Morning Oregonian. (Portland, Or.) 1861-1937, October 02, 1920, Page 8, Image 8

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Fubllshed by The Oreeonian Publlshir.K Co..
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Kastern RusinesR Office Verree & Conk
lln, iirunswiek building. New York: Verree
& Conklin, Steger building, Chicago: Ver
ree & Conklin, Free Tress building. De
troit, Mich. San Francisco representative,
R. J. BidweH.
One reason why I want the. republican
parly to rule once more is because we are
responsive to the will of the people of the
Uni-ii States, and do not try to tell you
that what one man thinks is necessary.
In those words in the course of a
creech In Ohio Senator Harding:
stated what is the paramount issue
in the campaign. .The troubles
which have raised other issues have
been caused by President Wilson's
action on the theory that "what one
man (Wilson) thinks is necessary."
Jeer as Senator Cox may at Mr.
Harding's use of the word "normal
cy." that word, signifying normal
conditions, describes the kind of
government to which the American
people intend to return from the au
tocracy of "what one man thinks"
which Mr. Wilson has imposed on
Almost from the beginning of his
administration Mr. W i 1 s o n has
forced his individual opinion on the
people, without regard to the con
stitutional power of the other
branches of the government or to the
pledges made by his party to the
people in offering him as its candi
date for president. This is the es
sence of autocracy, whether it be
practiced by kaiser, king, dictator or
president. If normalcy be obsolete,
it should come into use again as
signifying rule as the constitution
provides, not as one man thinks.
The Baltimore platform declares
in favor of "exemption from tolls of
American ships engaged in coastwise
trade passing through the I'anama
canal." Before his first year in of
fice had expired Mr. Wilson de
manded that congress repeal the law
to that effect, giving mysterious
reasons connected with foreign rela
tions, the nature of which he has
not revealed. He drove that measure
through congress against the oppo
sition of many members of his own
party, who were not yet as submis
sive as they later became.
The platform declared in favor of
presidential primaries. Mr. Wilson
caused a bill establishing them to be
smothered in a house committee.
A single presidential term and a
constitutional amendment making
the president ineligible for re-election
were advocated by the platform,
which added:
We pledge the candidate of this conten
tion to this principle.
Before his inauguration Mr. Wil
son wrote a letter intimating that he
did not consider this pledge binding.
He was openly a candidate for re
election in 1916, was nominated and
This elementary principle is de
clared in the platform:
Kvory American citizen residing or hav
lni: prnpertj jn any foreign country is en
tilled to :ind must he given the full pro-t'-i-tUm
of the I'nited States government,
both for himself and his property.
Americans were murdered and
plundered in Mexico, but in August,
19 IS, Mr. Wilson announced the
policy of "watchful waiting" as to
that country and obstinately adhered
to it, except when he sent the fleet
and army to Vera Cruz to help Car
ranza in driving out Huerta, and
when he sent I'er.shing's expedition
in pursuit of Villa, only to come back
without him.
The draft law carefully defined
those persons who should be exempt
from military service on the ground
of conscientious objection. They
were those who made affidavit of
membership "in good faith and in
good standing of a well recognized
leligious sect or organization, organ
ized and existing May 18. 1917, and
whose then existing principles forbid
its members to participate in war in
any form." Mr. Wilson not only
permitted but encouraged Secretary
of War Baker to extend exemption
to pro-Germans, communists, radical
socialists, the I. W. W. who had not
"religious objections" but "conscien
tious objections" and even "conscien
tious scruples" of any kind against
military service, thoucrh it was evi
dent that many of these people had
no scruples about war in itseir but
only against war on behalf of the
United States. Mr. Wilson by ex
ecutive order assumed by his sole act
to amend the law as proposed and
administered by Mr. Baker.
Though the constitution requires
the president to negotiate treaties
"by and with the advice and consent
of the senate," "and though no presi
dent had ever left the United States
or personally negotiated a treaty,
Mr. Wilson in lleoember, 3 91S, with
out consulting the senate, went to
Paris, acted for the United States
and signed the peace treaty, "acting
in his own name and by his own
proper authority."
When 37 members of the senate
enough to defeat ratification signed
a declaration against iirclusion of the
league covenant in the peace treaty,
he declared that the two documents
would be so ioterwoven that they
could not be separated and he car
ried out his threat, as the treaty
He has refused to the end to rec
ognize the co-ordinate power of the
senate in making treaties, declaring
all who proposed any but interpre
tative reservations to be nullifiers. "
When sickness disabled Mr. Wil
son, Secretary of State 1-ansing
called the cabinet together to consult
on carrying on the government. Hav
ing sufficiently recovered, Mr. Wil
son rebuked Mr. i.ansing for usurp
ing his authority and in effect dis
missed him, the weight of his offense
being: "Your mind does not travel
along with mine." His belief appar
ently is that, when he is sick, the.
government must fall into a state of
suspended animation.
Mr. Wilson's latest demonstration
in substituting what he thinks for
the law is the practical nullification
of the merchant marine act. Though
he approved that law on June 5, he
has not yet appointed the new ship
ping board for which it provides, and
the old board has been reduced by
resignation to two members, of
Wwhom one is practically the whole
board. Admiral Benson. Mr. Wilson
has refused to comply with the di
rection of the law that he give
notice of the annulment of certain
commercial treaties, because he
thinks differently from congress
after having approved the law.
In preference to this kind of gov
ernment, give us normalcy. .
