Morning Oregonian. (Portland, Or.) 1861-1937, July 29, 1921, Page 8, Image 8

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Published by The Oregonim Pub'.ishinir Cc
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The advance in knowledge -which
made it possible for meteorologists
two or three years ago to predict the
rather warm spell which the world
as a whole is now experiencing is
an advance due rather to perfection
of statistical records than to larger
basic knowledge of the principles
underlying the phenomena of cli
mate. In Oregon, where, as we
have had occasion to mention be
fore, the climate is nearly ideal, we
may not have taken notice of the
nature of the weather with which
the rest of the world has been
visited, but the fact is that 1921 has
been a remarkable year, meteorolog
ically speaking, over a very wide
area. The famine in China, for
illustration, is chiefly due to aridity;
central Europe and France have
suffered heavily: Russia has had a
crop failure not altogether due to
bolshevism. There, are extenuating
prospects of rain in some districts,
but the average rainfall for the sea
son is considerably below normal.
It is not true, however, as a ood
many have assumed, that the world's
climate is changing appreciably, al
though the weather varies from
season to season. There is no
authentic instance of appreciable
change of climate within 2000 years.
Abundant rainfall and drouth alter
nate, although causes are as yet but
imperfectly understood. The twenty-two-year
cycle long accepted by
scientists as a general rule is sub
ject to variation because its com
posite parts have not been analyzed
and because its fundamental rea
sons have not been ascertained.
There is, nevertheless, a promising
clue in the discovery of the peri
odicity of sun spots. The sun-spot
cycle of about eleven and one
fourth years fits in a general way
with known data concerning drouth
and rainfall, but leaves something to
be desired. The important conclu
sion of the last twenty years, how
ever, is that the puny works of man,
such as deforestation, canal-construction,
the plowing of land and
the construction of telegraph lines,
or even battles and bombardments,
have practically no effect on weather
and none at all on climate. And
although precise data are wanting
for' the earlier centuries of the pres
ent era, the writings of the ancients,
together with ascertainable facts
about the flora and fauna of vari
ous regions " indicate that within
measurable periods climate has been
about the same.
The task upon which meterolo
gists are now concentrating their
attention of discovering if possible
the precise nature of outside phe
nomena which are associated with
climate is one of great economic
importance to the entire world. In
its nature it is empirical, in that it
involves a long series of trials and
comparisons; science in this respect
must be content to reverse the ideal
method and reason from the spe
cific to the general, yet if the un
derlying principle shall ultimately
be revealed generalizations of in
calculable value will be made pos
sible. If it can be finally stated
with confidence that certain cli
, matic cycles, even with variations
within themselves, are certain, it
.will be possible for civilized Jmen
to devise a system by which the lean
periods will be thriftily provided for
.In the fat years." The principle
which we now employ in between
season storage will be possible of
Indefinite extension.
We already have accomplished a
good deal in a more restricted field
in meteorology. It is fairly well un
derstood, for example, that in the
immediate presence of a tropical
hurricane there is small likelihood
of heavy Tain in the northern part
of the United States, although this
Is more than likely to occur some
what later, and in winter it is en
tirely practical to forecast major
disturbances, such as general bliz
zards. This has been accomplished
by the weather bureau with such
certainty that livestock men no
longer scoff at a service which has
actually saved them from heavy
economic loss. This has been made
possible by the multiplication of
weather service stations and by the
perfection of the telegraph; it
should not be confused wkh a study
of first principles, but it is a step in
the right direction. Weather bu
reau forecasts in a large sense are
usually reliable, though the state
ment is not as true as to purely
local disturbances, which are af
fected by minor occurrences, such
as relatively insignificant air and
river currents and the deflecting
actjon of hill and mountain ranges.
The value ct long distance fore
casting, toward which scientists are
working, is brought to mind once
more by the extent to which the
. predictions made two years ago have
been fulfilled this year, and although
it will be a mistake to suppose that
' the problem has been solved, those
who know what patience is required
in scientific investigation will com
mend the meteorologists and wish
them well. In some time perhaps
not far distant we shall be abfe to
plant crops with a degree of confi
dence as to the harvest, which may
mean that in prospectively dry
years we shall sow grains best
suited to arid conditions, and that
In wet years we shall take advan
tage of moisture, to the full. True
scientists will be first to disclaim
that this nasi yet been attained, but
only the most sceptical will belittle
the advances which have already
been made.
Whether ' the charges against
Governor Small and Lieutenant-Governor
Sterling of Illinois shall be
sustained or not, the factional fight
of which they are the outgrowth can
hardly fail to bring about improve
ment in the handling of state funds.
The defense that it was legal to de
posit the greater part of the funds
in a bank owned by the treasurer
and his friends, of which the state
was the only depositor, and to use
them in discounting notes for their
profit may be technically sound, but
such conduct is a plain violation of
the spirit of the law and of the trust
reposed in public officials. Their
action did not agree with the re
quirement that funds be deposited
in banks which the treasurer con
sidered safe and which paid the
highest interest, for the state re
ceived less than 2 per cent on the
millions thus handled.
