath, Mc- Minnville and Albany colleges upon my recent suggestions as to a changed higher educational scheme for Oregon. I also have read your editorial expression. I fully agree with their warmest contention as to the primal value of the human touch both within and without the classroom. Garfield's al lusion to the log with the boy and Mark Hopkins at opposite ends is a classic. . But the stress waa not on the log; it was on Mark Hopkins. The log may be sawed into chairs and a table, but no matter how fine the furniture, the higher educational process is induced around the human elements in juxtaposition. This we all know. But Williams college had one Mark Hopkins, and he is dead. If small colleges invariably commanded the Hopkins equation at the othr end of the log, or on the other side of the table, they could offer a compelling lure to compete with the greatest in- i stitution of learning with its remoter human touches, no matter who taught there. A great teacher blends the elements of strength and gentleness: he combines the moral qualities of character with the magnetic qualities of personality. He mingles informa tion with wisdom; he harnesses logic w'th imagery; he is a syllogistic poet, and what he is inculcates vastly more in determining the passionate devo tions of his pupil than anything he teaches. He is a bodied-up and ar ticulated culture within himself. He Is born every so often, not as often as could be wished. Betimes he becomes a teacher a professional teacher; he Is always a teacher, whether professionally or casually. But the greater university occa sionally gets him. He is no monopoly cf. the small institution. A man com bining these qualities less potently, I confess, can "effect" himself upon a small body of youth better than he could on a larger. My Insistence is that the so-called avowedly Christian to name it more specifically, the denominational col lege could be located at the edge of the campus at Corvallis or Eugene, maintaining all of the autonomy which it now maintains, that it could articulate Its curriculawith those of the state university, engendering its own life, traditions, atmosphere, cli mate, imponderabilia; that it could contribute an indefinable office in functioning the "higher" education to our youth. Better far, in my Judg ment, that one or more congenially minded denominations unite their means and energies in creating a foundation at the edge of the univer sity campus, concentrating upon en dowment so that they could avail to command for their fa'culty the ablest and most highly equationed men. 1 can conceive such a faculty, so per sonneled as to draw a bodv of vouth from far and near to drink at the fountains of culture and to breathe , ,l am?sf h"- . x Certainly the contact of vouth on the campus is a large percentage of their education. It is in a varied hu man contact of humans on the campus who must there largely learn to "live together" in anticipation of liv ing and working together that a university education takes special value. I repeat that not one cardinal ad vantage contended for by the worthy and honored presidents of Oregon col leges would be surrendered by the removal of their institutions to the edge of one of the universitv cam puses. If it has in bulk or quality of educational process or output something which must suffer dis advantageous by too close a neigh borhood, it then confesses itself in capable o, competition. If ft has nothing to offer by way of competi tion, it thereupon admits its failure, and ought to admit that it can offer no proper Inducement of superior ad vantages. I cited Oxford and Cambridge as Illustrating that a large number of colleges, each practically a unit in its culture, could be profitably and ad vantageously grouped around a com mon campus. I cited Toronto as an illustration of a plan very much more approximate to what is feasible in the states. And now I urge again, that as we are in the days of the new and un sclidified, when vast investments in physical equipment would not go to waste by removals, we may consider the wisdom of altering the forms of our educational schemes without sac rificing their essence or soul. Such a plan for eastern spates, in which many of the smaller institutions are deeply intrenched in virtue of invest ed funds in buildings, would be feas ible only at great sacrifice of values. But Oregon could effect such a con federation of educational programme at relatively small cost of wastage. It was in my honest belief that "such a plan unifies our whole state scheme of higher culture; that it re moves the serious objection of paral leling of the ways thereto; that it would evoke a publio interest in higher education; that it would jus tify and vindicate to the great pub lic fhat the culturaland Christianly conceived scheme of education could put a great soul into the whole uni versity campus, and thus advantage hoth itself in a great service and those served it was this, Mr. Ed itor, which led me to my deliverance. If a denominational college is a good thing, 'the larger the human constituency which itcan serve, di rectly and indirectly, the better. In deed, I might almost be emboldened to ask, is it fulfilling its full Chris tian conception and office if, being so good and worthy a thing, it should hold itself aloof from serving the widest possible constituency, especial ly when, by coming under the wider influence of service, it- finds its own proper destiny? In fine, may not a college, by seeking to save its life in fact be in .danger of losing it? - Certainly this discussion can do no harm, but rather good, if it - shall afford those responsible for the de nominational colleges an opportunity to renew their arguments for the rea sons for their existence. EDWARD H. PENCE. "Joint Snake" a Myth. BAY CITY. Or.. July 25. (To the Editor.) I am looking for a descrip tion of the "Joint snake." which I fail to find in our latest dictionaries. Please tell me "whether he uses the same joints again after he has been