The Oregonian had a news dis
patch from Chicago, the other day,
in which it was stated that, with
thirty-four senators to elect In No
vember "the republicans are sure of
fifteen, reasonably sure of eight, and
have a fighting chance for one
more." Present indications, it was
also said, are that the republicans
will thus make a net gain of eight.
The democrats are conceded eight
senators from the rock-ribbed south,
and two are said to be in doubt. It
should be needless to add that the
source of this highry pleasing infor
mation is the republican campaign
It is the duty of the men who run
political - campaigns to be optimistic
in words, but pessimistic in action.
It will be a fatal error for therrf, in
case of the senate, to believe what
they are saying. Nobody else does.
It will be well for them to consult
independent authorities, such as
Mark Sullivan," who makes an en
tirely different analysis of the situ
ation. Mr. Sullivan, after a compre
hensive survey, finds that there are
twenty states, outside the south,
where there is a keen contest over
the senatorship and in only one of
them is there any likelihood that the
republican candidate will run ahead
of Mr. Harding, but on the contrary,
they will run behind. Says Mr. Sul
livan: For one example, the republicans hope
to carry Connecticut for Harding by
50.000. but they concede that Brandegee
may run anywhere from 10.000 to 15.01MJ
behind. Oregon is one of the must con
spicuous example?. The republicans fully
expect, and nearly every independent ob
server admits, that Harding may carry
Oregon by as large a majority as Roose
velt did in 1904: that is to say. by more
than -40,000. Nevertheless, persons who
claim that Harding will carry Oregon bv
40.000 admit that it is auite possd'.-ie for
the present democratic senator. Chamber
lain, to retain his seat.
Exactly so. The state of Oregon
will give Harding 40,000 or more, but
Mr. Chamberlain is likely to retain
his seat. For the same reasons that
Harding will win and Chamberlain
may win in Oregon, there is likely
to be, after March 4. 1921, a repub-
lican president and a democratic"
senate. s It will be done by men and
women who are fixed in their de
termination to expel a democratic
administration and substitute a re
publican administration, but who
think it will serve the country's best
interest to give a republican presi
dent a democratic senate.
- Decline in prices, decrease in ex
ports and increase in imports are
signs of the world's economic con
valescence after the wasting fever of
war. They mean that this country
is producing more, which sends
prices down from the famine level;
that other countries are producing
more with the same effect; also that
urgent demand for goods from this
country which followed the war has
about been satisfied. Probably the
measures taken in this country to
deflate the currency have raised the .
value of money by diminishing its
supply, which means that the value
of commodities has fallen in-propor-tion.
By making their expenses bal
ance their income some of the great
nations of Europe have contributed
to the same result.
The enormous excess of exp&rts
over imports on which we in this
country at first prided ourselves is
now recognized as a positive evil to
this and other countries. It in large
part represented deficiency produc
tion abroad of things which we
needed to import, and therefore it
did much to raise prices. It repre
sented replacement of those neces
saries of life and Industry which had
been destroyed in war, hence an ex
port trade which was artificial and
could not last. It led to derange
ment of exchange which proved pro
hibitive on buying of many Ameri
can products by other nations. This
last effect is providing a corrective.
Decreased buying from Arrterica ac
companies increased production
abroad and increased selling to
America. Thus the balance of trade
is being restored and with it the
value of foreign money measured in
dollars is rising to its normal level.
This process will continue till de
mand and supply in the world's
markets reach equilibrium and prices
reach a stable level.
Much is said to the effect that
prices will never fall to the pre-war
level, but who can tell? As we look
back for a century, it seems rash to
predict. All of Europe, the United
States also, had just ended an ex
hausting war, which left Europe
with a debt then without precedent.
Steampower had bn applied to sta
tionary engines and coal gas has re
cently been invented, but no person
could foresee -any discovery or in
vention which would lighten that
load, much less make life easier
than before. Yet the history of the
nineteenth century is crowded with
inventions which have contributed to
that result, the great continents of
Africa and Australia have opened to
development, the mystery of both
poles has been cleared away, and the
poor of these days enjoy luxuries of
which their grandfathers did not
dream, yet consider them necessaries.
We have better cause than had
the world of 1820 to believe that the
coming century has new wonders in
store, which will work as great an
economic revolution as did those of
the past century. The airplane, the
wireless and probably electric science
in general are yet in their infancy.
We may discover means of generat
ing power which will make hauling
of coal in cars and oil in tanks as
clumsy as we consider the stage
coach of former days. With increase
and cheapness of power, with free
dom from smoke and ashes, may
come far greater productiveness of
labor without perceptible increase of
effort. The wealth of Africa, of the
central part of South America, the
huge spaces of Siberia, of the lands
held in bondage by the Turks, will
be open to us. Chemistry may work
new marvels in agriculture, in ex
traction of minerals and in manu
factures. Everything which in
creases productiveness of the unit of
human labor reduces prices, however
we measure them. We all hope that
the awful burden of armament and j
war will shrink to an irreducible !
minimum. The load of debt left by
the world war may fall as easily
from the shoulders of our grandchil
dren as did that of the Napoleonic
wars from those of our grandparents.
The queer divagations of the spite
ful mind that controls the Eugene
Guord are always interesting as a
phenomenon of persistency in men
tal perversion. Its pet occupation is
to distort and misstate what The
Oregonian says on any topic. Here
is an example:
The Oregonian says It Is disgraceful for
Oovernor Cox to refer to Senator Harding J
as an owner of brewery stock, although i
the statement is true. It contends, how- I
ever, that it is perfectly right and proper I
for the Harding newspapers to continually j
i,-irr in ua iuo or uunze can
didate, although no evidence has ever been
offered to Fliow that Cox is any "wetter"
than Harding. In brief, any ridiculous
charge against Cox is held true by The
Oregonian. but any attack made on Hard
ing's record, no matter how well backed
up by proof, is only "abuse."