This scandal is another added to
many growing out of manipulation
of state funds by politicians for their
private profit in various states. They
grew out of the idea that "public
office is a private snap," which made
the office of state treasurer most
sought, though the salary is moder
ate. Banks ' were allied with the
ruling political machine and paid
interest on state deposits, which
went into the treasurer's pocket,
usually to be shared with political
friends. Political bankers are sel
dom sound bankers, and when they
failed the state was the loser.
When laws were passed regulating
state deposits and requiring that in
terest be paid tothe state, not to, the
treasurer, it was thought that a great
advance had been made, but the
methods followed in Illinois show
that where there's a will there's a
way to evade such a law. The real
cure- is a generally higher concep
tion of duty among public officials,
which can be secured best by more
careful discrimination on the part of
the people in electing them and by
other officials in keeping a check on
them. Then men who would be
come political associates of such men
as Mayor Thompson of Chicago will
have no chance of election, and men
will be elected to other offices who
will be more vigilant than were those
who should have discovered long ago
that Illinois funds were deposited in
a phantom bank.
Maps are simple enough as w
spread them before us. There are
continents, islands, seas, lakes,
rivers and mountain ranges, all ar
rayed for our convenience. Yet
any number of men endured danger
and hardship to trace those coast
lines, or to discover and identify
some fleck of land in mid-ocean.
And some of them died. Of these
sacrifices to geographical exactitude
one is reminded by Sir Ernest
Shackelton's proposed return to the
mysterious antarctic. Late in August
he will sail from England in his
ship the Quest, to voyage for more
than 30,000 miles in the Atlantic
and Pacific oceans, and around the
threshold of the South pole. While
the various members of his staff are
specialists in biology, botany and ge
ology, and will contribute their
findings to these sciences, the basic
purpose of the voyage is to solve
some of the problems of geography.
The Quest will seek lost islands in
both oceans, on its way. to and from
the antarctic, and will attempt to
prove or disprove the theory that
Africa and America are linked by an
under-water continental connection.
But mostly it will attempt to pene
trate the solitudes of the polar
. Knowledge of the antarctic con
tinent south of New Zealand and of
South America was gained through
the explorations of Captain Scott,
Sir Douglas Mawson, and Sir Ernest
Shackelton himself, but the ocean
below the tip of Africa has not
known a keel for almost a century.
All known land in those waters is
represented by the rocky cliff of
Cape Anne in Enderby land, . and
whether this is a part of the antarc
tic continent or an island is one of
the problems that Sir Ernest will
attempt to solve. For some 3000
miles the region is a void so far as
geographical knowledge is con
cerned, and the cruise of the Quest
may discover new seas or the unex
plored coast of tne polar . continent.
Mountain ranges may rise to tower
ing heights, and strange species of
birds and animals be found if the
staunch little ship slips through the
ice pack into open water, as she
hopes to do. If she escapes the perils
that will undoubtedly confront her,
she will emerge from the antarctic
near the Weddell sea, the possessor
of information that has never be
fore been revealed to man. Thence
she will turn north through the Pa
cific for New Zealand, diverting her
crew with less - strenuous explora
tions. She will seek for the south
ern seal herd, that men believe to
have retreated to unknown islands,
she will dredge and sound for the
lost island of Tunaki, said to have
been swallowed in the maw of the
sea, and she will seek for Dougherty
island, the very existence o which is
doubtful. By Cape Horn and the
Atlantic the Quest will turn home
ward on the last leg of her long
voyage, laden with a rich store of
As ships average, the Quest is
diminutive, being of approximately
200 tons, with a length of A11 feet, a
beam of 23 feet and a depth of 12.
Her steaming radius is 9000 miles
and she also is rigged as a brigan
tine. Her temerity in braving tne
polar floes is not so great when one
considers that the sides of the ship
are two feet in thickness, of oak,
pine and fir, and that her smallness
is ideally adapted for the contest
with the antarctic ice, where a ship
must be adroit as well as stout.
But of the spirit in which the
Quest sails on her voyage of dis
covery it should be said that her
own timbers are not more resolute.
For the Quest is a vessel without a
crew. That is to say, she carries no
professional sailors, but will be of
ficered and manned entirely by the
members of the scientific expedi
tion. This fact appears to diso
ciate modern science from the pop
ular notion that scientists, somehow
or other, always contrive to have the
hard work done by hire.
The adage that an ounce of pre
vention is better than a pound of
cure has been frequently justified
recently, as, for example,-by the ex
hibit made by the National Tuber
culosis association in annual con
vention, by the declaration of the
American Medical association that
the public aspect of private health
should receive greater attention, and
by the appeal of certain physicians
of France for aid in disseminating
education in hygiene. The display
made by the Tuberculosis associa
tion consisted principally of methods
of teaching the principles of health
to the children of the country.
Parades and pageants, motion pic
tures and marionette shows are em
ployed to remind the young that
proper selection of food, use of fresh
air, wearing of suitable clothing and
avoidance of contact with contagi
ous maladies offer possibilities of
health in after life which have hith
erto been overlooked. Even if
physical comfort of good health
were not considered, the tendency
would be altogether desirable. Pre
ventive measures are far cheaper in
the end than doctor's bills.
These are hard times for the spir
itualistic medium who resorts to
material things under cover of dark
ness to practice deception. Modern
invention has placed in the hands of
sceptical investigators or true be
lievers too many devices for turning
on the light.