unjointed. L. S. M. The so-called "joint snake" is a myth. Naturalists know of no snake that is able to dismember itself and reassemble its parts at will. Belief in the existence of this fabled crea ture is believed to be due to confu sion with a species of lizard which discards its tail on occasion and subsequently grows a new one, but does not resume the -old. A type of this lizard, which is often mistaken for a snake, Is able to throw off its tail voluntarily as a means of pro tection, the act enabling the lizard to escape while the surprised foe Is oc cupied with the castoff and still wriggling tail. These lizards have the power ,of regenerating a substi tute tail, but not a true one, the sub stitute containing no true vertebrae, but only "a non-segmented tube of fibro-cartilage. Consult any stand ard encyclopedia, under "Lizard," for fuller description. More Truth Than Poetry. By James J. Montague. THE MAX WHO KNEW HOW. The cave man, when he Tound his wife was weary of her narrow life. And now and then on other men Bestowed caressing glances. Did not sit down and tear his hair, and wail in accents of despair, "As soon as she gets her decree She'll wed the man she fancies." Instead he told her to behave or be w-ould shut her in the cave; And if she sighed or cried or tried To see her handsome lover. He made no argument at all but took a hammer from the wall. And with its aid he quickly made A faithful help-meet of her. Divorce courts then were quite un known; a lady in the Age of Stone Had little chance for fresh romance. Once she was safely married. She soon discovered it would pay to love and honor and obey The man ehe wed till he was dead And most securely buried. Our modern lovers wed and part, then make a fresh domestic start. Get sick of that when It falls flat. And once again they sever. The sjmple honest cave man's course would do away with all divorce. But those old ways, like those old, days Are gone, alas, forever! Hero. Official life isn't all beer and skit tles. Look at the deputy sheriff who has got to take Jack Dempsey's car away from him. . Yon Know the Old Adage. A lawyer in New Tork. acting as his own attorney, lost a case of whis ky. Most lawyers who represent themselves lose their cases. Never Satisfied. Lord Northcliffe is now insisting ' that Great Britain ought to warm up another premier. Burroughs Nature Club. Copyright, Houghton-Mifflin Co. Can Ion Answer These Questional 1. 'What is the difference between moths and butterflies? 2. What is the best way to eradi cate poison ivy? 3. Do crows migrate? Answers to Previous Questions. 1. What species of snakes bore their way into the earth and what method do they use? All the blind snakes (family glau conildae), burrow. So do two boas of the southwest. The garter snake burrows in winter. The green or brown or worm snake, haldea stia tula, and the scarlet king snake or coral snake, orphibolus dollatus, bur row, though they also hide under loose stone, etc. The rainbow snake and the harlequin snake are also ex amples, the latter so dependent on burrowing that it dies in captivity, unless provided with dirt to burrow in. The method is pushing. . 2 What makes the fire in fire- flies, and is the light for beauty or for use? The "fire" is supposed to be caused by the action of oxygen brought by trachea (bronchial tubes, so to speak) in the insect's abdomen, on a fatty substance secreted by special organs. Its purpose is to give a signal to the opposite aex. It is noticed that where one sex has better luminosity than the other, the less-lighted one has the best developed eyes. 3. Will Baltimore orioles build in apple trees, same as the orchard ori ole? Yes. While the preferred tree of the Baltimore is the swaying elm. the bird also nests in the silver maple, sugar maple, and the apple tree, the apple ! tree being perhaps the least common building site. Baltimore ori oles are valuable in the orchard as they eat many caterpillars, including hairy varieties not liked by many birds. , Chapel Bells. By Grace E. Hall. Chapel bells at twilight. Calling the world to prayer. Echoes of silenced voices? Whispering everywhere; Music of throbbing pathos. Pure as angels' tears. Calling to consecration. Conjuring wasted years Tolling, tolling, tolling. Pleadingly through the gloom, Tenderly in the twilight. Fragrant with early bloom. Chapel bells at twilight O, how they urge and call! Waking a melancholy Deep in the hearts of all; Touching the latent worship In the sleeping souls of men, Striking harps, long muted, To vibrant life again; Tolling, tolling, tolling. Music of nameless woe. Beautiful bells at twilight. Tender and sad and low. In Other Days. , Fifty Yenrs Abo. From The Oreeonian ot July 20. 1871. - Paris The cholera, typhus, plague and famine are still raging in Persia and cannibalism is confirmed. The ccvernor of Shieraz has placed a guard at the cemeteries to prevent the unfortunates from disinterring the dead. Oregon City has a new fire bell. It weighs 750 pounds and cost siuu. Steps are being taken to remove the Indians, who have been an un mitigated nuisance in the north end of the city of Portland. Sneak thieves have been busy in east Portland and the city marshal has been equally as busy attempting to protect the homes of residents. Twenty-five Team Ago. From Tne Oregonian of July 20. 1896. Baltimore Joshua Levering was this evening officially notified of his nomination for president of the United States on the prohibition ticket The establishment of water mains in Sellwood has been of great benefit to the suburb in that it has enabled the volunteer fire company to secura apparatus and be prepared to fight fire. Democrats and populists are figur ing on having a fusion ticket in the presidential campaign, but just now the leaders of the-two parties cannot agree. Opponent I Made Pleasant. Passing Show. London. J Perkins (during ne:gnooriy quar rel) By Jove, if you don't stop trying: to make me angry, 1 11 buy my wif a new hat and then you'll have to buy one for yours.