Mr. Cox called Mr. Harding a
"brewer," not an owner of brewery
stock. A brewer is one who brews,
one who makes a brewing of malt
liquors his vocation. Mr. Harding is
not a brewer, any more than 'a citi
zen of Eugene, owning a share or
two of stock in the Guard, is an edi
tor; or the man who takes a flyer
in a few shares of mining stock is a
miner. The purpose of Mr. Cox iii
characterizing Mr. Harding as a
brewer was to be offensive and in
sulting. Such exhibitions of low
brow forensics tend to reduce the
campaign to the level of mere bar
room personalities. It has the one
advantage of giving the people the
real measure of Mr. Cox. They are
taking it.
It is not The Oregonian which is
responsible for the common opinion
that Cox is wet. Oh. dear no. The
Oregonian first heard of it in this
campaign from Mr. Bryan. It is not
necessary to rely on republican tes
timony. There is abundant demo
cratic testimony, besides Bryan, and
the Cox record, too. He has only
served to increase the general sus
picion by his evasions and general
izations during the campaign.
The Oregonian has made no con
tention that it Is right and proper to
refer to Mr. Cox as the "wet" or
"booze" candidate. But it has not
failed in its duty to point out the
close alliance between Mr. Cox and
the "wet" crowd that nominated
him. Furthermore, we don't like
the word "booze" and rarely use it.
When did the Guard or anybody last
see it in The Oregonian as an adjec
tival designation of Mr. Cox?
Coming of at least fifteen and
probably twenty steamships to Port
land in one month is ocular evidence
that Portland has come into its own
as the great port of the Columbia
basin. It is not enough to compare
number of vessels with that which
came here in the days when wind
jammers carried away most of our
wheat and lumber, for the tonnage
of the steamships now coming prob
ably averages four times that of the
sailing vessels of former times. The
vessels which will come in October
will thus be equivalent to sixty or
eighty of the old type.
Greater size of ships means deeper
draft, which requires greater depth
of channel. It serves to impress on
us the necessity of provision for
deepening the channel of the Colum
bia and Willamette rivers to the up
per harbor of Portland, in order that
ships may have a safe, clear way to
all the docks. Probably nine tenths
of the ocean traffic originating in
the port itself is above Swan island,
therefore extension of the channel
work above that point is necessary
to serve commerce.
Presence In the harbor of a num
ber of vessels also requires width as
well as depth of channel In order
that ships may lie at docks and may
pass to and from them without ob
structing the clear passage of those
.passing. up and down the river. This
is desirable in order that vessels may
move readily and that accidents may
be avoided. For this , reason it Is
proposed to widen the west channel
at Swan island to 1600 feet.
Size of ships steadily grows, and it
is essential that we accommodate
them with plenty of room both un
der their keels and on both sides in
order that the commerce of the port
may grow. An accident may happen
to only one in a hundred ships that
an 'owner sends to a port, but he re
members that one and is apt to for
get the ninety-nine times that no
mishap has come. By precaution
that the one accident shall not hap
pen the reputation of the-port may
be established.
The issue raised as the result of
acquisition by American investors of
extensive mineral interests in Sar
dinia is novel because it is the first
time Americans have sought to do
in an established and populous com
munity that which has become a
commonplace in the tropical regions
of their own hemisphere. For since
these enterprising men have come
into possession of the mines in ques
tion it. has been discovered that they
are rich in tungsten, much valued
for hardening steel for the making
of high-speed tools, and also yield
ing by-products useful In dyeing
cloth and making textiles fireproof.
Suddenly the newspapers of Italy,
of which Sardinia is- a part, have
become alarmed over the prospect
of an "American invasion." There
is fear that the rich bounties of
earth will become the property of
an alien people across the sea. Yet
it is admitted that but for American
initiative and organization these
mineral riches might have remained
forever undiscovered, or, being dis
covered, would not have been de
veloped under domestic auspices.
The crux of the mining situation
in Sardinia is malaria. In the re
gion where mining claims have been
bought the death rate from this
malady has for centuries been so
high that people have avoided it as
they would any place of pestilepce.
But it is now proposed by American
engineers that in addition to de
veloping their physical properties,
they shall make the entire locality
habitable by driving out malaria,
as General Gorgas did in Cuba and
again in Panama, and as other sani
tation engineers followyg their
example have done elsewhere. Thus
purged of its plague, the Sardinian
mining district would invite the
return of workmen who now shun
it and would become populous and
presumably prosperous as never be
fore. These are conceded facts. So
also is the feejing in Italy that not
withstanding its long previous dis
regard of the wealth in its own boun
daries aliens ought not to be per
mitted to reap the reward. There
is the making of an involved inter-
national discussion in the issues as
Discovery of the presence of
tungsten ore in itself makes a ro
mantic story. It came about when
an officer of the American Red
Cross, sent to the island to superin
tend the opening of soup kitchens
and workrooms near the close of the
war. found traces of the prized metal
in the course of a walk through the
deserted hills. He recognized his
find because he had been a pros
pector in Colorado and he knew the
value of the rock that had lain
unregarded ever since the world was
young. That the owners of landJ
they regarded as waste were willing
to part with it is part of the story;
.that it may become a political issue
is a sequel. In any event the world
stands to be enriched by an addition
to its supply of commercial tungs
ten; the matter in dispute is how
greatly the finders are entitled to
be rewarded for the virtual creation
of that which, but for their enter
prise, would not be a thing of value
Italy has done as little in the
way of developing the island as did
the several nations wluo in all the
centuries of the Christian era made
it the football of politics. Vandal
and Saracen, Austrian and Bavarian,
and many others have taken their
toll and have given little in return.