At a recent seance at Lake Pleas
ant, Mass.,"'Chief Rheamont under
took to recall from the other world
some spirits, bringing their trumpets
with them. Converse Nickerson, -a
spiritualist who regards such an ex
hibition as a discredit to the cult,
turned on a flashlight as the spirits
entered. Rheamont struck him on
the head with an unspiritual
trumpet and cut his scalp, holding a
guitar in the other hand, though he
was supposed to have been tied .tight
in a bag.
If the ceremonies are to be dis
turbed in such an unseemly manner,
it will be necessary to search the
spectators and divest them of flash
lights and tie them in bags. Other
wise no well-behaved spirit will re
visit the world to be mixed in a. free
fight with a crowd of grossly ma
terial human beings.
As a people we have odd notions
of affluence. If we think of inde
pendent incomes it is always in
terms of thousands by tens and
twenties. Even these fancies seem
beggared by the plethoric actualities
of great wealth. So it must have
appeared to an eastern man,
scarcely out of his youth, who could
not devise for himself a ' rational
plan of enjoyment on an independ
ent income of' $6000 a year. To him
the sum was a pittance, without pos
sibilities. By his own naive admis
sion he tj-pifies that strange trend
toward exaggerated notions of what
constitutes a competence, a trend
that is un-American but not par
ticularly perilous. Not perilous at
all, save to the individual, for the
sufficient reason that most Ameri
cans are workers and earn by actual
toil far less each year than fortune
dropped in this complainant's lap.
Six thousand dollars a year is a
goodly sum. It will suffice for
European travel, for the exploration
of strange lands overseas, for an in
timate acquaintance with the won
ders of America. To be sure, the
sum will not provide for those ex
travagances that are quite aside
from travel and sensible enjoyment.
But it will, for instance, maintain
most excellently a fine home, enable
its possessor to keep his own car,
free him from all other pursuits to
seek-his own pleasure or follow his
own hobby. One cannot feel the
least pang of sympathy for the duf
fer who doesn't know what to do
with it.
The case is hopeless. Perhaps the
most suitable suggestion that can be
offered is that the troubled posses
sor of so much casual wealth pro
ceed forthwith to endow a modest
home for old folks. Having attended
to all necessary details, and effec
tually divorced himself from his
annuity, he should then enter said
home and retire to that dotage that
has prematurely claimed him.
When the great powers meet to
seek an agreement on far eastern
questions, they will have much more
to decide than the particular ques
tions now at issue. Whatever agree
ment they may reach as to Yap,
Shantung, Siberia, immigration and
exclusion will be , application of
policies under "which the white na
tions and the Japanese shall live
side by side in the same world
peaceably and in co-operation in all
matters which bring them together.
Successful outcome of the confer
ence hinges on mutual recognition
of irreconcilable differences between
the two races and of their right
to live, grow and prosper. That im
plies that each race shall concede
the right of the other to expand
into new, unoccupied or sparsely oc
cupied fields and to live in its own
way according to its own standards.
Unless a complete, fundamental
agreement is reached and faithfully
observed, danger will grow that an
affirmative answer must be given to
the question: " "Must we fight
Japan?" which is the title of a book
by Professor Walter B. Pitkin of
Columbia university. It is an ex
haustive discussion of the Japanese
problem, which deals fully and
frankly with the influences that
have been causing the United States
and Japan to drift toward conflict.
Each has formed a misconception
of the other which leads it to as
sume superiority and thus to wound
the other's pride. The danger from
the side of Japan consists in the
great similarity of ideas, government
and economic conditions to Germany
in 1914. That from the American
side consists in our habits of thought
as to Japanese aggressive designs,
reaching for commercial supremacy
and colonization of this country.
Forces that make for peace are
disillusionment of both nations as
to the value of war in getting re
sults, the solidarity of the intellec
tuals of all nations in anticipating
and blocking international crises by
open debate and publicity, the shaky
financial condition of the whole
world, Japan in particular, which
gives strength to the disarmament
movement, and the economic de
pendence of Japan on the United
States for raw material and ma
chinery. What might prove to be
the most powerful influence for
peace is the practical impossibility
of successful invasion of either
country by the other. This is
demonstrated with much force, and
the case is summed up thus:
Japan today is impregnable against ene
mies from without. Just as Germany was,
and for similar reasons, geographical and
economic In this respect both countries
are like the United Slates and Russia.
i This conclusion, however, does
not take into account the latest and
the future developments of the ma-
chinery of war. We need only
speculate on the possibilities of air-
craft, poison gas and long-range
artillery in prder to recognize that
in the next war the belligerents
may dispense with the necessity of
transporting great numbers of men
and vast quantities of material
across oceans, and may with the
latest implements overpower the
supposedly impregnable defenses.
These possibilities are so terrible
that the most militarist nation "may
well quail before them and may
submit to the rule of reason rather
than run such risks.
The crux of the whole problem
is shown by Professor Pitkin to be
Japan's need for more room for its
overflowing population which has
run counter to the determination of
the American people to preserve
their standard of life and their racial
purity by preventing overflow into
this country. At the present rate
of growth without a great outlet it
is predicted that Japan will face a
crisis about the year 1960 at the
latest. On our side the experience
of California is proving the sound
ness of the natural law that a low
standard of life always supplants a
high standard with which it comes
into competition, and this process is
aided in this country by the general
drift of population from country to
city and in California by the languor
that overtakes white men in a hot
climate. Effective exclusion except
by agreement is rendered imprac
ticable by the long southern frontier
and by Japanese control of Cali
fornia fisheries which afford facili
ties for smuggling immigrants. Then
In order to top the flood, "in the
next thirty or forty years we' must
do our part in making it easy for
at least 20,000.000 Japanese to find
homes abroad.". Japan already has
Corea and Manchuria, which have
six times the area of Great Britain,
with great undeveloped wealth. It
is suggested that "we should look
favorably upon extensive migrations
of Japanese into Siberia, Mexico and
South America." As the latter two
countries already have a hybrid
population, it is held that no objec
tion would or should be raised to
another racial ingredient.
In order to fortify our own popu
lation against being supplanted by
Japanese or other races of a lower
standard of life and of alien culture.
Professor Pitkin proposes that we
force up the standard of living of
the lower economic classes, put a
stop to immigration or greatly re
duce it and practice scientific birth
control. He would turn the tide back
to the country by adopting the. plan
followed by Elwood Mead in Cali
fornia to make country t life both
pwrfitable and attractive1 a plan
which would be furthered by ex
tensive reclamation and by making
good roads and community centers
on the tracts. An immigration Jaw
of the kind mentioned is in force,
though it may need more rigid en
forcement. Birth control will not
commend itself to the moral sense
of the people, nor does it commend
itself as a matter of policy. The
professor admits that, in general,
nations of low birthrate show so low
a deathrate as to have a larger net
increase of population than nations
of high birthrate and - high death
rate. He also concedes that Japan
will be slow to adopt birth control
but will lower its deathrate by im
proving health and sanitation. More
attractive is the suggestion that a
drastic plan of disarmament be
adopted and that of the money thus
saved the United States spend a
large proportion in improving farm
life, bothy economically and socially,
and that Japan make like expendi
ture in assisting emigration to other
than white man's countries.
The task before the far eastern
conference is far broader than one
of considering the fate of Yap, Si
beria and China. It involves the
solution of economic, social and
racial problems of worldwide im
port, to which the domestic policies
of the several nations would have
to be adapted. This bespeaks a de
gree of international co-operation
such as has never been known and
such as implies a more sympathetic
understanding and unselfishness
among nations than the present
clash of interests gives us ground
to expect.
Apartment house landlords in
Toronto are charging prospective
tenants $2 just for the privilege of
looking at vacant apartments. Per
haps one of these days some phil
anthropist will donate a vacant
apartment to a museum and let the
people see it for nothing.
A man who stole five cigars has
been sentenced to two years in the
penitentiary. The court no doubt
took into consideration that the high
price of cigars these days puts them
in the semi-precious class.
Many of Portland's people have
lived somewhere else sometime and
when an old neighbor drops in in
a flivver there always is a committee
of reception to explain life in the
finest city in the land.
The ordinary married .man who
thinks he has troubles should con
sider the captain in the navy who is
paying $250 a month alimony to two
ex-wives as the ne plus ultra in "old
hoss" dealers.
A witness defendant is having dif
ficulty in proving an alibi on a
certain night. That is not remark
able. How many men can establish
their whereabouts on any particular
The successful bidder for the Fos
ter road sewer gets the contract for
many thousands less than the en
gineers' estimate. That is a healthy
sign of a return to- early conditions.
The Cove district is a small sec
tion of Union county, yet it receives
about $50,000 a year for its cherry
crop, all outside money. Any other
region can profit by the example.
The conclusion we reach after
reading of the train holdup near
Paris by masked robbers is that
France is taking those American
moving pictures seriously.
The navy isn't to join in the chase
for rum runners of the sea. .The
gobs don't rate many joy rides.
Why can't some genius invent an
airbrake to limit long-winded tele
phone conversations?
Congress has officially approved
the 1925 fair. Now let's go.
Portland for the peace meet.
The Listening Post.
"Vamp," Vampire and Bat Con
nected. QHE'S a regular little vamp."
O was the proud boast of a fond
papa and we questioned his judg
ment. Both he and the little girl's
mother were angry at first, but when
the explanation was given they
agreed that it was no fit name for as
cute a little daughter, and here is
the reason.
"Vamp," a wnr coined for screen
actresses who exercise an uncanny
power for influencing men, has grad
ually come to be accepted as a word
of praise. Vamp is a derivative of
vampire, a bloodsucking bat. It coroes
from the Serbian word wampir, and
the Serbs, in common with many
Russians and Poles, attribute ill to
the vampire. They believe that a
vampire is the soul of some person
who came to a violent end by suicide,
or who was cursed by parents or
The legend has it that the vampire
leaves the body at night and sucks
the blood of living persons. To pre
vent this they often drive a stake
through the corpse, burn the body,
cut off the head? or pour boiling oil
over the grave. They believe that a
person can become a vampire if a cat
jumps over their body after death.
Anyhow, it's no fit name for a
dainty, innocent child.