Yet in the old Roman days Sardinia
was a famous source of grain and
wine and even now it is a large
producer of cattle and cheese. With
the new incentive to overcome
malaria and Americans to lead them
in doing it, its people now. have a
prospect of prosperity undreame'd of
before the world war.
Sadi Le Conte's feat in flying 300
kilometers, or 186.3 miles, at the
rate of 169 miles an hour, when he
won the James Gordon Bennett in
ternational aviation trophy at Paris
the other day, is another reminder of
the amazing progress of aviation in
a little more than a decade. The
first race for the Bennett cup was
flown in 1909, when " Curtiss, the
American, won at a speed f only
forty-seven miles an hour. This
country had another victory in 1911,
when the rate of speed of f.he win
ning plane was eighty miles an hour.
The former record has been nearly
quadrupled and the latter more than
doubled by the recent decisive
achievement of the Frenchman, and
the cup frightfully stays in France.
Disappointing though the result
may be to Americans, it shows that
the human equation is still to be
reckoned with equally with the ma
chine in every form of competition.
"The bast man won," said the Eng
lish aviator, who may be set down
as an impartial observer, "but you
can't convince me that the fastest
machine did." The machine to
which he alluded was the American
plane, but fortune seems to have de
serted the American flyer. The
comfcrt left to us is in the thought
that we are able to construct cap
able machines, and that pilots for
them will not be lacking when avia
tion ..has become as popular here as
it is in France.
In each of the earlier races won
by Americans the pace set was
viewed as a remarkable demonstra
tion of the possibilities of speed in
the air." The Wrights themselves, or
Professor Langley, would not have
risked their reputations on a pre
diction, that 169 miles an hour would
be attained in 1920.
Senator Harding has invaded "the
enemy's country," as Mr. Bryan
would call it, but his reception in
Baltimore suggests that Maryland
may finally joii the list of republi
can states after being in the doubtful
column for 20 years. As manufac
tures and commerce spread south
ward, republicanism follows. The
solid south may never actually break
up, but constant nibbling at the
edges may reduce it to small dimen
The owners of the sanitarium on
Mount Tabor, who closed their insti
tution without waiting for orders un
der the fire-danger law ana will
wreck it, purposing to build a quar
ter-million structure, should be given
permission, regardless of a few pro
tests. Their word as to fitness to
surroundings and of architectural
beauty can be taken, for they are not
people who bear false testimony and
give equivocal answers.
It is just possible the driver of a
mail car thinks he has more right of
way than the ordinary man. A-person
killed by him cannot be pun
ished for "interfering with the
mails," but the driver can at least-
be reproached for his ruthlessness.
Malheur county is getting its
fourth alfalfa meal mill and if other
counties follow that rate the green
pancake will be on the bill of fare
ere long.
Fire in an automobile at Bend was
beaten out with a bouquet of flowers
from the vase in the car. It's en
couraging to find that the vases in
automobiles have some use, after all.
A moonshiner has two ways of es
cape. One is to swallow the evidence
and the other to marry the witness.
A moonshiner can take chances more
than theabider by the law.
Drink sour milk and eat potato
peelings, advises Dr. Boynton of
Bellingham, and live long lives; but
that is what hogs eat and none gets
gray at it.
A Portland man accused of over
fondness for bark root bitters has
been paroled- to his wife. He'll get
his bitters now in the form of pills.
If Edison maks a success of his
invention to talk with the departed,
a whole lot of people will reform
their habits after one wireless.
The intention, of the Beavers to
help the Rainiers was commendable,
but in the stress of play undoubtedly
they forgot and won.
Put not faith in the hope for pre
war prices on the Thanksgiving tur
key. That bird will be the last to
come down.
Hoquiam, Wash., by revised cen
sus figures, has 10,058 population.
Another northwestern city in the
10,000 club.
The price-cutting movement has
hit plrmos, which ought to strike a
popular key.
The weatherman says "probably
rain," which is his way of consoling
A new morning newspaper in Chi
cago is the limit in optimism.
Washington-Jefferson Doctrine Kill
ing League of Nations Idea.
PORTLAND, Oct. 1. (To the Edi
tor.) Governor Cox's contemptuous
references to the maxim "America
First" has confirmed a. growing
doubt in my mind as to the whole
some influence of the league of na
tions Idea. If it Is to substitute in
ternationalism for patriotism, as is
seems to have done rn this candidate
for president, then I want none cf it.
During the emotional days of tho
war and immediately thereafter the
league of nations principle appealed
to me, as it did, I think, to the great
mass of the people. Probably had
there been a political election on that
issue then, the league referendum
would have carried overwhelmingly.
But we are not now going to vote our
emotions. In calm consideration, the
league idea runs counter to the early
instruction of every American citizen
who has attended the public schools.
Every common school pupil has been
instructed not only in the Monroe doc
trine, but in the fact that it is the
corollary of that other policy of non
interference in European affairs.
The policy of non-interference In
European affairs is as traditional and
exactly as definite as the Monroe doc
trine itself. Indeed it is stated in
the same message that proclaims the
Monroe doctrine. The Monroe doc
trine has never been given the force
of law or congressional resolution. It
has merely been stated first by Presi
dent Monroe and thereafter by several
other presidents, some of whom have
enlarged upon It. Several presidents
have likewise proclaimed our fixed
neutrality as regards European con
troversies, since Washington advised
that policy in, his farewell address.