While we are on the subject of bats
it might be well to-call attention to
the little mammarls that fly about
Portland in the evening. None of them
are vampires; they are harmless.
Vampire bats are found on this con
tinent, but only in Central and South
America. Portland's bats are tiny
fellows, about 3 inches in length
from tip of tail to head, with a wing
spread of seven inches. They eat in
sects only and are great for exter
minating mosquitoes.
In seeking for information The
Scout called up W. A. Eliot of the
Audubon society. . What does-- Eliot
know about mammals, so Stanley
Jewett of the biological survey gave
the Information, for a bat is not a
bird, but a little animal modified for
flight by means of membranes used
a-? wings.
Take a look the next time you are
around the public library, there are
lots of bats there at night, chasing
the insects that gather about the
street lights. The bats are fast as chain
lightning on the wing and get all
their food while flying. Their cry
is very harsh and during the day
time they hang themselves upside
down by means of tiny hooks on the
elbows of their wings.
Theynest under .shingles, in crev
ices on the roofs of buildings, or in
small dry caves, never where there
is moisture. No, they do not lay
eggs, they are not birds, but are
tiny, mouselike animals, covered v-ith
a dull red-brown fur, and they
usually have three children at a
In the proper sense of the word
they do not have feet, their append
ages being more in the form of
hands with a well-developed thumb.
Some states protect bats by law on
account of their value as extermin
ators of insects. " There are about
seven varieties in Portland. They
are blind in daytime, but true noc
turnal rovers.
The agate industry in Portland is
worth $200,000a year, according to
estimates mad by O. H. Smith, who
has the largest shop in the game.
Smith is an Oregon boy. educated
in Salem Jn'iph school, and has been
cutting agates for seven years. Be
first went into the business in Salem
with E. G. Wallace and later opened
a shop in Portland. There are eight
firms here cutting agates commer
cially, importing their stones from
Montana, where they are found ir.
huge boulders scattered over the
prairie. ,
Many agates are found among the
pebbles on the Oregon beaches, and
the cutting of them is in the nature
of a fad. but here it is a highly com
mercialized business. The output of
one shop, the largest, is about 500
finished stones a day at present,
though they can speed up their busi
ness to produce 1500 a day if neces
sary. Germany is a competitor with Ore
gon in the cut agate field, producing
many stones that are. colored by
chemicals, but all of the local product
are In their natural colors. The Ger
man stones are carved in many in
stances and come waj below market
prices as judged by American stand
ards, but they do not have the tone
and brilliancy or the depth of color
that is found here, and this istwhat
goes for beauty.
Oh, yes! Agates come in many
shades and are used for mounts for
rings, for watch charms, pendants,
and many other purposes. The agate
is supposed' to ward off illness and
bring good luck in certain combina
tions and is the birth stone for -the
month of June. Agates get their
name from the river Achates in
Greece, where they are found in
abundance, but Portland is the world
center for agate cutting just as
Amsterdam has the best diamond
J. E. 'Paulson bf Portland claims
that he has a revolutionary power
idea. He has a machine that uses
water under pressure for drivings an
engine, instead of steam or other
more usual means of applying power
to the drive. He has built a "dem
onstration machine out of an old fire
pump and a well-worn auto engine
It is one of the strangest devices ever
shown to local engineers and is prov
ing a puzzle.
Paulson starts his gas engine, it
runs the pump, the water travels un
der pressure into the cylinders and
an old woods donkey engine -snakes
logs around at a marvelous rate. The
engine is said to be contrary to all
ideas of mechanics in that the makers
claim it gains power by having the
solid water as an agent for appli
cation and not steam, for they state
that it is impossible for the water to
lose Its force by condensation - and
compression, as is the cage with
steam. THE SCOUT.
Bad Mixture Somewhere,
' Exchange.
Woman You say your father was
injured in an explosion? How did it
Child Well, mother says it was too
much yeast, but father says it was
too little sugar.
Those Who Come and Go.
Tales of Folk at the Hotels.
"A grocer, the other day, went
around to all the other grocers in
Bend and ascertained the amount ot
money' which tourists had left for
groceries. Thetsum was $260 for
the one day. 'one of this money
would have come to Bend but for the
motor tourists. And that sum was
only for groceries. It gives an idea
of what the automobile travel means."
observed County Judge Sawyer of
Deschutes, registered at the Hotel
Portland. "The hotels are filled and
every night the register shows tour
ists from all parts of the country.
Most of the tourist travel moves over
The Dalles-California highway, al
though a little goes through central
Oregon to Burns. The typical tourist,
however, comes into the state from
California and travels northward. We
have an automobile park which' is
well patronized, but the tourists also
fill the hotels." Judge Sawyer is of !
tne opinion that the big Benham Falls
Irrigation project will eventually ma
terialize, from information which he
has recently received. Based on this
information supplied by the Judge,
the state highway commission yester
day decided to locate a new section of
The Dalles-California highway so
that it will be outside of the reser
voir. Part of the present road will
be in the dam when the project is
"We are doing about $2,500,000 of
road work this month," reports Her
bert i'unn, state highway engineer,
tegistered at the Imperial. "We have
I'.ever been moving faster than at
present and the fact that there are so
many contracts under way and the
work is moving so steadily accounts
for the ' large expenditure. The
weather is perfect for outdoor work
and the contractors, almost without
exception, are 'hitting the ball' as
hard as they can, for they want to
complete present contracts in order
to be in position to bid on new work
for next year. There is scarcely a
county in the state that hasn't some
road work in progress."
"About 90 per cent of the 'people
in Roseburg are now convinced that
the body found under the burning
automobilo was that of Dennis Rus
sell and not that of Dr. Brumfield."
said George Neuner, district ' attor
ney for Douglas county, who is in
town. "At first," continued Mr.
Xeuner, "public? opinion was about
evenly divided In the matter of
identity, but .the evidence was so un
mistakable that onjy a small per
centage of the people still think
that the body might be that of the
missing doctor. Anyway, we believe
the doctor is responsible for the
crime and we are trying to appre
hend him. The $2000 reward will
probably bring results."
district for Scoggins valley, in Wash-
ington county. L. M. Graham of For-
est Grove was in the city yesterday.
This is the first district proposed
under, the new law enacted by the
1921 session of the legislature. Cre
ating of the district is being bit
terly opposed and the arguments
have been going back and forth for
the past three months. This morn
ing Commissioners Booth and Bar
ratt of the highway board will make
a personal inspection of the country
proposed to be included in the road
improvement' district.
"Wages in- the harvest fields range
from S3 to $10 a day in our cotinty,"
savs Judge Fowler of Gilliam county, I
- -. . . I 1 1 - . .1 r"v Arnn "Tildl
registered hi iiic xm-ci
straw bucks get $3 a day. On the
smaller separators $7 a day is paid,
but the first-class machinists on the
big machines are drawing $10 a
day." The Judge had a peck of trou
ble just before coming to ' Portland.
His combine became choked with
wheat and it was a hard and dirty
job to clearit and then he just had
time to take a bath, shave, change
his clothes and catch the train for
"While the rains interfered with
harvesting, the work is now starting
and the prospects are good." said
J. H. Peare, jeweler of La Grands,
who was in Portland yesterday on
his way to San Francisco. Once upon
a time Mr. Peare was the fastest foot
racer in eastern Oregon and just for
exercise he would put on a pair of
running shoes and trot to Hot Lake
and back. Those were the days when
there was keen competition among
the volunteer hose companies in the
smaller towns' of the suite and when
the annual tournament was one of
the big events.
Sherman Wade, one of the promi
nent wheat raisers of Gilliam county,
aside from being a county commis
sioner, is -at the Hotel Oregon. His
mission here was to get the state
highway commission to make the
location of the John Day highway
through the town of Condon, the way
the people wanted. After a little
heart-to-heart talk:, Mr. Wade and
Judge Fowler "cut the mustard.'
O. L. Patterson, judge of Grant
county, is at the Imperial from Can
yon City, a lively mining town in its
day. The judge is an enthusiast on
road development and since the coun
ty recently voted a large sum of road
bonds he is craving action and wants
to exchange the bonds for finished
"There are so many conflicting ru
mors as to what work is to be done
on the central Oregon highway and
the John Day highway in Malheur
county, that I was asked to drop into
Portland to find out what's what,"
observed Lloyd Riches of the Vale,
Or, Enterprise. Mr. Riches has been
attending the state editorial conven
tion in Bend.
H. M. Farmer, one of the commis
sioners of Tillamook county, is regis
tered at the Imperial. He Is here to
attend the highway meeting. The
county court in Tillamook has a large
amount of road work under way and
the roads are being constructed on
the right locations and built accord
ing to state standards.
Hugh McLean, who is still the post
master at Marshfield. was a Portland
visitor yesterday. Mr. McLean was
appointed during the first year of the
Wilson administration and was re
appointed for a, second four years. He
still has about a year in the office.
Robert Townsend, for a generation
a member of the "third house." aJ
Salem as a member of the corps of the
Portland Railway, Light & Power
company, left yesterday for a tour of
Alaskan waters.
Minimum Wage for Clerks. .
PORTLAND, July 25. (To the Edi
tor.) What is the' minimum wage.
and maximum hours per week for
female clerks in Oregon? READER.
The minimum wage for experienced
female clerks Is $60 a month and the
maximum number of hours per week
is 48. '
" Now He Can Explain.
Sydney Bulletin.
City Youth What's that the calf is
Cow Farmer That's rock salt, my
City Youth Go hon! I've often
wondered how corned beef was made.
Dr. Pence Holds No Advantage Would
Be Lost by Co-operation.
PORTLAND, July 26. (To the Ed
itor.) I notethe comments of the
presidents of Pacific. Philomath, Mc-
Minnville and Albany colleges upon
my recent suggestions as to a
changed higher educational scheme
for Oregon. I also have read your
editorial expression.
I fully agree with their warmest
contention as to the primal value of
the human touch both within and
without the classroom. Garfield's al
lusion to the log with the boy and
Mark Hopkins at opposite ends is a
classic. . But the stress waa not on
the log; it was on Mark Hopkins.
The log may be sawed into chairs
and a table, but no matter how fine
the furniture, the higher educational
process is induced around the human
elements in juxtaposition. This we
all know.