Ihey have enlarged upon the doctrine
too. It was given emphasis by Thomas
Jefferson in his first inaugural ad
dress. "Peace, commerce and honest
friendship with all nations, entangling
alliances with none" he declared to be
one of the outstanding tenets of our
political creed
Andrew Jackson probably gave this
political creed its broudest scope when
in his fourth annual message he said:
Our best wishes on all occasions, our
good office when required, will be af
forded to promote the domestic tranquillity
and foreign peace of all nations with whom
we have any intercourse. Any intervention
1n their affairs further than this, even by
the expression of an official opinion, is
contrary to our principles of international
policy, and will always be avoided.
We certainly cannot volunteer the
official opinion required of us by the
league covenant and remain true to
President Jackson's interpretation of
this American maxim.
John Quincy Adams has given the
most elaborate exposition of any
president of the Washington and Jef
ferson doctrine. It was not uttered
while he was in the executive office,
but is found in a Fourth of July ad
dress delivered by him In 1821. It is
none the less forceful:
America, In the assembly of nations,
since her admission among th-em, has in
variably, ' though often fruitlessly, he-Id
forth to them the hand of honest friend
ship, of equal freedom, of generouti reci
procity. She has uniformly spoken among
them, though often to heedless and often
to disdain.lul ears, the language of equal
liberty, equal justice an-d equal rights.
She has in the lapse of nearly ha4f a cen
tury, without a single exception, respected
the Independence of other nations, while
asserting and maintaining her own. She
has abstained from interference in the
concerns of others, even when the conflict
has been for principles to which she clinss
to the last vital drop that visits the heart,
sihe has seen that probably for centuries
to come, all the contests of that Aoeidama,
the European world, will bo contests be
tween inveterate power and emerging
ri'sht. Wherever true standard of freedom
and independence has been or shall be
unfurled there will her heart, her bene
dictions, her prayiers be. But she goes
not abroad in search of monsters to de
stroy. She is the wel'lwLsher to the free
dom and independence of all. She is the
champion and vindicator on-iy of her own.
She will recommend the general cause by
the countenance of her voice, and the
benignant syrmpathy of her example. She
well knows that by once enlisting under
wtiher banners than her own, were they
even the banners of foreign independence,
she would involve herself beyond the
power of extrication, in all the wars of
interest and intrigue, of individual avarice.
enivy and ambition, which assume the
ccrlors and usurp the standard of freedom.
The fundamental maxims of her policy
would insemsibl-y change from liberty to
force. The frontlet upon her brows would
no Hmger beam with the ineffable splendor
of freedom and independence, but in Us
stead Would soon be substituted an im
perial diadem, flashing In fale and tar
nished lustne the murky radiance of do
minion and power. She might become the
dictatress of the world; she would no
longer be the. ruler of her own spirit.
By some historians John Quincy
Adams is given the honor of having
originated the Monroe doctrine. He
was Monroe's secretary of state and
was called into conference with Jef
ferson by Monroe in formulating the
doctrine. The usual quotation of the
Monroe doctrine concerns only our
declaration against European med
dling with affairs in the western
hemisphere. The doctrine also con
tains the following:
Of events In that quarter of the globe
(Europe) with which we have so much
intercourse and from which we derive our
origin, we have alw'ays been anxious and
interested spectators. The citizens of the
United States cherish sentiments the most
friendly In favor of the liberty and hap
pitvess of their fellow-men on that side
of the Atlantic. In the wars of the Eu
ropean powers in matters relating to them
selves we have never taken any part, nor
does It comport with our policy so to do
It is only when our rights are invaded
or seriously menaced that we resent in
juries and make preparation for otlr de
fense. Two months before the publication
of the Monroe doctrine Thomas Jef
ferson wrote:
Our first and fundamental maxim should
be never to entangle ourselves in the
broils of Europe. Out second never to
suffer Europe to Intermeddle with Cis
Atlantic affairs.
Grover Cleveland also reiterated the
Washington-Jefferson doctrine in his
first inaugural address. He said:
The genius of our Institution, the needs
of our people in their home Ufe. and fbe
attention which is demanded for the set
tlement and development of the resources
of our vast territory, dictate the scrupulous
avoidance ot any departure from that for
eign -policy commended by the history, the
traditions and the prosperity of our re
public. It Is the policy of independence,
favored by our position and defended by
our known love oif Justice and by our own
power. It Is the policy of peace suitable
to our Interests. It is the policy of neu
trality, rejecting any share in foreign
brorls and ambitions upon other continents
and repelling their intrusion here. It is
tire policy of Monroe and of Washington
and of Jefferson' "Peace, commerce and
honest friendship with all nations, entan
gling alliance with none."
Throughout these quotations
breathes the, spirit of America first.
They announce a policy, a doctrine,
which, as already said, is as definite
and as traditional as the Monroe doc
trine. It is a doctrine long taught to
every person as one of reason, safety,
honor and patriotism. No wonder the
league issue is killing democratic
chances. ,
And how curious it is that from
Jefferson " down, every president
quoted is of the party, or the fore
runner of the party, whose captain
now repudiates the doctrine they an
nounced and. decries the patriotic
principle they proclaimed.
I wonder why the autumn time is so
akin to sorrow;
The cricket's song Is sad to me.
The withering leaves I would not
Nor yield the summer's golden hours
to autumn's chill tomorrow.