But Williams college had one Mark
Hopkins, and he is dead. If small
colleges invariably commanded the
Hopkins equation at the othr end of
the log, or on the other side of the
table, they could offer a compelling
lure to compete with the greatest in- i
stitution of learning with its remoter
human touches, no matter who taught
there. A great teacher blends the
elements of strength and gentleness:
he combines the moral qualities of
character with the magnetic qualities
of personality. He mingles informa
tion with wisdom; he harnesses logic
w'th imagery; he is a syllogistic poet,
and what he is inculcates vastly more
in determining the passionate devo
tions of his pupil than anything he
teaches. He is a bodied-up and ar
ticulated culture within himself. He
Is born every so often, not as often
as could be wished. Betimes he
becomes a teacher a professional
teacher; he Is always a teacher,
whether professionally or casually.
But the greater university occa
sionally gets him. He is no monopoly
cf. the small institution. A man com
bining these qualities less potently,
I confess, can "effect" himself upon
a small body of youth better than he
could on a larger.
My Insistence is that the so-called
avowedly Christian to name it more
specifically, the denominational col
lege could be located at the edge of
the campus at Corvallis or Eugene,
maintaining all of the autonomy
which it now maintains, that it could
articulate Its curriculawith those of
the state university, engendering its
own life, traditions, atmosphere, cli
mate, imponderabilia; that it could
contribute an indefinable office in
functioning the "higher" education to
our youth. Better far, in my Judg
ment, that one or more congenially
minded denominations unite their
means and energies in creating a
foundation at the edge of the univer
sity campus, concentrating upon en
dowment so that they could avail to
command for their fa'culty the ablest
and most highly equationed men. 1
can conceive such a faculty, so per
sonneled as to draw a bodv of vouth
from far and near to drink at the
fountains of culture and to breathe
, ,l am?sf h"- . x
Certainly the contact of vouth on
the campus is a large percentage of
their education. It is in a varied hu
man contact of humans on the campus
who must there largely learn to
"live together" in anticipation of liv
ing and working together that a
university education takes special
I repeat that not one cardinal ad
vantage contended for by the worthy
and honored presidents of Oregon col
leges would be surrendered by the
removal of their institutions to the
edge of one of the universitv cam
puses. If it has in bulk or quality
of educational process or output
something which must suffer dis
advantageous by too close a neigh
borhood, it then confesses itself in
capable o, competition. If ft has
nothing to offer by way of competi
tion, it thereupon admits its failure,
and ought to admit that it can offer
no proper Inducement of superior ad
vantages. I cited Oxford and Cambridge as
Illustrating that a large number of
colleges, each practically a unit in its
culture, could be profitably and ad
vantageously grouped around a com
mon campus. I cited Toronto as an
illustration of a plan very much more
approximate to what is feasible in the
And now I urge again, that as we
are in the days of the new and un
sclidified, when vast investments in
physical equipment would not go to
waste by removals, we may consider
the wisdom of altering the forms of
our educational schemes without sac
rificing their essence or soul. Such
a plan for eastern spates, in which
many of the smaller institutions are
deeply intrenched in virtue of invest
ed funds in buildings, would be feas
ible only at great sacrifice of values.
But Oregon could effect such a con
federation of educational programme
at relatively small cost of wastage.
It was in my honest belief that
"such a plan unifies our whole state
scheme of higher culture; that it re
moves the serious objection of paral
leling of the ways thereto; that it
would evoke a publio interest in
higher education; that it would jus
tify and vindicate to the great pub
lic fhat the culturaland Christianly
conceived scheme of education could
put a great soul into the whole uni
versity campus, and thus advantage
hoth itself in a great service and
those served it was this, Mr. Ed
itor, which led me to my deliverance.
If a denominational college is a
good thing, 'the larger the human
constituency which itcan serve, di
rectly and indirectly, the better. In
deed, I might almost be emboldened
to ask, is it fulfilling its full Chris
tian conception and office if, being
so good and worthy a thing, it should
hold itself aloof from serving the
widest possible constituency, especial
ly when, by coming under the wider
influence of service, it- finds its own
proper destiny? In fine, may not a
college, by seeking to save its life in
fact be in .danger of losing it?
- Certainly this discussion can do no
harm, but rather good, if it - shall
afford those responsible for the de
nominational colleges an opportunity
to renew their arguments for the rea
sons for their existence.
"Joint Snake" a Myth.
BAY CITY. Or.. July 25. (To the
Editor.) I am looking for a descrip
tion of the "Joint snake." which I
fail to find in our latest dictionaries.
Please tell me "whether he uses the
same joints again after he has been
unjointed. L. S. M.
The so-called "joint snake" is a
myth. Naturalists know of no snake
that is able to dismember itself and
reassemble its parts at will. Belief
in the existence of this fabled crea
ture is believed to be due to confu
sion with a species of lizard which
discards its tail on occasion and
subsequently grows a new one, but
does not resume the -old. A type of
this lizard, which is often mistaken
for a snake, Is able to throw off its
tail voluntarily as a means of pro
tection, the act enabling the lizard to
escape while the surprised foe Is oc
cupied with the castoff and still
wriggling tail. These lizards have
the power ,of regenerating a substi
tute tail, but not a true one, the sub
stitute containing no true vertebrae,
but only "a non-segmented tube of
fibro-cartilage. Consult any stand
ard encyclopedia, under "Lizard," for
fuller description.
More Truth Than Poetry.
By James J. Montague.
The cave man, when he Tound his
wife was weary of her narrow
And now and then on other men
Bestowed caressing glances.
Did not sit down and tear his hair,
and wail in accents of despair,
"As soon as she gets her decree
She'll wed the man she fancies."
Instead he told her to behave or be
w-ould shut her in the cave;
And if she sighed or cried or tried
To see her handsome lover.
He made no argument at all but took
a hammer from the wall.
And with its aid he quickly made
A faithful help-meet of her.
Divorce courts then were quite un
known; a lady in the Age of
Had little chance for fresh romance.
Once she was safely married.
She soon discovered it would pay to
love and honor and obey
The man ehe wed till he was dead
And most securely buried.
Our modern lovers wed and part, then
make a fresh domestic start.
Get sick of that when It falls flat.
And once again they sever.
The sjmple honest cave man's course
would do away with all divorce.
But those old ways, like those old,
Are gone, alas, forever!
Official life isn't all beer and skit
tles. Look at the deputy sheriff who
has got to take Jack Dempsey's car
away from him.
Yon Know the Old Adage.
A lawyer in New Tork. acting as
his own attorney, lost a case of whis
ky. Most lawyers who represent
themselves lose their cases.
Never Satisfied.
Lord Northcliffe is now insisting '
that Great Britain ought to warm up
another premier.
Burroughs Nature Club.
Copyright, Houghton-Mifflin Co.
Can Ion Answer These Questional
1. 'What is the difference between
moths and butterflies?
2. What is the best way to eradi
cate poison ivy?
3. Do crows migrate?
Answers to Previous Questions.
1. What species of snakes bore
their way into the earth and what
method do they use?
All the blind snakes (family glau
conildae), burrow. So do two boas
of the southwest. The garter snake
burrows in winter. The green or
brown or worm snake, haldea stia
tula, and the scarlet king snake or
coral snake, orphibolus dollatus, bur
row, though they also hide under
loose stone, etc. The rainbow snake
and the harlequin snake are also ex
amples, the latter so dependent on
burrowing that it dies in captivity,
unless provided with dirt to burrow
in. The method is pushing.
2 What makes the fire in fire-
flies, and is the light for beauty or
for use?
The "fire" is supposed to be caused
by the action of oxygen brought by
trachea (bronchial tubes, so to speak)
in the insect's abdomen, on a fatty
substance secreted by special organs.
Its purpose is to give a signal to the
opposite aex. It is noticed that where
one sex has better luminosity than
the other, the less-lighted one has the
best developed eyes.
3. Will Baltimore orioles build in
apple trees, same as the orchard ori
ole? Yes. While the preferred tree of
the Baltimore is the swaying elm. the
bird also nests in the silver maple,
sugar maple, and the apple tree, the
apple ! tree being perhaps the least
common building site. Baltimore ori
oles are valuable in the orchard as
they eat many caterpillars, including
hairy varieties not liked by many
birds. ,
Chapel Bells.
By Grace E. Hall.
Chapel bells at twilight.
Calling the world to prayer.
Echoes of silenced voices?
Whispering everywhere;
Music of throbbing pathos.
Pure as angels' tears.
Calling to consecration.
Conjuring wasted years
Tolling, tolling, tolling.
Pleadingly through the gloom,
Tenderly in the twilight.
Fragrant with early bloom.
Chapel bells at twilight
O, how they urge and call!
Waking a melancholy
Deep in the hearts of all;
Touching the latent worship
In the sleeping souls of men,
Striking harps, long muted,
To vibrant life again;
Tolling, tolling, tolling.
Music of nameless woe.
Beautiful bells at twilight.
Tender and sad and low.
In Other Days. ,
Fifty Yenrs Abo.
From The Oreeonian ot July 20. 1871.
- Paris The cholera, typhus, plague
and famine are still raging in Persia
and cannibalism is confirmed. The
ccvernor of Shieraz has placed a
guard at the cemeteries to prevent
the unfortunates from disinterring
the dead.
Oregon City has a new fire bell.
It weighs 750 pounds and cost siuu.
Steps are being taken to remove
the Indians, who have been an un
mitigated nuisance in the north end
of the city of Portland.
Sneak thieves have been busy in
east Portland and the city marshal
has been equally as busy attempting
to protect the homes of residents.
Twenty-five Team Ago.
From Tne Oregonian of July 20. 1896.
Baltimore Joshua Levering was
this evening officially notified of his
nomination for president of the United
States on the prohibition ticket
The establishment of water mains
in Sellwood has been of great benefit
to the suburb in that it has enabled
the volunteer fire company to secura
apparatus and be prepared to fight
Democrats and populists are figur
ing on having a fusion ticket in the
presidential campaign, but just now
the leaders of the-two parties cannot
Opponent I Made Pleasant.
Passing Show. London. J
Perkins (during ne:gnooriy quar
rel) By Jove, if you don't stop trying:
to make me angry, 1 11 buy my wif
a new hat and then you'll have to buy
one for yours.