Old grief returns at autumn time, like
sad strains on a lute:
'Tis whispered by the wailing wind,
A mist of tears my eyes will blind.
And e'en the fluttering wind-swept
birds fly southward, strangely
Those Who Come and Go.
When Billy McDonald, bellhop at
the Benson, opened the door of the
bus, the first man to step out was I
George Madden, whom Billy left at
Bordeaux long, lnn; ago. Mr. Madden
was a chief machinist's mate in the;
naval aviation service, and Billy was I
one of the boys who had to soar aloft '
and fly far out to sea to escort trans
ports into port and see that no sub-!
marines were sneaking around in the
water. Billy and George parted at j
Bordeaux and when Billy was d is-1
charged he went back to hopping!
bells at the Benson. George was 25 j
months in France before he could get '
away, and he was one of the last of
the Americans, for with r small squad
he had to remain after transfer of
material was made to the French. A
few months ago Mr. Madden became a
free man and headed for Stockton,
CaL, from which place he is now trav
eling for a tractor concern.
"Sheep are being brought into Bend
from the eastern slopes of the Cas
cade mountains and are being sent to
winter range and near hay," reports
Ed Wood, who returned from central
Oregon yesterday. "I saw about 20.000
head of sheep in the corrals at Bend,
awaiting shipment. The sheep are
entrained and taken down the Des
chutes river, where they are taken off
again at various points. It is a won
derful sight to see so many sheep
assembled. Snow is coming in the
mountains and I met one man who
has a flock of several thousand near
the Sisters and he was wondering if
they could get through the snow.
There appears to be a demand for
lambs. I ran across a man who is in
the market .for more than 15,000 of
them. He was planning to go as far
as Lakeview, if necessary, to pick
them up."
Examining the road situation in
southern Washington. James Allen
and E. R. Hoffman, of Olympia. and
P. L. Sinclair, of Seaview, Wash., ar
rived at the Hotel Portland yesterday.
Crossing from North Beach, the trio
looked over the Columbia river high
way around Clatsop county and then
drove over the highway to this city,
studying-the type of construction, the
curves and grades. After a brief rest
here, they left for Hood River by
machine, with the intention of cross
ing the Columbia river to Wfiite
Salmon and then driving over the
North bank road, officially known as
the Evergreen highway, to Vancou
ver andi then attempting the tedious
undertaking of covering" the Pacific
highway through Washington to
Colonel J. G. Dreisbach of Los An
geles, on his way home from attend
ing the annual encampment of the
Grand Army of the Republic at
Indianapolis, stopped off at Portland
Wednesday to visit his son, M. J.
Dreisback. of the Meier & Frank com
pany. The colonel at 86-is hale and
hearty and takes a keen interest in
current affairs. He is an ardent
Harding supporter. Mr. Dreisbach,
Sr., was a colonel in the federal army
at the battle of Antietem and has
vivid memories of that fray. The
colonel is delighted with Portland and
its environs and is particularly glow
ing in his praises of the Columbia
river highway.
Traveling salesmen look like gobs of
disgust these days. They arrive from
Seattle and report no business, and
many of them complain that orders
are getting scarce here. Some of the
travelers pack up and leave after a
hurried call on the trade. An occa
sional drummer predicts a fall in
Prices. For instance, a hat salesman
at the Hotel Portland yesterday said
that men's hats are dropping from $16
to $18 a dozen. Silk salesmen are still
lamenting the way prices dropped in
their line.
Rapid progress has been made this
summer on the new railroad being
built out of Willamina .toward the
Grand Ronde. The grade cuts across
the McMinnville-Tillamook highway a
couple of times, where the railroad
and highway run through a small
corner of Polk county. Charles P.
Anderson of Willamina is among the
arrivals at the ferKlns.
Having renewed acquaintances in
Boise and attended the Idaho state
fair, which he declares is the best
yet presented In Idaho. Richard
Childs, manager of the Hotel Port
land, landed home yesterday morning
and then immediately started for Sa
lem to see how the Oregon state fair
compares with the one at Boise.
Either the weather was too cold
for camping out this summer or else
people didn't care to live in tents, is
the conclusion of T. H. McGeorge of
Seattle, who is at the Multnomah.
Ms. McGeorge draws this' deduction
from his business, for he is in the
tent and awning line.
Gus Meese. who manufactures
brooms and woodenware in Spokane
and who is an especially enthusiastic
member of the Knights of Pythias,
is at the Imperial. He is hare on
frajternal matters. Mr. Meese Is the
second international official of the
Dramatic Order Knights of Khor
aasan. Fred Buntchudt was informing the
desk force at the Hotel Oregon that
he ran into a regular cloudburst on
Thursday afternoon near Hillsboro.
He was driVing to Portland from
Tillamook in " the storm, when sud
denly the rain poured down with
tremendous force and volume.
Three subjects engross the atten
tion of John A. Westerlund. The
first is the hotel business, for he
manages one at Medford; the second
Is the fruit crop of the Rogue river
valley, and the third is politics. Yes
terday, while registered at the Impe
rial, he took up his favorite topics,
one aftr another. Mr. Westerlund
is a former member of the legisla
ture, having been representative for
Jackson county in the lower house.
Ajax, in Gilliam county, showed a
slump in population yesterday, for
E. G. Palmer was in Portland and
registered at the Perkins. Ajax is a
small trading and shipping point
about 25 miles southwest of Condon.
Tourists are still straggling along
from the east, although the normal
tourist season is over. Among the
belated sight-seers are Miss R. Kim
brough and Miss E. C. Cost, who are
at the Hotel Washington from Phil
adelphia. C. K. Brandenburg, a merchant of
Klamath Falls, is on a business trip
to Portland and reports that Klamath
Falls is still forging the front one
of the busiest" towns In the state. Mr.
Brandenburg is at the Imperial.
After many months in Poland, E. V.
Lockhart of Salem has arrived at the
Hotel Washington on his way to the
cherry city. Mrs. Lockhart came to
Portland to meet him. Mr. Lockhart
registered from Warsaw.
Mrs. J. S. Coke of Marshfield, wife
of Circuit Judge Coke, is in Portland
with Mrs. William Horsfall Jr., also of
Coos bay. They are registered at the
Hotel Portland.
William M. Colvig. once upon a time
the mayor of Medford, is In Portland.
While here he offered his services to
the republican state central committee
as a speaker.
Mr. and Mrs. O. I. Peterson arrived
at the Seward from Astoria yesterday ,
with the intention of remaining in
this city.
During Inraparlty of President What
Oligarchy ;tildra III llnnd f
PORTLAND. Oct. 1. (To the Etfl
tor.) Grote writes that oligarchical
governments were common in cities of
Greece in the seventh century B. C.
Though not landing immediately to
benefit the mass of freemen, yet. when
compared to the former heroic gov
ernment, they indicated an important
advance the first adoption of a de
liberate and preconceived system in
the management of public affairs.
They exhibited the first evidence of
new and Important political ideas in
the Greek mind the separation of
legislative and executive powers: the
former vested in a collective body, not
merely deliberating, but also finally
deciding, while the latter is confided
to temporary magistrates, responsible
to the body.
The word is composed of oligos,
"few,"' and archo. "I govern." The
term finally developed in application
to a government by an aristocratic
Governor Cox. oJ super-Imaginative
powers, creates an organization of the
latter description within the senate.
The definition of Grote applies more
closely to the system of government
created by our fathers, whicli Mr. Cox
refuses to praise or discuss.
The real fact is that for over a
year the -country has been without a
iresident except in name. No one
denies the incumbent heartfelt sym
pathy, but facts are facts. This
brought about an oligarchy of the
executive branch in the form of a
government by the cabinet. Under
Lansing it sought to function to a
definite purpose. In a fleeting mo
ment of mental energy the president
wrecked this attempt. Since then the
oligarchy of the cabinet has been as
vain an effort as the failure of the
chief executive to function. Enougli
millions are wasted to pay vast sums
on our debt and reduce the cost of
living. To put it plainly, the people
demand to know where our executive
power is now really lodged. In the
president, in a secret oligarchy which
guides the president's hand as he
writes, or in a loose-jointed and
creaking cabinet?
There are oligarchies and ol
igarchies. Governor Cox would do
well to heed the call of the voters to
lift the curtain that all may see. He
knows or ought to know what is
there. Instead of doing this he fol
lows a petulant ""and scolding course.
Men are not obliged to inform the
public of their purely private af
fairs. The matter referred to is
of intense public interest. It goes
to the constitutional foundation
of our government. Governor Cox
should answer. It is more important
than slush funds, senate oligarchies
or phantom press hounds on the trail
seeking to lap his very thin political
life's blood. A refusal to answer or
a disclaimer of knowledge will be
highljt unsatisfactory.
Finally, why does not Senator Cham
berlain shed a violet ray on those
matters? ROBERT C. WRIGHT.
Reported Political Stand of Ansoela
tlon Decried by Dr. Cllne.
PORTLAND, Oct. 1. (To the Edi
tor.) Let no one be misled by that
reported unanimous vote for the
democratic candidate for congress by
the "General Ministerial Association"
of Portland.
If any call was made for such ac
tion ail members of the association
did not hear it, had no knowledge of
it, and therefore do not appreciate
being scandalized by such a report.
It is recalled in this connection
that an ineffectual attempt was
made in the last regular- meeting of
the association to exploit the coming
of Governor Cox to our city. The ef
fort was met by prompt opposition
and "died a-bornin'."
Any preacher has the right to be
a democrat if he don't know any bet
ter, but an association formed for
another purpose altogether is no
place for nim, or someone else
through him. to seek an advantage.
The fact is. such performances as
that reported tends to bring the min
istry into criticism by fair-in imled
people. regadless of their political
Henry Ward Beecher classified the
human family into men. women and
ministers. C E. CLINE.
In Other Days.
Twenty-five Year Ago.
L From The Oregonian of October J. lS!r.
Henry M. Stanley, traveling Incog
as S. M. Henry, passed through Port
land yesterday en route to San Fran
cisco. He declined to be interviewed
but is believed to be on his way to
the orient.
A contract for construction of an
electric line on First street, between
Couch and Jefferson has been let by
the Portland Consolidated and East
Side companies.
Local Chinese are wrought up over
secession of four of the original com
panies of the Chinese Six companies,
which has long ruled the Chinese
residents of this country.
Mayor Frank will make the address
formally opening the Oregon Indus
trial exposition Saturday night. Gov
ernor Lord has been invited.
"Talks With T. Is the Bulliest
Roosevelt Narrative Ever Printed
Into the columns of the Sunday issue strides Roosevelt the
man, as one of his firmest friends knew him. "Talks with T. R."
was written by John J. Leary, Jr- widely known New York news
paperman, from notes in his personal diaries. It covers all of the
most active years of Colonel Roosevelt's career, as glimpsed by Mr.
Leary in his many friendly conversations with the real American.
The Sunday Oregonian presents the first installment of this re
markable word portraiture tomorrow, and will continue the serial
publication of "Talks With T. R." to the last chapter. Intensely
human and doubly interesting by reason of the fact that many side
lights e cast upon the life of Roosevelt, Mr. Leary's narrative
cannot fail to seize and hold your interest.
Wolf of Want Banished by Poor Man's Bank. Have you ever
been down on your luck? To that degree where the price of a car
ticket or ham sandwich does not jingle assurance, if even for the
moment? Read DeWitt Harry's special story in the Sunday issue,
of the City Loan association and the various pawn shops which
have assumed the avuncular relation to many a wight in woe.
State Fair Facts and Fun Through the Camera. The staff
photographer is a most discerning person, as clear of vision as the
lens of his own camera. And that is why, when he went to the
state fair a couple of days ago, he snapped and brought back just
the sort of pictures that claim attentive interest. One whole page
of 'em, in the Sunday issue.
Driven Exiles are Returning to Mexico. In many a bloody
regime, when banditry flourished with profit and without rebuke,
Mexican aristocracy was forced to flee to the sanctuary of the
"United States, to Europe, to the four quarters of the globe. Has
peace come to that turbulent territory? The exiles believe it has,
for they are turning back. In the Sunday paper, with illustrations.
The Funniest Thing That Charlie Chaplin Ever Did. Here's
a yarn, gossips all, of the flight of Charlie from the process servers.
It never was filmed. Told in the Sunday issue by William Hamlin,
who hands us the humor of the Chaplin divorce suit.
"I'll Train Our Children!" So said Trofessor Festus Owen, who
held that his children were being badly spoiled by too much mother
love. It took a divorce court judge, with kiddies of his own, to
rule that there isn't any such thing as too much mother love.
Narrated in the Sunday magazine section.
All the News of All the World.
More Truth Than Poetry.
By James J. Montague.
It has been discovered that Ro
mans dwelt largely in flat houses
and that profiteering among land
lords was the rule.
Though Cicero the Indian sign af
fixed to Mr. Cataline
In early days, with measured phrase
Mellifluent and mellow,
Which made the senate cheer and
sob. we thought he overdid the
For Caltaiine appeared a fine.
Though somewhat wayward, fel
low. But very likely Cataline owned ten
ements on laiatine
And boosted rents on helpless gents.
iki far itcii imil lew r-t-i-nit..
And if that happens to be so we quite
acrep Mi:tt Cirero
Was justified when he applied.
His free and flowing curses.
Though Caesar got a settling punch
111111 JIIUIUS V ,1--1 II o anil hi' ii
Their hasty act has always lacked
v"ii ncai urn iiiiu'i'tii hni.
For Caesar, though nmhition dwelt
and waxeci itiHui u'n-inu wi
Knew how to reign his wide do
main With sense and moderation.
But possibly when tenants cried for
leave to get a landlord's hide,
J. Caesar thought, as we.l he ought,
to do his best to save him.
And in thin case we understand why
he w as subsequent ly panned.
And why he got the deadly swat
The Roman plotters gave him.
Ky Way of Explxinntion.
Many statesmen who stand for elec
tion can't stand f:-st enough.
Cheap Stuff.
Connecticut won't get mueh grati
tude for giving tlio women a vota
that they already had.
Too I.ate Now.
If. Italy hadn't had a row with
P'Antiunzio she cou'd settle her pres
ent difficulties by sicking him onto
the Reds.
John Burroughs' Nature
AnKwern to Prevlonn Questions.
1. What is the appearance of the
The oven-bird, or wood-accenter.
is the golden-crowned thrush of the
old ornithologists. Every loiterer
about the woods knows this pretty,
speckled-breasted olive-backed lit
tle bird, which walks along over the
dry leaves a few yards from him,
moving its head as it walks, like a
miniature domestic fowl.
2. Where may the hare be found?
The hare abounds in dense woods.
preferring localities filled with a
small undergrowth of beech and
birch, upon the bark of which he
feeds. Nature is rather partial to
him. and matches his extreme local
I habits and character with a suit that
corresponds with his surroundings
' reddish gray in summer and white in
I winter.
3. Do many birds perish at sea.
No doubt the number of our land
birds that actually perish in the sea
during their autumn migration, being
carried far out of their course by
the prevailing westerly winds of this
season, is very great. What num
bers of these little navigators of the
air are misled and wrecked during
those dark and stormy nights on the
lighthouses alone that line the At
lantic coast!
4. Do birds ever shade each other
from the sun?
There is little doubt that among
certain of our common birds the male
during periods of excessive heat has
been known to shade the female with
his out-stretched wings. and the
mother bird to shade her young in
the same way.
5. Does the skunk dig his own den
for the winter?
Ti, L-ViinU iv, the full is too indo-
I lent even to dig his own hole, but
appropriates that of a wnoacnucK.
or hunts out a crevice in the rooks,
from which he extends bis rambling
in all directions, preferring damp,
tliuv.y weather.
6. Which is the month ot tall
September may be described as the
month of tall weeds. Where they
have been suffered to stand along
retires, by roadsides aivl in forgotten
corners redroot. pigweed, ragweed,
vervain, goldenrod. burdock, elecam
pane, thistles, teasels, nellies, asters.
etc. how they lift themselves up as
if not afraid to be seen now'.
Can Inn Answer These Question!, f
1. Does the woodcock sing while
in flight?
2. At what season are the eggs of
insects mostly laid?
3. Is the gray squirrel apt to fall
to the ground from the trees?
Answers in Monday's Nature Note.
(Rights re:rved by Houghton-Mif-lin